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IT WAYNE &. AtLCN CO.. mo. 








Newton Bateman. LL. D. Paul Selbv, A. M. 



edited by 
Harvey B. Hurd, LL.D. Robert D. Shepfard, U.D. 







W. M U N S E I^ L , 

J Librarian of Coii^ress 




An analysis of the motives which have induced Evanstonians to join in the fur- 
nishing of material for this record of local history would afford evidence, not only of a 
feeling of obligation to the past and present, but also to future generations ; and this, it 
is but just to say, has been the impelling force in the conception and preparation of this 

Book-making is an expensive undertaking, and the limited sale which a work treat- 
ing of a small community would obtain, would inevitably involve heavy financial re- 
sponsibilities. The publishers of that excellent work, "The Historical Encyclopedia of 
Illinois," have deemed it practicable to produce a special Evanston edition of that 
work embracing, as a feature of added interest and value, a supplemental volume 
largely devoted to Evanston history, prepared and edited by Evanstonians. The busi- 
ness management of the enterprise rests with the publishers who have had a long and 
successful experience in the publication of works of this character, and to whom 
great credit is due for successfully financing the cost of production and carrying to 
a faithful completion this important work. 

This history has been written in the belief that it is needed ; that man's immor- 
tal instincts revolt at the thought of the good of the past being buried in oblivion — 
that the fruitage of lives which have accomplished results, epitomized in the word "his- 
tory," should be forgotten — that lessons of faithful doing, accompanied by self-sacri- 
fice, zealous faith and daring courage little short of the heroic, should fail of their 
highest accomplishment by inspiration and example, because no one has recorded them 
— that present and future generations should be deprived of these teachings, examples 
and educational forces, simply for the want of a proper and available published record 
of many facts now having an existence only in the memory of individuals who cannot 
long remain, and whose passing away will place the foundation facts of our history 
beyond the reach of those who come after them. 

Hence this history, with the imperfections and shortcomings always incident to 
human authorship, yet the results of the best thought and intelligent efforts of many 
accomplished writers and contributors who have produced, in concise but comprehen- 

sive form, a carefully prepared and faithful record of facts and events relating to the 
various topics assigned to them. Without attempting to enumerate all of them by name, 
I here wish to express my personal obligation to Robert D. Sheppard, D. D., as my 
Editorial Associate, and to each author for the faithful and intelligent service ren- 
dered in the preparation of this work, as well as the lasting debt of gratitude due 
to them from the home-loving and Evanston-loving people of to-day and the future. 

The conception that our city's history, together with the memoirs of its founders 
and builders, was deserving of record, received its first practical suggestion in the 
organization, about seven years ago, of the Evanston Historical Society, which is do- 
ing such noble work in its chosen field of research and collection of historical material. 
To the influence and labors of this association is due, not only the conception of the 
need of an authoritative published History of Evanston, but, in a large degree 
through the labors and co-operation of its members, the success which has attended 
the preparation of such a work. Believing that it will have a permanent value, not 
only to citizens of Evanston and Cook County, but to many others interested in State 
history, I herewith bring my labors in connection with the volume to a close, with 
thanks to my associates and co-laborers and hope that it will meet the expectation of its 
patrons and have for them an interest corresponding with the labor required in its 

^-- " /f\ c — ^^^ 


The preface to this work, written by the late Hon. Harvey B. Hurd, after the vari- 
ous manuscripts furnished by the many contributors were well in hand, quite fully 
sets forth the inception of this undertaking and the potent influences leading thereto. 
It is self-evident that the preparation of so extended a history of Evanston was a more 
formidable task than originally contemplated, and unavoidable delays were experi- 
enced incident to receiving the completed manuscripts from some of our friends con- 
tributing the same, and still further delays were occasioned by the sending to each 
author a copy of the printer's proof of his or her portion of the work. To do this was 
thought important in order, first, that each writer might thus have a last opportunity 
to correct and make more complete his or her department ; and, second, that each chap- 
ter might, by this means, receive any necessary additions extending its scope to a more 
recent period. 

Credit is due to the publishers for the pecuniary outlay which they necessarily 
have borne, and for the great care evidently taken by them in the preparation of the 
whole work and in placing it in completed form before its readers. 

I have every reason to believe that the various chapters, furnished by about forty 
special contributors to the city's history, have been prepared with great care ; that 
the completed work will constitute a valued addition to the library of all Evanstonians, 
and will be accorded a prominent place in the historical collections of Illinois. 


The Evanston of 1905 — Seat of Learning and Gem Suburb of a Great Me- 
tropolis — Results Accomplished by Fifty Years of Development — 
Contrast Between Past and Present — First Township Organization 
Under Name of Ridgeville — Evanston Township Organized in 1857 
— The Milage Platted in 1854 — Later Changes in Township and 
Municipal Organization — Old Name of Ridgevilje Township Re- 
sumed in 1903, with Boundaries Identical with City of Evanston — 
Garrett Biblical Institute Precedes the University — City Govern- 
ment Organized in 1892 — Early Evanston Homes and Their Occu- 
pants — Advent of the First Railroad — Career of Dr. John Evans 15-20 

The First Evanstonians — Indian Relics — Stone Implements and What 
They Indicate— Early Explorers— Joliet, Marquette, La Salle and 
Tonty — Early Indian Tribes — The Iroquois, Illinois, and Pottawat- 
omies — Ouilmette Reservation and Family — The Fort Dearborn 
Massacre — Home of the Ouilmettes — Treaty of Prairie du Chien 
— Indian Trails and Trees on the North Shore — Aboriginal Camps 
and Milages — Indian Mounds and Graves — Reminiscences of Ear- 
ly Settlers — Important Treaties — An Englishman's Story of 
the Treaty of Chicago in 1833 21-52 

The Beginning — First Meeting of the Founders of the University — Prime 
Movers in the Enterprise — Resolutions and Draft of Charter Adopt- 
ed—The Legislature Acts— First Board of Trustees— Organization 
Effected— Search for a Site for the New Institution— The Present 
Location at Evanston Finally Selected — Acquisition of Lands — Val- 
uable Real Estate in Chicago Retained as Part of the Endowment- 
Election of a President is Decided Upon 53-59 

Dr. Clark T. Hinman Chosen First President — Sale of Scholarships Begins 
— Career of the New President Cut Short by His Early Death — 
Town Site Platted and Named in Honor of Dr. John Evans — Gar- 
rett Biblical Institute Established — First Corps of College Profes- 
sors Elected — University Assets in 1854 — Four-Mile Anti-Liquor 
District Established by Act of the Legislature — Teaching Force of 
the University Increased — Dr. Evans' Land Policy — The Institution 
is Opened for Pupils — Some of the First Students 61-66 

CONDITIONS IN 1856-1860. 
Trustees Meet in First University Building — Dr. R. S. Foster Elected the 
Second President — The Faculty Enlarged — Absorption of Rush 
Aledical College Projected — Competitors Enter the Field — Professor 
Jones' "Fern. Sem." — President Foster X'isits the University, but 
Obtains a Year's Leave of Absence — He Joins the Faculty in 1857 
— The Assets of the Institution Increased to Nearly $316,000 — Re- 
inforcement of the Faculty — First Graduated Class in 1859 — Dr. 
Foster Resigns the Presidency and is succeeded by Dr. E. O. 
Haven 67-72 

Changes of Faculty — Charter Amendments Adopted — Effect of the Civil 
War on Number of Students — Accessions to the Faculty — Univer- 
sity Land Debt is Liquidated — Orrington Lunt Land Donation for 
Benefit of Library — University Hall Projected — Accession of Stu- 
dents and Teaching Force Following the War Period — New Prizes 
Serve as a Stimulus to the Students — First Honorary Degrees Con- 
ferred — Corporate Name is Changed — Professors' Salaries Increased 
and Erection of University Hall Prosecuted — A "Gold Brick" Dona- 
tion — Encouraging Financial Development — Death of Acting Pres- 
ident Noyes 73-?^ 



Chicago Medical College Merged in the University — A "Town and Gown" 

Contest — Dr. Erastus O. Haven Enters Upon the Presidency — 

Women Admitted to College Classes — ■ Addition to the Faculty — • 

Greenleaf Librarv — Advent of Collef^e T'^urnali-m — .\nother 

Change in the Presidency — Dr. Haven Succeeded by Dr. C. H. 
Fowler — Increase of Students and Growth of College Catalogue — 
Co-Education Established and Miss Frances E. Willard Joins the 
Faculty — Gymnasium Erected — Financial Embarrassment — Presi- 
dent Fowler Retires and Dr. Oliver H. Alarcy Becomes Acting 
President^The University Wins on the Taxation Issue — Life-Sav- 
ing Station Established 79-85 

Dr. Joseph Cummings, the Nestor of Eastern Educators, Succeeds to the 
Presidency — Indebtedness Wiped Out and the Institution Enters 
Upon a More Prosperous Era — Munificent Gifts and Improvements 
— Changes in Faculty and Trustees— Illinois School of Pharmacy 
and School of Dentistry Added — Celebration of University Day 
Inaugurated— President Cummings' Successful Career and His 
Taking Away — Dr. Marcy Temporarily Assumes the Position of 
Acting President — Dr. Henry Wade Rogers Succeeds to the Pres- 
idency in 1890 — Other Changes and Improvements — Department 
Schools and Colleges — Real Estate Investments 87-91 

Athletics and College Societies — Women's Educational Associations — 
"The Settlement" and the University Guild — Dr. Rogers Resigns 
the Presidency in 1899, and is Succeeded by Dr. Bonbright as Act- 
ing President — Long List of Notable Friends of the University 
Who Have Passed Awa} — Tribute to Their Memory — Dr. Edmund 
J. James' Two Years' Administration — He is Succeeded by Dr. 
Abram W. Harris 93-98 

Object of its Organization — Early Conditions and Methods of Medical 
Education — Dr. N. S. Davis Begins the Agitation for Graded In- 
struction and Longer Courses — Lind University Established in 1859 
— Institution Affiliated with Northwestern University in 1869 — 
Changes of Name and Location — Growth, Present Conditions and 
Methods of Instruction — South Side Free Dispensary — Hospitals: 
Mercy, Wesley, St. Luke's and Provident — Clinical and other Ad- 
vantages — Influence of the Founders of the School Shown in its 
Growth and Character of its Graduates — Positions Won by its 
Alumni 99-I03 

Historical Sketch — -Law School Founded in 1859 — Hon. Thomas Hoyne 
Leads in Endowment of First Chair— Only Three Law Schools then 
West of the Alleghenies — First Faculty — Notable Faculty Members 
of Later Date — Union College of Law Result of Combination of 
Northwestern and University of Chicago — First Board of Mana- 
gers and First Faculty Under New Arrangement — • LTniversity of 
Chicago Suspended in 1866 — Northwestern Assumes Control of 
Law School in 1891 — Subsequent History — Changes in Require- 
ments of Supreme Court as to Law Course — Present Home and 
Conditions — Acquisition of Gary Collection — Present Outlook 105-108 

Dental Education as a Distinct Branch of Professional Training — First 
Dental School Established in 1839 — Development Due to State Leg- 
islation — Dental Schools in Eastern Cities — Chicago College of Den- 
tal Surgery Graduates its First Class in 1885 — Dr. Thomas L. Gil- 
mer Leads Movement for Establishment of Northwestern LTniver- 
sity Dental School- — Consolidation with American College of Dental 
Surgery — Dr. Theodore Menges Chief Promoter — First Faculty of 
the Consolidated School — Present Condition — Finds a Permanent 
Home in Historic Tremont House Building 109-115 

Founding of School of Pharmacy in Connection with Northwestern Uni- 
versity — Promoters of the Movement — School Opened in 1886 — Its 
Extensive Equipment — Instruction Rooms and Laboratories — Num- 
ber of Students in Eighteen Years — They are Drawn from Practi- 
cally All the States and Territories^Present Location of the Institu- 
tion — Library and \'alue of Equipment — Annual Expenditures — 
Faculty of 1905 1 17-1 18 

Demand for Higher Education for Women — First Steps in Founding 
Woman's Medical College — Promoters of Movement in Chicago — 
"Woman's Hospital Medical College" Founded in 1870 — First Fac- 
ulty — Story of "The Little Barn" — Career of Dr. Mary H. Thomp- 
son, Drs. Bvford, Dvas and Others — Some Notable Graduates — A 

Period of Struggle — Institution Reorganized in 1877 as Woman's 
Medical College — President By ford Dies in 1890 — Institution Affil- 
iated with Northwestern University — • Is Discontinued in 1902 — 
Graduates in Foreign Missionary and Other Fields — Alumnje Or- 

I 19-129 

Sphere of Music in Higher Institutions — Its Influence on Character and as 
the Hand-Maid of Religion — Higher Aspects of the Art — Its 
Growth in the Universities — History of its Connection with Ev- 
anston Educational Institutions — Northwestern Female College 
Merged into Evanston College for Ladies in 1871 — The Latter Be- 
comes a Part of Northwestern University in 1873 — Struggles, 
Changes and Growth of Later Years — Some Notable Teachers — In- 
crease in Roll of Pupils — Need of Ampler Buildings — Music Fes- 
tivals 131-148 

Professor Cumnock as Founder — Growth and Standing Due to his Labors 
— First Class Graduated in 1881 — Its Aim and Branches Taught — 
Building Erected — Is Dedicated in 1895 — Location and Description 
— Advantage over Private Institutions of Like Character — Training 
in English Composition and Rhetoric — Enrollment According to 
Last Catalogue — Promising Outlook for the Future 149-150 

Evanston Life-Saving Crew — Tragic Fate of the Steamer "Lady Elgin" 
Leads to Its Organization — Its First Members — List of Notable 
Rescues — Service Rewarded by Issue of Medals to the Crew by Act 
of Congress — Baseball History — The Old Gymnasium — Tug of War 
Teams — Football Records — Athletic Field and Grand Stand — Track 
Athletics and Tennis Games 151-162 

Historical Sketch — Origin of the Institute Due to the Munificence of Mrs. 
Augustus Garrett — Building Erected in 1855 and Institute Opened 
in 1856 — Additional Buildings Erected in 1867 and 1887 — The Re- 

publican "Wigwam" of i860 Becomes the Property of the Institute 
— Reverse Caused by Fire of 1871 — Disaster Averted in 1897 — 
Growth of the Institute — Personal History — Large Number of the 
Alumni in Missionary and Other Fields — Alembers of the Faculty 
and Board of Trustees 163-167 

First Steps in Organization of a Drainage System for Evanston — Natural 
Conditions — Early Legislation of 1855 — The Late Harvey B. Hurd 
Member and Secretary of First Board of Commissioners — Construc- 
tion of Ditches Begun — Drainage Amendment of the Present Con- 
stitution Adopted in 1878 — Extension of the System — Local Opposi- 
tion — A Tax Collector's Experience — A Flood Converts the Oppo- 
nents of the System 169-172 

Area and Topography of the City of Evanston — The Drainage Problem — 
A Period of Evolution — Municipal Development — Electric Light 
System Installed — Street Improvements — Parks and Boulevards — 
The Transportation Problem — Steam and Inter-urban Railway 
Connections — Heating System — Telephone Service — Evanston as a 
Residence City 173-180 

Conditions Prior to 1874 — First Movement to Secure an Adequate Water 
Supply — Charles J. Gilbert Its Leader — Holly Engines Installed in 
1874 and 1886 — Annexation of South Evanston — The Consolidated 
City Incorporated in 1892 — Increase in the Water Supply in 1897 — 
Source of Supply — Revenue — Extent of System — Street Lighting 
by Gas Introduced in 1871 — Introduction of Electric Lighting in 
1890 — Installation of the Evanston-Yaryan Light and Heating Sys- 
tem 181-185 

The Public Schools of Evanston — Day of the Log School House — Early 
Schools and their Teachers — Sacrifice of School Lands — Present 
School Buildings — Township High School — Preliminary History — 

School Opened in September, 1883— Prof. Boltwood its First Princi- 
pal — Present School Building — Manual Training — A Moot Presi- 
dential Election — Drawing Department — List of Trustees 187-200 

Establishment of N'orthwestern University the Beginning of Evanston Lit- 
erary Life — Effect of the Gathering of Professors, Instructors and 
Students— Growth of Literary Activity — Some Notable Authors — 
Edward Eggleston and Frances E. Willard Begin their Careers in 
Evanston — Miss Willard's "A Classic Town" — Miss Simpson's Cata- 
logue of Evanston Authors for 1900 — Growth of Nine Years — Al- 
phabetical List of Authors with Bibliography and Biographical Rec- 
ords '. 201-215 


Evanston's First Librar) Major Mulford the "Gentleman Pioneer of 

Evanston" — Some Specimens of His Library — First Sunday School 
Library — Private Libraries of Today — Unique Collection of Curios 
— History of Evanston Free Public Library — Edward Eggleston 
Prime Mover in Its Founding — First Step in Organization — Later 
History and Growth — Roll of Librarians and Other Officers — Cata- 
loguing and Library Extension — Internal Management and Condi- 
tions — Site for a Library Building Secured in 1904 — Carnegie Gift 
of $50,000 — Erection of New Building Commenced in June, 1906. . . 217-231 

First Step in the Organization of a University Library — President Foster's 
Gift — Advance of Fifty Years — The Greenleaf Library — University 
Library is Made a Depository for Government Publications — Re- 
cent Notable Donations — Orrington Lunt Library Building is Dedi- 
cated in 1894 — The Orrington Lunt Library Fund — Internal Ad- 
ministration — List of Those Who Have Served as Librarians — 
Libraries of Garrett Biblical Institute and Professional Schools.... 233-236 

The Newspaper as a Necessity — Introduction and Growth of Local Jour- 
nals — The "Suburban Idea," The "Evanston Inde.x" and Other 

Early Papers — Story of the "Evanston Press" — Advent of the 
Daily— Effect of the Chicago Printer's Strike of 1898 — 
ance Organ — College Journals — A "Frat." and "Barb." Advertising 
Contest — Quarterly and Monthly Publications — High Standard of 
Evanston Journalism 237-243 

Primitive Sanitary Conditions — Freedom from Malarial Diseases — Some 
Old-Time Physicians — Sketch of Dr. John Evans — Drs. Lud- 
1am, Weller and Blaney — Dr. N. S. Davis the Nestor of Medical 
Education — An Early Drug Store — Sketches of Later Day Phy- 
sicians — Drs. Webster, Bannister, Burchmore. Brayton, Bond, 
Phillips, Haven, Hemenway, Kaufman, and others — Evanston 
Physicians" Club 245-254 

First Case of Homoeopathic Treatment in Evanston — Successful Results 
— Early Homoeopathic Physicians — Dr. Havvkes First Local Prac- 
titioner — He is Followed by Dr. C. D. Fairbanks — Sketch of 
Dr. Oscar H. Mann — His Prominence in Local Educational, Of- 
ficial and Social Relations — Founding of the Evanston Hospital — 
Doctors Marcy. Clapp and Fuller — Roll of the Later Physicians and 
Surgeons 255-260 


The Evanston Benevolent Society — First Steps in Founding a Hospital 
— Organization is Effected in 1891 — First Board of Officers — 
Medical Staff — Fund and Building Campaign — Enlargement of 
the Institution Projected — Munificent Gift of Mrs. Cable — Other 
Donations — The Endowment Reaches $50,000 — Hospital of the 
Present and the Future — Internal Arrangement and Official Ad- 
ministration — List of Principal Donors — Present Officers 261-274 

Evanston as it Existed in 1856 — Primitive Church Music — War Songs 
— A Commencement Concert — The Hutchinson Family — Jules 

Lumbard — O. H. Merwin Becomes a Choir Leader — Other 
Notable Musicians — Evanston's First Musical Club — Some Fa- 
mous Teachers and Performers — Thomas Concert Class Organized 
— Mrs. Edward Wyman — Musical Department of Evanston Wo- 
man's Club — Women's Clubs as a Factor in Musical Training — 
Evanston Musical Club — Maennerchor Organized — Programs — 
Officers 275-287 

History of Evanston Banking Enterprises — Effect of the Chicago Fire — 
First Private Bank Established in 1874 — Incorporated as a State 
Bank in 1892 — • First Officers of the New Institution — Growth of 
Deposits — It Successfully Withstands the Panic of 1893 — Pres- 
ent Officers (1906) — A First National Bank Venture — The Panic 
of 1893 Results in Disaster — The City National Bank of Evanston 
Established in 1900 — First Officers and Leading Stockholders — 
Its Prosperous Career — Condition in 1906 289-293 



Primary Geological Conditions — Early Roads — The Indian Trail — A 
Period of Growth — "The Path the Calf Made" — Influence of 
the LTniversity — Evanston Over-boomed — Effect of the Chicago 
Fire — Local Real Estate Rivalries — Notable Residences — The 
Transportation Problem — The Park System — Ta.xation — • Ev- 
anston Homes — Real Estate Values 295-302 

Historic Progress — Influence of the Architect on the City's Growth — 
The "Georgian" Style Follows the Log and Grout Houses — 
Churches and Private Residences — Advent of the Victorian Gothic 
Style — University Hall and Union Park Congregational Church 
— Architect G. P. Randall the Designer — Asa Lyons Evanston's, 
First Resident Architect — Others who followed him — Descrip- 
tion of Some Notable Buildings and their Designers — Public Li- 
brarv — Enumeration of Principal Private and Public Buildings.. 3<^3-309 

Origin of Street and Avenue Names in Evanston — Village Platted in 
1853 and Named for Dr. John Evans — Postoffice Previous- 
ly Known as Ridgeville. and Still Earlier as Gross Point — Ev- 
anston Postoffice Established in 1855 — Street Names Derived 
from Prominent Methodists, Early Residents or Noted Statesmen 
— History and Biography thus Incorporated in Street Nomencla- 
ture — • System of Street and Avenue Numbering — List of Princi- 
pal Streets and Persons for Whom Named 311-316 

Act Incorporating N^orthwestern University Amended — Prohibition Dis- 
trict Established — Sale of Spirituous Liquors Within Four Miles 
of the L^niversity Prohibited — Local Sentiment in Favor of the 
Law — Violations and Anti-Saloon Litigation — Citizens' League 
Organized — Supreme Court Decisions 317-321 

Some of the Early Homes of Evanston — Men and Women Who Have 
Left Their Impress on the City's History — What Evanston 
Owes to Its Early Home Builders — Historic Names on the City 
Map — .\braham Lincoln and other Distinguished \'isitors — The 
Willard and Eggleston Families — Notable Workers in the Field 
of Religion, Education, Literature and the Arts Z^yZ2,9 

Early Methodist Services in Grosse Point District — First Methodist Epis- 
copal Church Organized — Some of the Pioneer Preachers — Influ- 
ence of the Coming of Garrett Biblical Institute and Northwestern 
University — Notable Ministers of a Later Date — Central M. E. 
Church — List of Pastors — Norwegian-Danish and Swedish M. E. 
Churches — Hemenway, Wheadon and Emmanuel Churches — 
First Baptist Church — Its Founders and List of Pastors — History 
of Presbyterianism — ■ First and Second Presbyterian Churches — 
Pastors and Auxiliary Societies — St. Mark's Episcopal Church 
— List of Pastors — St. Matthew's Mission — St. Mary's Catholic 
Church, Schools and Related Associations— Congregational Church 

and Auxiliary Organizations — Bethlehem German Evangelical, 
Norwegian-Danish and Swedish Lutheran Churches — Evanston 
Christian Church and Its History — Church of Christ (Scientist). . 341-389 

Evanston Young Men's Christian Association — Organization EtTected in 
1885 — First Board of Officers — General History — Association 
Building Erected and Dedicated in 1898 ^ Gymnasium and Nata- 
torium Constructed — List of Former and Present Officers 391-393 

Women's Temperance Alliance — Evanston Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union Organized in 1875 — Working Departments — Enforce- 
ment of Four-Mile Limit Law — Industrial School — Children's 
Organization — Loyal Temperance Legion and Gospel Temper- 
ance Meetings — Miss Frances E. Willard and Other Noted 
Leaders — Manual Training School — The Evanston W. C. T. U. — 
Reiley and South Evanston Unions — Young Woman's Organiza- 
tion 395-404 

Evanston Benevolent Society Organized • — Names of Its Founders and 
First Officers — Hospital Projected — New Society Takes the 
Name "Associated Charities" — Auxiliary Organizations — Moth- 
ers' Sewing School — St. Vincent de Paul Society— Needle Work 
Guild — Mothers' Club — Visiting Nurse Association — • King's 
Daughters — Camp Good Will — Its Service in Behalf of Poor 
Mothers and Children — Receipts and Expenditures 405-423 

Transitions of a Half Century — ■ Social Life as It Existed in Early Days 
— The Building up of a Great Christian Institution as Its 
Dominant Motive — Reminiscences of Some of Its Early Factors 
— Influence of Hospitality on Student Life and Character — Some of 
Those W'ho Were Influential in Establishing Evanston's Reputa- 
tion as a Hospitable Center 425-431 

A Reminiscence of Noah's Ark — Social Instincts of Evanstonians — 
Philosophical Association — Its Founders and Their Favorite Top- 
ics — The "O. R. Circle" Blossoms Out as the "Legensia" — Bry- 
ant Circle — Pierian Club — Woman's Clubs — The Fortnightly 
Succeeds the "Woman's Reading Circle" — Its Service in the Field 
of Charity and Philanthropy — The Coterie — Twentieth Century 
and Present Day Clubs 433-442 

Origin of Evanston Woman's Club — Julia Ward Howe's Advice — Or- 
ganization and First Officers — • Club Programs — Auxiliary Or- 
ganizations — Work of the Traveling Library Committee — Field 
Day at Lake Geneva — Object of the Club Defined in Its Constitu- 
tion — Club Motto 443-447 

Promoters and Organizers of "The Greenwood Club" — First Members 
and Officers — Name Changed to "The Evanston Club" — Club 
Building Erected — First Reception — Changes in By-Laws and 
Membership — Value of Club Property — List of Officers 449-452 

First Steps and Motives Prompting Organization — Names of Projectors 

— Organization Effected in May, 1888 — The New Club Finds a 
Home — Memories of the "Old Shelter" and Its First Occupants 

— The Club Formally Incorporated — First Board of Directors — 
New Quarters Dedicated in October, 1902 — New Year's Recep- 
tions and Children's Day Chief Functions — Lady Directors — Pro- 
motion of Branch Associations — Dramatic, Cycling, Musical 
Equestrian and Polo Branches — Banjo and Mandolin Association 

— Former and Present Officers — Present Membership 800 — 

List of Life Members 453-461 


Bassett, Jared 106 

Boutelle, Joshua P 114 

Bragdon, Merritt C 133 

Canfield, William J 134 

Carson, Oliver M . .: 140 

City Hall 174 

Clark Alexander 146 

Comstock, Charles 154 

Condict, Wallace R 160 

Crain. Charles 188 

Cummings, Joseph 194 

Ciirrey, J. Seymour 300 

Dawes, Charles G 206 

Dyche, William A 213 

Evans, John 21S 

Evanston Hospital 363 

Earwell, Simeon 234 

First Methodist Episcopal Church 343 

Foster, John J 230 

Foster, Volney W 338 

Gross Point Lighthouse 183 

Grover, Frank R 342 

Hinman, Clark T 366 

Hurd, Harvey B 15 

Isbester, Tunis 380 

Jenks, Chancellor L 286 

Jones, William H 393 

Kedzie, John H 300 

Kirk, John B 306 

Kline, George R 313 

Kline, Simon V 318 

Little, Charles J 324 

Lunt, Orrington 330 

Lyons, Joseph M 350 

Map— City of Evanstoii Facing Title Page 

Map — Ridgeville Township, 1851 173 

Mark, Anson 356 

Northwestern Female College SO 

Orrington Liint Home 336 

Orrington Lunt Library 234 

Orrington Lunt Library (Floor Plans) 234 

Pitner, Levi C 362 

Pool on the Campus 63 

Poole, Isaac 36S 

Poppenhusen, Conrad H 374 

President Roosevelt's Visit 94 

Raymond, Miner 380 

Residence of Aaron O. Auten 100 

Residence of Abraham C. Bird 110 

Residence of William L. Brown 128 

Residence of Mrs. Wallace R. Condict 116 

Residence of Lawrence G. Hallberg 246 

Residence of Francis A. Hardy 256 

Residence of the late Harvey B. Hurd 273 

Residence of Mrs. Charles H. Rowe 398 

Residence of Robert D. Sheppard 416 

Residence of Parke E. Simmons 456 

Residence of Charles A. Ward 434 

Ridgaway, Henry B 386 

Sargent, George M 404 

Schwall, Andrew 410 

South End of the Campus ' 63 

Stockton, William E 423 

The Old Oak 74 

Townsend, Adam F 423 

University Hall 54 

White, Hugh A 433 

Willard, Frances E 444 

Williams, John M 450 

Y. M. C. A. Building 393 


Ahlberg, August 620 

Anderson, Frank Herbert 579 

Andrews, Wilbur J 643 

Anthony, Elliott 500 

Balderston, Stephen V 621 

Banks, Alexander F 620 

Barker, John T 635 

Barlow, Charles W 590 

Barnes, James Milton 5S0 

Bass, Myron H 584 

Bassett, Asahel 593 

Bassett, Jared 497 

Bates, Thomas 615 

Beebe, Thomas H 623 

Black, Carl Ellsworth 595 

Blake, Edgar Ovet 599 

Boltwood, Henry Leonidas 540 

Boring, Ezra March 641 

Borton, Frank Lynn 608 

Boutelle, Joshua P 517 

Bragdon, Charles C 606 

Bragdon, Merritt C 510 

Brainard, William Newell 596 

Brayton, Sarah H 580 

Bristol, Lewis Tabor 632 

Brown, Andrew J 565 

Brown, Walter Lee 640 

Brown, William Liston 543 

Browne, Vernelle Freeland 633 

Buntain, Cassius M. C 611 

Burns, Peter Thomas 613 

Butler, Henry 634 

Byrne, John G 634 

Calligan, John Brenton 610 

Camden, William J 614 

Canfield, William J 519 

Carney, John 609 

Carpenter, William Montelle 585 

Carson, Oliver M 519 

Catlin, Franklin Sexton 606 

Cermak, Jerome J 645 

Clark, Alexander 495 

Coe, George Albert 576 

Coe, Sadie Knowland 576 

Comstock, Charles 484 

Condict, Wallace Reynolds 518 

Grain, Charles 538 

Cummings, Joseph 489 

Cumnock, Robert iMcLean 530 

Currey, Josiah Seymour 530 

Damsel, William Hudson 627 

Davis, Nathan Smith, Jr 603 

Dawes, Charles Gates 509 

Deering, William 4S3 

Dixon, George William 617 

Dodds, Robert 611 

Dyche David R 608 

Elliot, Frank M 563 

Elting, Philip E 646 

Eversz, Ernest Hammond 643 

Farwell, Simeon 507 

Filer, Alanson 583 

Flinn, John J 625 

Follansbee, Mitchell Davis 627 

Forrey, Frank Myer 626 

Foster, John J 537 

Foster, Volney W 503 

Fox, George Thomas 645 

Gallup, Walter L 589 

Garland, James A 618 

Gerould, Frank Wheelock 629 

Gibson, John W 636 

Gooch, George E 636 

Greene, Benjamin Allen 563 

Griswold, William Morse 585 

Grover, Aldin J 535 

Grover, Frank Reed 536 

Hall, Winl^eld Scott 501 

Hamline, John H 553 

Hamline, Leonidas P 552 

Harbert, Elizabeth Boynton 559 

Harbert, William S 558 

Helm, Walter B 647 

Hemenway, Henry B 564 

Hempstead, Edward 616 

Herben, Stephen Joseph 546 

Herdien, Elmer .Forrest 633 

Herdien. Walter Laurance 633 

Hinsdale, Henry W 633 

Hitt, Isaac R., Jr •. . . . 594 

Hoag, Thomas C 555 

Hoag, William Gale 556 

Hoffman, John Raymond 650 

Holmes, Raynor Elmore 615 

Hoover, Judson Wilkes 617 

Hotch, Louis Grant 646 

Hungate, John H 588 

Hurd, Harvey B 474 

Ide, George Osman 628 

Isbester, Tunis 537 

Jenks, Chancellor Livingston 486 

Johnson, Richard R 618 

Jones, Albert R 550 

Jones, William Hugh 508 

Kedzie, John Hume 488 

Kimball, Dorr Augustine 573 

Kingsley, Homer Hitchcock 549 

Kirk, John B 506 

Kirkbride, Charles Neville 617 

Kline, Charles Gaffield 536 

Kline, George Romyne 535 

Kline, Simon Veder 535 

Knight, Newell Clark 549 

Lake Richard Conover 570 

Learned, Edward W 571 

Leonhardt, Susan 631 

Lindsay, Mary Boyd 599 

Little, Arthur W 544 

Loba, Jean Frederic 557 

Logan, Charles Lyford 645 

Loomis, Mason B 588 

Lorimer. Joseph M 582 

Lunt, Orrington 463 

Lutkin, Peter Christian 566 

Lyons, Joseph McGee 539 

Mann, Oscar H 578 

Marcy, Elizabeth Eunice 604 

Mark, Anson 548 

Mayo, Charles H 614 

Maxson, Orrin T 629 

McCallin, Sidney G 646 

McCleary, Wilbur Wallace 587 

Merrick, George Peck 547 

Meyer, Sidney Bachrach 585 

Miller, Humphrys H. C 521 

Moore, George Henry 638 

Murphy, Edward J 638 

Murphy, John C 637 

Nesbitt, George W 648 

Nichols, Roscoe Townley 613 

Oldberg, Prof. Oscar 596 

Parkes, William Beckley 630 

Persons, Albert D 647 

Piper, Charles Edward 644 

Pitner, Levi Carroll 511 

Plummer, Samuel Craig 646 

Poole, Charles Clarence 639 

Poppenhusen, Conrad Herman 534 

Raddin, Charles S 639 

Raymond, Frederick D 516 

Raymond, James Henry 601 

Raj-mond, Miner 513 

Remy, Curtis H 554 

Richards, Charles L 614 

Ridgaway, Henry Bascom 49S 

Sargent, George Myrick 493 

Schwall, Andrew 538 

Sheppard, Robert Dickinson 477 

Shutterly, Eugene E 601 

Shutterly, John Jay 600 

Smith, Amos A. L , 618 

Smyth, Hugh P 604 

Solenberger, Amos R 649 

Spencer, Claudius B 555 

Stevens, William Leon 648 

Stockton, William Eichbaun 527 

Stow, Nelson Lloyd 550 

Stringtield, C. Pruyn 619 

Sweet, Alanson 577 

Synnestvedt, Paul 648 

Tallmadge, Lewis Cass 574 

Terry, Milton S ■ .• 545 

Townsend, Adam Fries 520 

Trowbridge, Lucius A 572 

Tuttle, Ole Hansen 649 

Van Arsdale, John R 572 

Voje, John H 590 

Volz, George P. K 641 

Walcott, Chester P 568 

Waldberg, Benjamin 649 

Walworth, Nathan H 56S 

Watson, Thomas H 593 

Way, Charles Lyman 581 

Webster, Edward H 641 

White, Hugh Alexander 485 

Whitefield, George W 607 

Willard, Frances E 478 

Williams, John Marshall 522 

Winslow, Rollin Curtis 627 

Woodbridge, John R 598 

Work, Joseph Waters 631 

Young, Aaron Nelson 548 

Zipperman, Solomon W 613 

JvUrr-^^^ _J3^, ^JAa^ C^ 




TIic Evanston of 1905 — Gem Suburb of a 
Great Metropolis and Seat of Learning — 
Results Accomplished by Fifty Years 
of Development — Contrast Betzveen Past 
and Present — First Township Organiza- 
tion Under Name of Ridgcville — Evans- 
ton Township Organised in 183/ — The 
Village Platted in 1854 — Later Changes 
in Township and Municipal Organization 
— Old Name of Ridgeville Township Re- 
sumed in 190^, with Boundaries Identical 
zvith City of Evanston — Garrett Biblical 
Institute Precedes the University — City 
Government Organized in 1892 — Early 
Evanston Homes and Their Occupants — 
Advent of the First Railroad — The Ca- 
reer of Dr. John Evans. 

The Evanston of 1905 is justification of 
an effort to unfold the story of its planting 
and its development. Gem of suburbs as it 
is, lying contiguous to the greatest of west- 
ern cities and the home of many of its 
most active men of affairs, it also occupies 
a commanding position as a seat of intel- 
ligence and learning. It has crowded into 
its short career so much of human interest, 
it has been the source of so many wide 
spreading and helpful influences, it is so 

endeared to the people who have found in it 
a home, that the narration of its fifty years 
of progress must be told. Like many an- 
other American city closely associated with 
a metropolis, it has attained its present 
proud position within the memory of men 
now living, among whom is included the 
general editor of the present work. It pos- 
sesses no ruins and no ivy-covered walls. 
Its oldest buildings bear the marks of re- 
cent construction, and its well paved streets 
have but lately passed from the hands of 
the contractor. Unlike some of the his- 
toric towns of the United States, whose 
history has been written covering two cen- 
turies or more, and which reflect the growth 
and history of the American people, this 
tidy suburban town has developed quickly 
within itself all the forces that make up our 
active, advanced American life, of schools 
and churches, of clubs and cabals ; in re- 
ligion, society, politics, philanthropy and 
pleasure it is an epitome of distinctly mod- 
ern progress. Numerous helpful hands have 
been employed to draw the composite pic- 
ture that is meant to convey a lasting im- 
pression of the facts and forces that make 
up the idea of Evanston. and placing them 
side by side, or mingling them in one's 



thought, we have the resultant of as wide- 
awake, up-to-date, eager, intelligent, inter- 
esting and hopeful a community of men, 
women and youth as the world can furnish. 

Perhaps you have at some time paused 
to listen to the mingled din of a great city 
and, with a quick ear, analyzed the indi- 
vidual sounds that make up the hum of the 
city's life. That task has been ours. The 
hum is well nigh deafening to the ear, 
sensitized by attention even in a town which 
boasts few noises of factories or traffic. 
But its hum is not less real, of activities 
which employ the finer faculties of men and 
women. It will be told otherwheres how 
the particular region that now bears the 
name of Evanston came to be selected as 
the site of a college town. Delving into 
the political conditions that antedate the 
modern city, we find that Cook County, 111., 
in which Evanstonislocated, was, previous 
to 1849, under what is known in this State 
as County Government; that is, the county 
affairs were managed by a Board of Com- 
missioners, who supervised the community 
business of the neighborhoods that had not 
yet emerged into local government. Many 
of these were designated by a name which 
might later attach to a township, but there 
was no township government, though there 
were townships indicated in the United 
States Survey, and designated by numbers, 
which were used before 1849, and have 
been since used in connection with school 
purposes, as illustrating this condition. 

It is interesting to note that the records 
of Township 41 — in which Evanston is 
located — now in possession of the Evanston 
Historical Society, were begun in 1846, 
and that they record the election of Town- 
ship Trustees for school purposes four 
years before the first election of officers of 
the town of Ridgeville, which included 
Evanston; and, as throwing a little light 
upon the onerous duties of these early 

Trustees, we read from the minutes of their 
third meeting, held May 20, 1846, at the 
Ridge Road House: "It was ordered that 
we proceed to hire Miss Cornelia Wheadon 
to teach our school the present season, at 
one dollar and twenty-five cents a week. 
Also, it was ordered that the school house 
should be repaired as soon as possible, and 
furnished with a water-pail and dipper." 

Evidently Township 41 had enjoyed the 
blessing of a school house long enough for 
it to get out of repair, probably under the 
regime of County Commissioners. In the 
Code of By-Laws of the School Trustees, 
it was provided that, in case a patron of 
the school refused, or was not in position 
at the appointed time, to receive the teacher 
the required number of days, the teacher 
should select his or her own boarding place, 
and the board bill should be taxed with 
such patron's tuition bill. From such germs 
has Evanston's splendid school system de- 

Township Organization. — By the Con- 
stitution of 1848 the Legislature was re- 
quired to provide by general law for town- 
ship organization, which it did by Act of 
February 12, 1849. By this act the people 
were permitted to divide their counties into 
towns or townships, which were to conform 
as nearly as might be with the congressional 
townships. Commissioners were appointed 
for the purpose of dividing the county, and 
the people were permitted to select the 
names of the townships. When they could 
not agree, the Commissioners were author- 
ized to select the names for them. The 
people of fractional Town 41 North, Range 
14 East, chose the name of Ridgeville. This 
continued to be the name of the town until 
by act of the Legislature of February 15, 
1857, it was changed to Evanston, and the 
township was enlarged by the addition of 
a tier of sections taken from Niles Town- 
ship on the west and the Archange Reser- 


vation and several sections in Township 42, 
taken from New Trier on the north. The 
language of the act reads: "The name of 
Ridgeville shall be changed to Evanston, 
and the Town of Evanston shall comprise 
all of fractional Township 41 North, Range 
14 East, Sections 12, 13, 24, 25 and 36, 
Township 41 North, Range 13 East, the 
Archange Reservation and fractional Sec- 
tions 22, 26 and 27, Township 42 North, 
Range 14 East, and the same shall form and 
constitute a township for school purposes 
and be known as Town 41 North, Range 
14 East." 

Dreary reading — perhaps, dry as dust — 
but thrilling none the less, because it is the 
record of a creative act of great importance. 
Under an enabling act, approved May 23, 
1877, and amended May 15, 1903, the ter- 
ritory embraced within the present limits 
of the city of Evanston has been formed 
into a township under the old name of 
Ridgeville, which makes the boundaries of 
the city and the new township identical and 
in eflfect consolidates the township and city 
governments. The new township as now 
constituted embraces what previously 
formed the southern part of New Trier 
Township and a small section from the 
northeast corner of Niles Township. The 
remainder of the former Township of 
Evanston now constitutes the northern por- 
tion of the City of Chicago, with a small 
section south of the Chicago city limits and 
west of the southern portion of Evanston, 
these two sections remaining under the old 
name of Evanston Township, though not 
embracing any part of the city of that 

Village and City Organization. — Such 
are Evanston 's present geographical and 
political relations to the county and the 
State. Under the loose system of county 
and township government it subsisted till 
1863. It had been platted as a town in 

1854, and outstripping all other sections 
of the township, and taking on exclusive- 
ness and individuality, it demanded a nar- 
rower and more intensive government of 
its platted territory. The agitation cul- 
minated in a meeting of voters on De- 
cember 29, 1863, when it was decided, in 
accordance with the law on the subject, to 
organize an incorporated town, and the 
decision was consummated by the election 
of five Trustees, January 6, 1864. The new 
town was bounded by Lake Michigan on 
the east, Wesley Avenue on the west, Crain 
and Hamilton Streets on the south, and 
Foster Street on the north. In 1869 a 
special act of the Legislature permitted the 
incorporation of the City of Evanston, but 
content with their simple form of gov- 
ernment, the citizens decided against its 
adoption by a vote of 197 to 82. Yet with- 
in three years they organized under the 
Act of 1872 for Cities and Villages, but 
continued their village form of government 
by Trustees selected from the village at 
large instead of by Aldermen from wards, 
with a Village President instead of Mayor. 
In 1872 new territory was annexed to the 
town on petition of property owners of 
the district lying north of Foster Street 
and east of Wesley and Asbury Avenues, 
and extending to the present limits of the 
city. On October 19, 1872, village or- 
ganization was adopted under the general 
City and Village Incorporation Act of 
April 10, 1872, and the first village election 
took place April 15, 1873. Further in- 
crease of territory was made January 7, 
1873, by the annexation, on petition, of the 
region bounded on the north by Grant 
Street, on the south by Church and Foster 
Streets, on the east by Wesley and Asbury 
Avenues, and on the west by Dodge Street. 
Then followed, during the same month, 
the accession of the region bounded on 
the north by Grant and Simpson Streets, 



on the south by Church Street, on the east 
by Dodge Street, and on the west by Hart- 
rey and McDaniel Avenues. April 21, 
1874, the Village of North Evanston suc- 
cumbed to the acquisitive mood of its larger 
neighbor, and, in September of the same 
year, the territory lying between Hamilton 
and Greenleaf Streets, with the lake on 
the east and Chicago Avenue on the west, 
was included by petition. In April, 1886, 
the territory bounded by Church Street, 
Wesley Avenue, Crain Street and McDaniel 
Avenue, was likewise annexed on petition. 
Finally, on February 20, 1892, the important 
question of the annexation of South Evan- 
ston was submitted to the vote of both vil- 
lages and approved by a small majority. 

Thus the chapter of territorial expansion 
for Evanston was closed for the time be- 
ing. It had now outgrown the swaddling 
clothes of village government and de- 
manded the habiliments of a city. The' 
question of the adoption of city organiza- 
tion was submitted to the people on March 
29, 1892, and was adopted by a vote of 784 
to 26. The first city election took place 
April 19, 1892, when Dr. Oscar H. Mann 
became the first Mayor of the city. 

Physical Characteristics. — The physical 
characteristics of Evanston have changed 
but little in the progress of the years. Its 
main features, north and south, were the 
Lake Shore on the east, more wooded than 
now, with two ridges, one called the East 
Ridge, comprising the land purchased by 
the University, and the other the West 
Ridge, comprising the lands of Brown and 
Hurd, which were a part of the first town- 
plat. The latter ridge was some forty-five 
feet above the lake level. Between the 
ridges was a level valley, receptacle of the 
drainage of the ridges, often giving the 
impression of a swamp, but easily suscept- 
ible of being drained to the north or by 
ditches to the Lake. The trend of these 

ridges constrained the surveyors in the 
platting of the town, so that the streets 
running north and south paralleled the 
ridge roads, and the east and west bound 
streets crossed the former at right angles. 
The original plat comprised three hundred 
and fifty acres, purchased by the Trustees 
of the University from John H. Foster, in 
1853, and nearly two hundred and fifty 
acres, purchased about the same time, by 
Andrew J. Brown and Harvey B. Hurd, 
from James Carney. The tract was well 
wooded, especially along the shore of the 
Lake, chiefly with oaks, some few of which 
remain to give a hint of the noble forest of 
which they formed a part. The plat, which 
perished in the Chicago fire, bore the names 
of streets that kept fresh in memory some 
of the active spirits who were associated 
with the early days of the enterprise, such 
as Dempster, Hinman, Judson, Benson, 
Sherman, Davis, Orrington and Clark ; 
while to the west, such names of streets as 
Oak, Maple Grove and Ridge were a 
tribute to the conditions that then pre- 
vailed, and help the late-comers to picture 
the leafy shade, overlooked by the old-time 
thoroughfare that crowned the ridge; and 
still farther west, Wesley and Asbury 
Avenues flanked the town, testifying to 
the loyal Methodism of the settlers who 
dwelt within it. 

The Town Platted. — The purchases of 
the land were made in 1853, and, during 
that year, the town was staked out and 
streets thrown up, but the plat was not 
acknowledged till 1854, in which year a 
number of lots were sold, houses built and 
families settled. The plat made by the 
Northwestern University provided gener- 
ously, in its portion of the town, for public 
parks such as now beautify the town. The 
streets were spacious, and a constituency 
was appealed to such as might be attracted 
to an educational center. This was the 



chief magnet. The idea of the suburban 
residence had not yet emerged. The fam- 
ilies who came were chiefly those that 
were attracted by the idea of residence in a 
college town. Garrett Biblical Institute 
preceded the University on university 
ground, and John Dempster, at Old Demp- 
ster Hall, realized to the early students of 
the Institute, as Mark Hopkins did to the 
students of Williams College, how a very 
few facilities in the hands of such a master 
will serve to develop the minds and hearts 
of men eager for an education. Obadiah 
Huse early ministered to the physical wants 
of students at Dempster Hall in such man- 
ner that their slender purses might provide 
for a not too luxurious existence. Philo 
Judson was the advance guard of the Uni- 
versity, selling lots, vending scholarships, 
drumming up settlers and promoting the 
town. Hurd, Brown, Beveridge, Pearsons, 
Judson, Evans, Clifford and Ludlam were 
among the people who picked their way 
over the newly made thoroughfares of the 
new town to their new homes, with wet and 
muddy feet ofttimes, during the years 1854 
and 1855. And, until the summer of 1855, 
if they went to Chicago, they must do so 
by their own private conveyance. They 
were sturdy people; practical, religious, 
neighborly, genuine pioneers who could 
curry a horse, build a house, lead a class- 
meeting and finance a town and two in- 
stitutions of learning. On the West Ridge 
Road lived the Huntoons, the Crains and 
the McDaniels and Carneys, the Pratts and 
the Garfields, antedating the town. The 
home of John L. Beveridge was on Chicago 
Avenue, near Clark Street ; of John A. 
Pearsons on Grove Street, near Chicago 
Avenue ; of Philo Judson at Ridge Avenue 
and Davis Street ; of Judge H. B. Hurd 
in the same vicinity ; of G. W. Reynolds 
where the Avenue House now stands ; and 
Dempster Hall and the home of Dr. John 

Dempster on the Lake Shore fiorth of 
Simpson Street. The Snyders home was 
on Chicago Avenue, near Dempster Street. 

These were the scattered centers of life 
in the ambitious hamlet. They were soon 
reinforced by the families of the Professors 
of the University and Institute, and such 
families as the Willards, from which was 
destined to proceed that bright and shining 
light in philanthropy and temperance re- 
form, Frances E. Willard, probably the best 
known product of Evanston life, its his- 
torian in "A Classic Town," an orator and 
writer of rare power. George F. Foster soon 
took up his home on Chicago Avenue near 
Church Street — a shouting Methodist and 
social to his finger tips, whose house was 
a seat of hospitality and elegance. George 
W. Reynolds was on Davis Street, near to 
the corner of Chicago Avenue, on which 
corner the Reynolds House, still a part of 
the Avenue House, was built. We take ex- 
ception to him as a builder, for on one occa- 
sion at a caucus, or neighborhood meeting, 
the floor of his house suddenly collapsed, 
precipitating the company into the cellar, 
and the same performance was re-enacted 
at the house of George F. Foster, also built 
by Mr. Reynolds. There was no "Index" 
or "Press" in those days to note these 
happenings, but the survivors tell the tale 
with more laughter than they then ex- 

Church Street took its name from the 
donated site of what was to be the Cathedral 
Church of the town, the center of the relig- 
ious and social life of this God-fearing com- 
munity, chiefly of the Methodist persuasion, 
but broad-minded enough to welcome those 
of other communions in their worship, and 
disposed, when the time of separation 
should come, to give them a site on which to 
raise their own roof-tree, as the title deeds 
from the University to Trustees of the older 
churches of Evanston will testify — consid- 


eration one dollar and other valuable bene- 
fits, such as good will and gladness at their 
coming, their loyalty and their prosperity. 

Advent of the First Railroad.— The 
Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad was be- 
ing located in 1853, and the Trustees of the 
University, by resolution of October 26, 
1853, requested the company to locate their 
road through the land of the University so 
as to strike the center, or within thirty-five 
rods south of the center of Section 19 of 
Township 41 North, Range 18, and offer- 
ing to donate the right of way and one acre 
of land for a depot, providing the railroad 
company would make such location and 
agree not to allow any establishment for 
the sale of liquor or gambling houses, or 
other nuisance, to be placed on such right 
of way or depot ground. March 28, 1854, 
the Trustees passed another resolution re- 
questing the railroad company to locate its 
station on a line west of Davis Street — 
which terminated at Sherman Avenue — on 
a small ridge on the Carney farm, or as 
near as may be expedient in the judgment 
of the agent, providing the owner of the 
Carney farm lay off suitable streets for the 
same. Mr. A. J. Brown, who held the title 
of the Carney tract for himself and others, 
conveyed the right of way and depot ground 
to the railroad company about the date of 
the resolution referred to, and it appears on 
the plat of the town. It was not, however, 
till the summer of 1855 that trains began 
running through the town. Two through 
trains and one accommodation train were 
all the facilities that were offered. Evan- 
ston seldom filled the single passenger car 
of the accommodation (or "Waukegan") 
train, as it was most familiarly known, 
and the grumbling railroad authorities 
threatened to take off the train, declaring 
that it did not pay and gave no promise 

of ever paying. But they took it out in 
grumbling. It did pay, and was destined to 
be their best paying piece of road through 
its suburban traffic, as a prosperous com- 
munity grew around the cheerful, hos- 
pitable nucleus that had grouped itself near 
to the Northwestern University and Garrett 
Biblical Institute. 

Such are some of Evanston's beginnings 
with which we introduce the reader to the 
more elaborate story, as told in detail by 
those familiar with it. One word more we 
cannot refrain from saying concerning Dr. 
John Evans, the man whose chief monument 
(though he has many others) is the 
Classic Town ; in whose brain was chiefly 
conceived the thought of this educational 
and home center, and by whose skill and 
suggestions and influence the plans were 
chiefly made to compass the acquisition of 
the land that should be the Northwestern 
University's chief source of endowment, 
and by whom the enterprise was financed 
for all the coming years. Close to him 
wrought Orrington Lunt, imbibing his zeal 
and supplementing his labors by his unsel- 
fish devotion and tireless energy. John 
Evans was as far-seeing a man as ever 
wrought in the formative days of cities or 
States ; a plain man who dreamed of large 
things, and whose heart kept pace with 
his swift moving intellect. The sphere of 
his activity was changed all too soon from 
the region that bears his name to a distant 
State, where he built railroads, planned 
Titanic enterprises, supervised the beginning 
of a great commonwealth and helped to 
found another University in the Far West. 
Evanston is honored in her name, as she 
honors the name of her founder. 

Kind reader, if you have read thus far, 
read on. 



FRANK B. GBOVEE. Vlce-Preeldent Evanston Historical Society.) 

The First Evanstonians — Indian Relics — 
Stone Implements and What They Indi- 
cate — Early Explorers — Joliet, Mar- 
quette. La Salic and Tonty — First White 
Visitors — Indian Tribes — The Iroquois, 
Illinois and Pottawatomies — Ouilmette 
Reserz'ation and Family — The Fort Dear- 
born Massacre — Home of the Onil- 
mcttes — Treaty of Prairie du Chien — In- 
dian Trails and Trees on North Shore — 
Aboriginal Camps and Villages — Indian 
Mounds and Graves — Reminiscenses of 
Early Settlers — Important Treaties — An 
Englishman's Story of the Treaty of Chi- 
cago in i8j^. 

Since the discovery of this continent the 
North American Indian has ever been the 
subject of constant study, discussion and 
contention. His origin, his traditions, his 
character, his manners and customs, his 
superstitions, his eloquence, the wars in 
which he has engaged, his tribal relations, 
his certain destiny, the wrongs he has done 
and those that he has suffered have, for four 
centuries, been favorite themes for the his- 
torian, the poet, the philanthropist, the eth- 
nologist. And yet, with all the countless 
books that have been written upon the sub- 

iCompiled from two papers; (1), "Our Indian 
Predecessors — The First Evanstonians," read before the 
Evanston Historical Society. November 2, 1901 : and (2) 
"Some Indian Land Marks of the North Shore," read be- 
fore the Chicago Historical Society, February 21, lOO.'j, 
with some supplemental notations by the writer. 

ject, there is still room for inquiry, for 
speculation, for historical research. 

Every political division of this country, 
from state to hamlet, has a mine of untold 
facts, which must ever remain undisclosed. 
Still, the diligent and the curious can, with 
all due regard to the limitations to truth 
put upon the honest historian, gather old 
facts that will in the aggregate be of inter- 
est as local history. With that end in view 
I wish to tell you what I have been able 
to learn of our Indian predecessors — the 
first Evanstonians. 

Stone Implements Found in This Vi- 
cinity and What They Indicate. — There 
is no more interesting field for historical re- 
search than that of the implements and 
weapons of the prehistoric Indian. There is, 
too, a later time of which there is no writ- 
ten history, before the coming of the Jesuit 
Missionary and his early successor, the In- 
dian Trader, who was the first vendor of 
steel hatchets and arrow points, that is of 
no less interest. 

Much of the Indian history of those times 
must of necessity remain forever undis- 
closed. Some of it has been gathered from 
credible traditions, some of it distorted by 
the frailty of human recollection and by the 
fragile partition that oft divides memory 
from imagination, and truthfulness from 
the inclination to boast of the prowess of 
Indian ancestrv. All of these factors, of 


course, result in endless confusion, and 
what the exact truth is must be left, for the 
most part, to uncertainty and speculation. 
But a portion of that history, as applied to 
the North Shore, is told as simply and 
plainly by the stone implements and weap- 
ons as though written in words on monu- 
ment or obelisk. The entrance to this field 
of inquiry opens, of course, more easily 
and widely to the man of science — the 
archaeologist — but the merest novice, if 
he be curious and diligent, will there find a 
mine of historic facts that are both interest- 
ing and reliable. 

One of the greatest orators of modern 
times has entertained thousands of his 
hearers and readers with the topic, "The 
man of imagination — what does he see?" 
And so the student, whether he has great 
learning or that next best substitute — in- 
dustry — when he finds the chippings of 
flint, chert or cobble-stone left in the work- 
shop of the ancient artisan of the North 
Shore, or when he sees the many finish- 
ing wares that have been worn and used 
and lost by the ancient customers of this 
ancient artisan, and then found again, can 
reproduce a reasonably accurate picture of 
the red man, who sat ages ago on the West 
Shore of old Lake Michigan, and, with un- 
told labor and deftness, prepared the ar- 
rows and spear-heads that his red brothers, 
in due time, hurled at deer, or bufifalo or 
dusky foe : and this student can, in fair 
and truthful speculation, follow these red 
brothers in all they saw and did through 
the forest and across the broad prairies, in 
the hunt and in the chase, to the wigwam 
and to the camp fire, on the war path and in 
their idle roamings from place to place. 

These implements may, for convenience 
in this discussion, be divided into two 
classes : first, those found along the lake 
shore near the beach, which are often im- 
perfect in form, consisting of "rejects" 

and chippings, and found in the aboriginal 
quarries and shops; and, second, the per- 
fect forms found farther from the lake, 
where they were in use. I will refer to them 
in the order named. 

It must be borne in mind that, from Wil- 
mette to Waukegan, there are high blufifs, 
reaching to the beach, so that in that locali- 
ty the remains of these shops or chipping 
stations have, to some extent at least, been 
obliterated by the waves. But, both north 
and south of these high bluffs, many of 
these shops have been located and clearly in- 
dicate that the Lake Shore, with its ready 
material among the gravel constantly 
thrown up by the waves, not only furnished 
an inexhaustible supply of material ready 
for use and easily accessible, but that it 
was resorted to in preference to the more 
laborious method of seeking and mining 
materials to the West. Indeed, it is quite 
probable, and a plausible theory, that the 
Indian population, for many miles to the 
west and for untold centuries, used the 
Lake Shore almost exclusively for the 
manufacture of stone implements and weap- 
ons. These shops, or chipping stations, 
have generally been found in the sand 
dunes or ridges immediately adjacent to 
the beach, where there was shelter from 
the wind and waves. Many, of course, have 
long since disappeared by the action of the 
lake : but at least four of them were located 
along the shore at Edgewater and Rogers 
Park, one immediately south of the Indian 
boundary line at the city limits. In the early 
days of Evanston and, to my personal 
knowledge, even as late as 1870, the chip- 
pings, rejects and broken arrow-heads, in- 
dicating one of the largest of these shops, 
could easily be found in Evanston extend- 
ing from what is now Main Street to 
Greenleaf Street, and about on a line from 
the Industrial School to the present Evans- 
ton residences of Messrs. John C. Spry, 



Charles E. Graves and Milton H. Wilson. 
This particular shop was not only the re- 
sort of the idle school boy in his quest for 
arrow points, but was, in the year 1884, the 
subject of scientific investigation by Dr. 
William A. Phillips, a member of the Ev- 
anston Historical Society (Science, Vol. 3, 
page 273, 1884), who made a collection at 
that time of the chert refuse, "illustrating 
the successive stages of the chipping or 
flaking work, beginning with the water- 
worn pebble from the beach and ending 
with the nearly completed, but broken, im- 
plement," which collection is now in the 
Aluseum of the Northwestern University at 
Evanston (Rep. Curator X. W. University 
Museum, 1884, Smithsonian Report, 1897 
— 1 161, pp. 587-600). 

At the present site of the Dearborn Ob- 
servatory, on the campus of the North- 
western University, was another of these 
shops, although a smaller one, which was 
partially obliterated in the construction of 
that building, and several others have been 
located at different times along the lake 
front of Rogers Park and Evanston. 

Indeed, the various collections of these 
implements, chippings and also of broken 
pottery would indicate not only an unusual 
Indian population, but that this industry 
was general along the lake shore, and much 
nearer the Chicago river than the sites just 
described. This situation can easily be dem- 
onstrated by the merest glance at the collec- 
tion of the late Karl A. Dilg, in possession 
of the Chicago Historical Society. 

Immediately north of Waukegan, east of 
the Northwestern Railway, and extending 
nearly to the Kenosha city limits, and be- 
tween the bluff that was formerly the shore 
line and the present lake front, are some 
1,200 to 1,300 acres of low sand dunes, all 
of which have, from time to time, consti- 
tuted the shore of the receding lake. This 
district is replete with shops and stations of 

this character, especially so at what was for- 
merly Benton, and now Beach Station, and 
extending from there north, a distance of 
about five miles, through Doctor Dowie's 
"City of Zion" to the state line. As early 
as 1853 this locality was also the subject of 
scientific investigation on this subject. 
( Prof. I. A. Lapham, Antiquities of Wis- 
consin, Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge, \'ol. 7, page 6, 1885). 

These investigations have been further 
pursued by Dr. Phillips, assisted by -Messrs. 
W. C. Wyman and E. F. Wyman, of Ev- 
anston, and by Mr. F. H. Lyman, of Ke- 
nosha. In the district between Beach Sta- 
tion and the State line no less than thirty- 
two sites were located, and a new group or 
variety of implements found, viz. : weapons 
and utensils in endless variety, made of 
trap rock or cobble-stone, and which are 
now designated, "The Trap Flake Series." 
A very entertaining and instructive des- 
cription of this locality and these imple- 
ments, their uses and the method employed 
in flaking them, with plates and pictures, 
will be found in the Smithsonian Report 
for 1897, pages 587-600, in an able paper by 
Dr. Phillips, under the title, "A New Group 
of Stone Implements from the Southern 
Shores of Lake ^Michigan." 

The implements and weapons, made in 
these localities along the shore from the, 
Chicago River to Kenosha, represent ahnost 
unlimited varieties, from the ordinary ar- 
rowhead and the net weight or stone 
sinker used by the Pottawatomie fisher- 
man, or his ancient predecessor, to the 
finest of polished hatchets, spear-heads, 
and drills. 

It is not within the scope of this discus- 
sion to go further into the details of this 
lost art, in showing how these implements 
were made and for what they were used — 
that inquiry should be left to more able 
hands ; but the field for exploration is as 


boundless and unlimited as the enthusiasm 
of the archaeologist, and is full of interest 
even to the layman. 

The second class, in this subdivision of 
these implements, are the finished weapons 
and utensils that, in the long ago, left the 
work-shop of the artisan, on the beach and 
elsewhere, were placed in the hands of his 
warrior customer and have been scattered, 
used and lost on the land which we have 
designated the North Shore. Generally 
speaking, these implements are found in 
about the same variety and number as in 
any ordinary Indian country, with one or 
two remarkable exceptions that will re- 
ceive special attention. The materials used 
in their manufacture indicate the presence 
of Indians from remote parts of the con- 
tinent, or barter and exchange with remote 
tribes. They also indicate that the North 
Shore— especially for from three to six 
miles from the lake — was not only a great 
hunting ground, but that the western shore 
of the lake has been the scene of many 
a bloody battle between these red warriors 
of the olden time. They also further indi- 
cate, in one or two localities that will be 
mentioned, an extended Indian population 
during a long period of time. I am told by 
members of the Academy of Sciences and 
others, who have the best means of infor- 
mation, that it is hard to distinguish the 
particular peoples by these relics, as there is 
great similarity in manufacture among re- 
spective tribes— the distinguishing marks 
being more especially in the wooden handles 
or hafts, which, of course, cannot be found 
— and that some of these implements are of 
prehistoric origin. 

The nearest locality where these imple- 
ments are found in the greatest variety and 
number is what was formerly known as 
Bowmanville — being the vicinity of Rose 
Hill Cemetery and extending from there to 
the North Branch of the Chicago River and 

throughout the territory north of there, ex- 
tending to Forest Glen, Niles Center and 
High Ridge, where they have been found 
in such abundance that a great ancient vil- 
lage — and probably several such villages in 
that district, is a certainty — all of which will 
receive later mention when we consider the 
sites of the Indian villages. The locality 
west of Evanston, in the town of Niles, 
which is now a gardening district, has sup- 
plied many excellent specimens ploughed 
up by the farm hands, and it has been an 
easy matter, with a little patience and at- 
tention, to secure a good collection in these 
localities ; and there are many of them — 
notably the collection of William A. Peter- 
son, of the Peterson Nursery Company, 
gathered largely from the lands of that 
company at Rose Hill, the collection of Dr. 
A. S. Alexander, formerly of Evanston, 
gathered very largely in Evanston and the 
township of Niles ; also the interesting col- 
lection of Karl A. Dilg, already referred 
to, and that of Adolph Miller at Bowman- 
ville. Still another locality is the neighbor- 
hood of the Indian Village at Waukegan, 
and from there north to the State line, in 
the locality investigated and described by 
Dr. Phillips in his paper. 

These land marks — these bits of clay, 
and flint and cobble-stone — to which has 
been made but very scant and imperfect ref- 
erence, tell, as they have ever told, a per- 
fect, and yet an imperfect, story; perfect, 
because we know from that, in some far 
off day, the North Shore was, as it is now, 
a favorite abiding place ; perfect, too, be- 
cause the man of science can tell us in 
some measure of how these people lived 
and what they did ; imperfect, because we 
must rely to some extent upon theory and 
speculation and cannot open wide the door 
with what is understood by the term writ- 
ten history. 


The Early Explorers.— All the writers 
upon the early history of the Northwest, 
of necessity describe, in more or less de- 
tail, the expeditions, exploits and adven- 
tures of the explorers and Jesuit mission- 
aries, who first saw the Indians, who were 
the first white men in Illinois, and who 
have been the greatest contributors to the 
history of the Indians of the Northern 
States. Among these the names of James 
Marquette, Louis Joliet, La Salle, Henry 
de Tonty, Hennepin and Claude Allouez 
are so prominent that the youngest student, 
who has read even the average school his- 
tory of the day, can give, with reasonable 
accuracy, an outline of where they went, 
what they saw and what they did. 

In most of their travels they were ac- 
companied by friendly Indians as guides 
and assistants, to whose fidelity and atten- 
tion we owe quite as much as to the ex- 
plorers themselves. Reference to the ex- 
tended travels of these daring and hardy 
men would be useless repetition, but it cer- 
tainly is of interest to know that such 
famous voyagers as Father Marquette, 
Joliet, La Salle, Tonty, and Fathers Hen- 
nepin and Allouez, with their Indian 
friends, all in their day and in their turn, 
visited the site of Evanston or coasted its 
shores in their canoes. To the circum- 
stances of some of these early visits to this 
locality, I briefly direct your attention. 

It was the month of June, 1673, over 
two hundred years ago, when Louis Joliet 
— educated as a priest, but with more love 
for exploration and adventure — and James 
Marquette — who longed to see and trace 
the course of the great river that De Soto 
had discovered over one hundred years be- 
fore, and who, godly man that he was. loved 
still more to carry the tidings of the Christ 
to the red man of the prairies — with five 
French companions in two canoes, started 
upon that long and toilsome journey through 

Green Bay, up the Fo.x River of Wiscon- 
sin, from thence into and down the Wis- 
consin and the Mississippi, and up the then 
nameless river to the Indian village of the 
Illinois, where they arrived late in the sum- 
mer and tarried until September. 

The first visit of a white man to Evans- 
ton, in September, 1673, 'S thus described 
by Francis Parkman in his life of La Salle 
and the "Discovery of the Great West": 
".An Illinois chief, with a band of young 
warriors, offered to guide them to the Lake 
of the Illinois, that is to say, Lake Michi- 
gan ; thither they repaired," via the Illi- 
nois, Desplaines and Chicago rivers, "and, 
coasting the shores of the lake, reached 
Green Bay at the end of September." 

The month of November the following 
year (1674) found Marquette again coast- 
ing the western shores of Lake Michigan, 
accompanied by two white men, "Pierre 

Porteret and Jacques " (Marquette's 

diary), a band of Pottawatomies and another 
band of Illinois — ten canoes in all — on his 
way from Green Bay to his beloved mission 
of the Illinois, to which he had promised 
the Indians surely to return. Frail and 
sick in body, but strong and rich in energy 
and religious fervor, he made this, his last 
voyage, from which there proved to be no 
return for him. Parkman (La Salle, pp. 67, 
68) describes the journey: "November had 
come ; the bright hues of the autumn foliage 
was changed to rusty brown. The shore 
wa;s desolate and the lake was stormy. 
They were more than a month in coasting 
its western border." 

Marquette's diary (brought to light 
nearly two centuries later) gives an inter- 
esting account of this journey, describing 
the land, the forest, the prairie, the buffalo, 
the deer and other game, the Indians they 
met, their camp fires at night on shore and 
their battles with the waves by day, and 
tells the story of their arrival at the Chicago 


River on December 4, 1674, and finding it 
frozen over; but what is of special interest 
to us, his diary shows almost conclusively 
that, on December 3, the day before, the 
party landed somewhere near the light- 
house within our present city limits. His 
notation is as follows : 

"December 3, having said holy mass and 
embarked, we were compelled to make a 
point and land on account of floating 
masses of ice." 

The only point of land within the day's 
journey shown upon our present maps, and 
even the maps of those days, including 
that of Marquette, is what is known to-day 
by the sailors as "Gross Point," where the 
Evanston light-house stands. 

Father Allouez made the same journey 
in the winter of 1676 and 1677, on his way 
with two companions to the Illinois coun- 
try, to take the place of Father Marquette 
in the Illinois mission. They encountered 
untold hardships, dragging their canoes for 
many weary miles over the ice-floes of the 
lake and the snow along its shores. 

Two years later is the date when white 
men were next here (November, 1679), 
when La Salle, Father Hennepin (the his- 
torian of the expedition), a Mohegan In- 
dian (La Salle's faithful servant and hunt- 
er), and fourteen Frenchmen in four large 
canoes deeply laden with merchandise, 
tools and guns, made the same voyage 
from Green Bay and to St. Joseph, Mich., 
then called Miami, on their way to the Illi- 
nois country, to build a fort and to further 
establish the trade and colonies of New 
France. They skirted the entire western 
and southern shores of the lake, while Ton- 
ty proceeded by the eastern shore. 

An interesting account of their adven- 
tures, hardships and meetings with both 
hostile and friendly Indians, can be found 
in Park-man's Life of La Salle (pp. 142- 
150). As the author says: 

"This was no journey of pleasure. The 
lake was ruffled with almost ceaseless 
storms ; clouds big with rain above, a tur- 
moil of gray and gloomy waves beneath. 
Every night the canoes must be shouldered 
through the breakers and dragged up the 
steep banks. . . . 

"The men paddled all day with no other 
food than a handful of Indian corn. They 
were spent with toil and sick with the wild 
berries which they ravenously devoured and 
dejected at the prospects before them." 

That they, too, may have camped at night 
or rested by noonday within the limits of 
our present city is entirely probable. 

"As they approached the head of the lake 
game grew abundant." Marquette verifies 
this latter statement, for in his diary (entry 
of December 4, 1674), he says: "Deer 
hunting is pretty good as you get away 
from the Pottawatomies." And his next 
entry (December 12), made after arriving 
at Chicago, is further verification. He says : 

"Pierre and Jacques killed three cattle 
(buffalo) and four deer, one of which ran 
quite a distance with his heart cut in two. 
They contented themselves with killing 
three or four turkeys of the many that were 
around our cabin. Jacques brought in a 
partridge he had killed, in every way re- 
sembling those of France." 

It was winter time a year later — 1680. 
La Salle had not returned from his memo- 
rable and heroic tramp from the Illinois back 
to Canada. His men had deserted ; his goods 
had been destroyed by mutineers and In- 
dians ; Hennepin was on the Mississippi. 
The Iroquois had dispersed and all but de- 
stroyed the Illinois, and all that remained of 
La Salle's party was his faithful lieutenant 
and friend, Henry de Tonty, and two fol- 
lowers — Membre and Boissondet. Tonty 
had failed to pacify the Iroquois, had been 
seriously wounded in battle by them, and 
he and his two surviving companions, 


without food or shelter, fled for their lives. 
Sick, wounded and maimed, he reached the 
shores of Lake Michigan at Chicago, and he 
and his companions began their long 
northward journey on foot, along the dreary 
and ice-bound shores of the lake to old 
Michilimackinac. Parkman ("Life of La 
Salle," p. 220) thus describes their journey: 
"The cold was intense and it was no easy 
task to grub up wild onions from the frozen 
ground, to save themselves from starving. 
Tonty fell ill of a fever and swelling of the 
limbs, which disabled him from traveling, 
and hence ensued a long delay. At length 
they reached Green Bay, where they would 
have starved had they not gleaned a few 
ears of corn and frozen squashes in the 
fields of an empty Indian town." 

A volume could easily be written describ- 
ing the exploits of the later but still early 
white and Indian visitors to these shores. 
The western shore of the lake was the 
great highway between the Chicago port- 
age and Green Bay and Mackinac. We need 
not depend upon imagination to paint the 
picture of the white voyageur and his In- 
dian companion plying the paddle with 
steady stroke, keeping time to the notes of 
his boat song, while their birch bark ca- 
noes skimmed the surface of the lake, for 
the "Jesuit Relations" of those early days 
will supply the facts. 

[These travels along the shore of the 
lake call to mind the early maps, tracing 
the shore lines made by these explorers, 
and a fact of local interest is, that in all 
probability the shore line here at Evanston, 
in the seventeenth century, extended much 
farther into the lake — how much cannot be 
told from the maps, as they were not drawn 
to scale. This fact appears from a large 
bay shown on the maps immediately north 
of the site of our city, indicating that the 
shore to the south has since been washed 
away. The maps referred to are (i) one 

called Marquette's map, Hist, of Ills., by 
Sidney Breese, p. 78; (2) map copied by 
Parkman found in the "Archives of the Ma- 
rine" at Paris, dated 1683— "may, in fact, 
have been one drawn by Joliet from recol- 
lection" ; (3) Joliet's earliest map (1673- 
74). "Windsor's Geographical Discoveries 
in the Interior of North America"; (4) 
Haines' "American Indian," p. 344. 

On the map first mentioned Marquette 
locates a copper mine near Evanston. This 
was probably done from tales of the In- 
dians describing such mines as being to the 
north, and Marquette misunderstanding the 

Indian Tribes. — For two hundred 
years preceding the advent of the white 
man to Illinois — and for how much longer 
we do not know — the territory lying be 
tween the Mississippi and the Atlantic, and 
from the Carolinas to Hudson Bay, was oc- 
cupied by two great families of Indian 
tribes, distinguished by their languages. All 
this vast wilderness, with the exception of 
New York, a part of Ohio and part of 
Canada, was the country of the tribes 
speaking the Algonquin language and dia- 
lects. "Like a great island in the midst of 
the Algonquins lay the country of the Iro- 
quois." The true Iroquois, or Five Nations, 
often called the Six Nations, occupied Cen- 
tral and Western New York, and the re- 
mainder of this linguistic group contiguous 
territory to the west, in Ohio and Lower 
Canada. (The only exception to this gen- 
eral statement is the Winnebagoes of Dah- 
cotah stock, who were at Green Bay and 
in Southern Wisconsin, and a few scatter- 
ing bands of the Dahcotahs, who were at 
times on the eastern banks of the Missis- 

All the Indians who have held and occu- 
pied this part of Illinois as their homes, so 
far back as history tells us, or can be ascer- 
tained during the past four hundred years, 



were of the Algonquin family ; and while 
scattering bands of the Sacs and Foxes 
(Outagamies), Miamis, Ottawas and other 
Algonquin tribes, and also the Kickapoos, 
Shawaneese, Sioux and Winnebagoes, have 
at times, roamed over and, perhaps, for very 
brief periods, in roving bands occupied the 
lands lying along the western shores of 
Lake Michigan in this locality, the Indian 
ownership, as indicated by extended occu- 
pancy, was confined almost, if not entirely, 
to the tribes of the Illinois and the Potta- 
watomies. Therefore, to those two tribes 
and their eastern enemies, the Iroquois, 
who at times paid unwelcome visits to their 
western neighbors, I direct your attention. 

It must be borne in mind that Chicago 
was as important a point to the Indian as 
it has since been to the white man, partly 
on account of the portage leading to the 
Desplaines River, and. as the lake was the 
great water highway, so also was its west- 
ern shore an important highway for these 
Indian tribes when they traveled by land. 

[The early explorers and missionaries 
often mention a tribe called by them the 
"Mascoutins," and on some of the very 
early maps of this locality appears the name 
of such a tribe as occupying parts of north- 
ern Illinois. The better opinion is. there 
never was in fact such a tribe of Indians. 
This word — "Mascoutins" — in the Algon- 
quin language means people of the prairie 
or meadow country, and it was applied, it 
seems, indiscriminately to indicate the lo- 
cality from which the Indians it was ap- 
plied to had emigrated or were located. 
Haines' "American Indian." p. 151.] 

It is claimed by several reliable writers 
that, from 1700 or 1702 to 1770, the coun- 
try about Chicago had no fixed Indian pop- 
ulation, but that the only Indian residents 
were roving bands of Iroquois and "North- 
ern Indians." (See Andreas' "Hist, of Chi- 
cago," Mason's "Illinois.") 

The Iroquois. — The Iroquois have re- 
ceived the enthusiastic admiration of 
many writers ; the best, and some of the 
worst, traits of Indian character found its 
highest development among them ; they are 
designated by one enthusiast as "the In- 
dians of Indians." And they are well 
worthy of mention in our local history, for, 
after exterminating and subduing their 
nearest neighbors, including the Hurons, 
the Eries and other tribes speaking the 
same language, their thirst for conquest 
led them westward from their far away 
eastern homes ; their war parties penetrated 
the intervening wilderness of forest and 
pJain, navigated the western rivers and 
great lakes, and destroyed or drove their 
enemies in terror before them across the 
prairies of Illinois and along the western 
shore of Lake Michigan. Distance, hard- 
ships, winter and time expended in travel, 
presented no obstacles to them, and they 
scattered, and all but destroyed, the great 
and powerful Algonquin tribes of the Illi- 
nois, from which our State takes its name ; 
and, as early as 1660, they were known to 
have pursued their ancient enemies, the 
Hurons or Wyandots, across our State. 
(Mason's "Land of the Illinois," p. 4.) 

The Iroquois are thus described by Park- 
man ("Conspiracy of Pontiac," p. 7) : 
"Foremost in war, foremost in eloquence, 
foremost in their savage arts of policy, 
. . . they extended their conquests and 
their depredations from Quebec to the 
Carolinas, and from the western prairies to 
the forests of Maine. . . . On the west 
they exterminated the Eries, and Andastes, 
and spread havoc and dismay among the 
tribes of the Illinois. . . . The Indians 
of New England fled at the first peal of the 
Mohawk war cry. . . and all Canada 
shook with the fury of their onset. . . . 
The blood besmeared conquerors roamed 
like wolves among the burning settlements, 



and the colony trembled on the brink of 
ruin. . . Few tribes could match them in 
prowess, constancy, moral energy or intel- 
lectual vigor." They, in turn, and within 
a quarter of a century (1650- 1672), exter- 
minated four powerful tribes, the Wyan- 
dots, the Neutral Nation, the Andastes and 
the Eries, and reduced the ancient and pow- 
erful Hurons, from whom the great lake 
takes its name, to a small band of terror- 
stricken fugitives; their ferocity and tor- 
ture of captives were revolting traits in 
their character ; they were the worst of con- 
querors and their lust of blood and do- 
minion is without parallel in Indian history. 

Mr. Mason says of them ("Land of the 
Illinois," pp. 113,114): "Though number- 
ing but 2,500 warriors, their superior weap- 
ons and experience in warfare had enabled 
them to defeat and finally exterminate all 
their neighbors. . . . They destroyed 
more than thirty nations ; caused the death 
of more than 600,000 persons within eighty 
years, and rendered the country about the 
great lakes a desert" — and Mr. Mason's 
statement had ample corroboration. 

Such were the Indians who were often 
transient residents of this locality before 
the coming of the white man, and their 
depredations furnish the basis for much 
of the historical references to the process 
of self-extermination of the Indian, by the 
wars among themselves in progress when 
the white man first saw the American In- 

The French were never successful in gain- 
ing the friendship of the Iroquois tribes, 
as they were with almost all the other In- 
dians of the North and Northwest ; but the 
Iroquois were the friends of the English 
and Dutch. 

In Colden's "History of the Five Na- 
tions," printed in the old English style of 
that day (1750), the author, in describing 
one of the campaigns between the French 

and English, in 1693, where Peter Schuyler, 
a Major of the New York Militia, was in 
charge of the English and their Indian al- 
lies, the Iroquois, says : 

"It is true that the English were in great 
want of Provisions at that time. . . . 
The Indians eat the Bodies of the French 
that they found. Col. Schuyler (as he told 
me himself) going among the Indians at 
that Time was invited to eat broth with 
them, which some of them had ready boiled, 
which he did, till they, putting the Ladle 
deep into the Kettle to take out more. 
brought out a French Man's Hand, which 
put an end to his Appetite." 

The quaint humor in this record of an 
Englishman eating such French broth in 
the sev.enteenth century, or at any subse- 
quent time, for that matter, and losing his 
appetite, needs no comment; the author 
may unconsciously have offered a fair ex- 
planation of this circumstance, for he says 
in another connection, "Schuyler was brave, 
but he was no Soldier." 

The Illinois. — In the year 1615, five 
years before the landing of the Mayflower, 
Champlain reached Lake Huron. Upon his 
crude map of New France appears indica- 
tions that he then heard and knew of the 
far-away prairie land, in which dwelt the 
tribes of the Illinois— the land of the Buf- 
falo. (Mason, supra.) Jean Xicolet saw or 
heard of the Illinois again in 1638 and two 
young French explorers again in 1655 (Ma- 
son, Id.) October i. 1665, ten years later, 
the Illinois sent a delegation to attend 
an Indian Council at the Great Chippewa 
(Ojibway) Village, on Lake Superior, with 
reference to war with the Sioux, which 
Claude Allouez attended and there ad- 
dressed the many Northern tribes assembled 
in council, assuring them of the friendship 
and protection of the French, who would 
"smooth the path between the Chippewas 
and Quebec, brush the pirate canoes from 



the intervening rivers and leave the Iro- 
quois no alternative but death and destruc- 
tion." (Brown's "History of Illinois," p. 
115.) There is abundant evidence to show 
that, during the preceding years, the Illi- 
nois had suffered greatly by wars with the 
Sioux from the West and with the Iroquois 
from the East. 

In 1673 Joliet and Marquette found the 
Illinois on the western bank of the Missis- 
sippi and on the Illinois River, where there 
were many villages; one village found by 
these explorers consisting of seventy-four 
cabins, each containing several families. 
In 1675 Marquette paid his second visit to 
the same locality and "summoned them to 
a grand council on the Great Meadow be- 
tween the Illinois River and the modern 
village of Utica. Here five hundred chiefs 
and old men were seated in a ring ; behind 
stood 1,500 youths and warriors and, be- 
hind them, all the women and children of 
the village. Marquette standing in the 
midst," told them the story of Christ and the 
Virgin (Parkman's "La Salle," 69) ; Al- 
louez visited them again in 1677. 

In 1680 Tonty and Hennepin found the 
lodges of the great Indian town, 460 in 
number, constructed of poles "in shape like 
the arched tops of a baggage wagon," cov- 
ered with mats of rushes, closely inter- 
woven ; each contained three or four fires ; 
the greater part served for two families. 
The population has been variously esti- 
mated at 2,400 families, 1,200 warriors and 
6,000 souls. "The lodges were built along 
the river bank for the distance of a mile, 
sometimes far more." (Parkman's "La 
.Salle," 156.) 

Among the varying estimates as to pop- 
ulation of the Illinois tribes (none of them 
very accurate), one early Jesuit writer 
(1658) describes their number at "about 
100,000 souls, with sixty villages and quite 
20,000 warriors." (Mason, Id., 4.) "Their 

great Metropolis, near Utica, in La Salle 
County, was the largest city ever built by 
northern natives." (Caton, "The Last of 
the Illinois.") Mr. Mason locates the vil- 
lage four miles below the present city of 
Ottawa. ("Land of the Illinois," p. 44.) 

These facts indicate not only a powerful 
and populous nation, but their cemeteries, 
traditions, implements and cultivated fields, 
a long residence in the same locality — how 
many the years or how many the centuries 
can never be known. 

Their most permanent homes were along 
the Illinois River, but they seem to have had 
entire control of all the northeastern por- 
tion of Illinois, as far back as any record 
can be found and to the time of the occupa- 
tion by the Pottawatomies. The Chicago 
portage seems to have been a frequent and 
popular rendezvous, and they were so iden- 
tified with this locality that Lake Michigan 
was generally known to the early explorers 
as the "Lake of the Illinois." 

The Illinois were a kindly people : hos- 
pitable, affable and humane ; and it was said 
of them by one of the Jesuit missionaries, 
"\\'hen they meet a stranger they utter a 
cry of joy, caress him and give him every 
proof of friendship." They lived by hunt- 
ing and tilling of the soil, raising great 
crops of Indian corn and storing away a 
surplus for future use; they were great 
travelers by land, but, unlike most northern 
Indian tribes, used canoes but little ; they 
had permanent dwellings, as well as port- 
able lodges ; they roamed many months of 
the year among the prairies and forests of 
their great country, to return again and 
join in the feasts and merry-making, when 
their whole population gathered in the vil- 
lages. These habits of travel indicate that 
they were frequently along the western 
shore of the lake. 

In September, 1680, soon after La Salle 
and Tonty reached the Illinois country, 



and while Tonty was still there, the Iro- 
quois from New York again attacked the 
Illinois. "With great slaughter they defeat- 
ed this hitherto invincible people; laid 
waste their great city and scattered them 
in broken bands over their wide domain. 
From this terrible blow the Illinois never 
recovered." (Caton, "Last of the Illinois"; 
Mason, Id., pp. 99-103.) 

During the succeeding century the Illi- 
nois — lovers of peace, who had welcomed 
the explorer and the missionary — broken in 
spirit, their courage gone, decimated by 
drink and disease and scattered by their 
enemies, struggled with waning fortunes, 
ending their existence in the historic trag- 
edy of Starved Rock, about the year 1770, 
from which but eleven of their number 

An Indian boy — a Pottawatomie — saw 
the last remnant of this once proud and 
powerful nation, brave warriors, their wo- 
men and little children, huddled together 
upon the half acre of ground that crowns 
the summit of Starved Rock ; saw the fierce 
and war-like Pottawatomies and Ottawas 
swarm for days around them, and perform 
by the torture of siege and starvation what 
they could not do by force of arms. When 
the little stock of food was gone, and de- 
spair drove the Illinois to make the last 
brave dash for liberty in the darkness of 
the stormy night, he heard the yells and 
clash of the fighting warriors and the dying 
shrieks of the helpless women and children. 
Years afterward, when this Indian lad 
(Meachelle) had grown to be the principal 
chief of the Pottawatomies, he related these 
incidents to Judge Caton. Let him who 
cares for tragedy read what the learned 
Judge says of this — the last of the Illinois. 

The Pottawatomies. — The Pottawato- 
mies were of the Algonquin tribes. Their 
power was severely felt by the British 
when at war with the French and in the 

later Indian war led by Pontiac. When 
Allouez and the other Jesuit Fathers first 
visited Green Bay, in 1670, the Pottawato- 
mies were living along its shores, and these 
Jesuits are probably the first white men who 
saw them in their homes. Green Bay at 
that time was their permanent abode, 
though they roamed far away and extended 
their visits over much of the territory 
around Lake Superior, where delegations 
of them were seen as early as 1665, and in 
1670, '71 and '72 by the Jesuit Fathers, 
whom they frequently visited and invited 
to their homes at Green Bay. In those days 
they were not known in this locality, for 
Joliet and Marquette, returning from the 
Mississippi and the Illinois country in 1674, 
met none of the Pottawatomies in this re- 

The date when they left Green Bay is not 
certain, or whether they emigrated from 
there as a whole or in parties, but it is a 
matter of history that, early in the eigh- 
teenth century (authorities differ as to the 
date), they scattered to the south and east 
and, thereafter, occupied the Southern 
Peninsula of Michigan, Northeastern Illi- 
nois and the northern part of Indiana. 
Their advance into Illinois was sometimes 
accomplished with good-natured tolerance 
on the part of the Illinois tribes, and some- 
times by actual violence. This emigration 
divided the tribe into two rather distinct 
classes, so that we often find, even in re- 
cent Government reports, the Pottawato- 
mies of Michigan and Indiana designated 
as those of the Woods, and those of Illinois 
as those of the Prairie, or "The Prairie 

The exclusive possession of this territory 
by the Pottawatomies dates from the siege 
of Starved Rock and the extinction of the 
Illinois. The Pottawatomies and Ottawas 
supposed that the Illinois were accessory to 
the murder of Pontiac, who was killed in 



1769 by an Illinois Indian, bribed for the 
deed with a barrel of whiskey. They loved 
and obeyed this great Indian chieftain of 
the Oattawas and wreaked dire vengeance 
for his death upon the luckless Illinois, and 
the date of the massacre at Starved Rock 
and their permanent occupation of this ter- 
ritory is generally fixed as soon after Pon- 
tiac's death. No record of their permanent 
residence at Green Bay succeeds this date. 

The Pottawatomies were of commanding 
importance in this locality thereafter, and 
even before, for in 1763 they sent a delega- 
tion of 450 warriors to the Algonquin Con- 
ference at Niagara Falls, and, as we all 
know, they were the last Indians to yield 
their place in this State to the inevitable 
westward march of the white man, when 
the tomahawk gave way forever to the 

As already stated, the Pottawatomies of 
the Woods became, in time, a different peo- 
ple than their western brothers ; they were 
susceptible to the influence of civilization 
and religion ; took kindly to agriculture to 
supplement the fruits of the chase. 

It was very different, however, with the 
Illinois Pottawatomies — the prairie In- 
dians. Judge Caton says of them: "They 
despised the cultivation of the soil as too 
mean even for their women and children, 
and deemed the captures of the chase the 
only fit food for a valorous people." They 
paid little attention to the religion of the 
white man. 

"If they understood something of the 
principles of the Christian religion which 
were told them, they listened to it as a 
sort of theory which might be well adapted 
to the white man's condition, but was not 
fitted for them, nor they for it. They en- 
joyed the wild, roving life of the prairie, 
and, in common with most all other native 
Americans, were vain of their prowess and 
manhood, both in war and in the chase. 

They did not settle down for a great length 
of time in a given place, but roamed across 
the broad prairies, from one grove or belt 
of timber to another, either in single fami- 
lies or in small bands, packing their few 
effects, their children, and infirm on their 
little Indian ponies. They always traveled 
in Indian file upon well-beaten trails, con- 
necting, by the most direct routes, promi- 
nent trading posts. These native highways 
served as guides to our early settlers, who 
followed them with as much confidence as 
we now do the roads laid out and worked 
by civilized man." 

Schoolcraft says they were tall of stature, 
fierce and haughty. 

The portable wigwams of the Pottawato- 
mies were made of flags or rushes, woven 
and lapped ingeniously together. This ma- 
terial was wound around a framework of 
poles, meeting at the top. Through a hole 
in the apex of the roof, left for the purpose, 
the smoke escaped from the fire in the cen 
ter; the floor was generally of mats of the 
same material spread around the fire. Their 
beds were of buffalo robes and deer skins 
thrown over the mats. The door consisted 
of a simple opening covered with a mat or 

Chicago was an important rendezvous 
for them, as it had previously been for the 
Illinois. There they signed an important 
treaty with the United States in 182 1. ced- 
ing some 5,000,000 acres in Michigan and 
other treaties, which will receive later men- 
tion, and here they held, in 1835. immedi- 
ately preceding their removal to the West, 
their last grand council and war dance in 
the presence of the early settlers of Chica- 
go and 5,000 of their tribe. 

The Ottawas were the firm allies of the 
Pottawatomies. as were also the Chippewas 
(Ojibways) and all three tribes were close- 
ly related, not only as friends and allies, but 
by ties of blood and kinship, and they gen- 



erally joined in signing treaties ; some 
writers assert that they were formerly one 

In the war of 1812 the Pottawatomies, 
at least in part, were against the United 
States, although they fought the British 
under Pontiac in 1763. In the Black Hawk 
War of 1832 they remained true to our 
Government, although it was with difficulty 
that some of their young warriors were re- 
strained from joining the Sacs and Foxes. 
They participated in the Battle of Tippeca- 
noe, and stamped their names forever upon 
the history of Chicago by the Fort Dear- 
born massacre. They were not only actively 
concerned in all the warlike transactions of 
their time, but among their numbers were 
some of the most noted orators of history. 

Ouilmette Reservation and Family. 
— The Ouilmette reservation and its for- 
mer occupants and owners have been the 
subject of much solicitude and investiga- 
tion, not entirely for historical purposes, 
but more especially that the white man 
might know that he had a good, white 
man's title to the Indian's land. The south- 
ern boundary was Central Street, or a line 
due west from the light-house; the eastern 
boundary the lake ; the northern boundary 
a little south of Kenilworth, and the west- 
ern boundary a little west of the western 
terminus of the present street-car line on 
Central Street, from which it will be seen 
that some 300 acres of the Reservation falls 
within the city limits of Evanston, while the 
remainder includes almost the whole of our 
nearest neighbor to the north — the Village 
of Wilmette. 

The reservation takes its name from its 
original owner, Archange Ouilmette, wife 
of Antoine Ouilmette, described in the or- 
iginal Treaty and Patent from the United 
States as a Pottawatomie woman. The 
name given the village — Wilmette — origi- 
nates from the phonetic spelling of the 
French name "O-u-i-1-m-e-t-t-e." 

There are many interesting facts regard- 
ing Ouilmette and his family, some of which 
I will mention : Antoine. the husband, was 
a Frenchman, who, like many of his coun- 
trymen, came to the West in early days and 
married an Indian wife. He was one of the 
first white residents of Chicago ; some of 
the authorities say that, with the exception 
of Marquette, he was the very first. He 
was born at a place called Lahndrayh, near 
Montreal, Canada, in the year 1760. His 
first employment was with the American 
Fur Company, in Canada, and he came to 
Chicago in the employ of that company in 
the year 1790. 

This striking figure in our local history 
is sadly neglected in most, if not all, the his- 
torical writings. Almost every one knows 
that the Village of Wilmette was named 
after its former owner ; many misinformed 
persons speak of him as an Indian chief ; 
a few of the writers merely mention his 
name as one of the early settlers of Chi- 
cago. And that has been the beginning and 
the end of his written history. 

Ouilmette's occupation cannot be more 
definitely stated than to say that, at one 
time, he was an employe of John Kinzie, 
and in turn Indian trader, hunter and farm- 
er. He was a type of the early French 
voyageurs, who lived and died among their 
Indian friends, loving more the hardships 
and excitement of the Western frontier 
than the easier life of Eastern civilization. 

If a detailed account of all he saw and 
did could be written we would have a com- 
plete history of Chicago, Evanston and all 
the North Shore during the eventful fifty 
years intervening between 1790 and 1840. 

It appears from a letter signed with "his 
mark," written and witnessed by one James 
Moore, dated at Racine, June i, 1839, that 
he came to Chicago in July, 1790. A fac- 
simile of this letter, which is addressed to 
Mr. John H. Kinzie, appears in Blanchard's 
History of Chicago (p. 574), and contains 



some interesting facts, both historical and 
personal. He says: 
"I caim into Chicago in the year 1790 in July 

witness old Air. Veaux . . . and Mr Griano 
. . . These men ware living in the country Be- 
fore the war with the winnebagoes. Trading with 
them I saw the Indians Brake open the Door of 
my house and also the Door of Mr. Kinzie's 
House. At first there was only three Indians come. 
They told me there was Forty more coming and 
they told me to run. i Did So. in nine days all I 
found left of my things was the feathers of my 
beds scattered about The floor, the amount Dis- 
troyed By them at that time was about Eight 
hundred Dollars. Besides your fathar and me 
Had about four hundred hogs Distroyed by the 
Saim Indians and nearly at the Saim time, fur- 
ther particulars when I See you. I wish you to 
write me whether it is best for me to come thare 
or for you to come hear and how son it must be 

"Yours with Respect" 

Antone X Ouilmette" 

"Jas. Moore" mark 

Ouilmette owned and occupied one of 
the four cabins that constituted the settle- 
ment of Chicago in 1803. The other resi- 
dents were Kinzie, Burns and Lee (Kirk- 
land's "Story of Chicago," "Andreas" His- 
tory of Chicago," Mrs. William Whistler's 
letter, written in 1875.) 

Ouilmette had eight children, four sons 
and four daughters, viz.: — Joseph, Louis, 
Francis, Mitchell, Elizabeth, Archange, Jos- 
ette and Sophia; also an adopted daughter, 
Archange Trombla, who, on August 3, 
1830, married John Mann, who in early 
times ran a ferry at Calumet. (Authority 
John Wentworth and Sophia Martell, the 
only surviving daughter of Antoine Ouil- 

Ouilmette was in Chicago at the time of 
the massacre of the garrison of Old Fort 
Dearborn in 1812 by the Pottawatomies, 
and his family was instrumental, at that 
time, in saving the lives of at least two 
whites. Mrs. John H. Kinzie in her book, 
"Wau-bun" (the early day), describes the 
circumstances : 

"The next day after Black Partridge, the Pot- 
tawatomie Cliief, had saved the life of Mrs. Helm 
in the massacre on the lake shore (commemorated 

by the monument recently erected at the place), a 
band of "the most hostile and implacable of all the 
tribes of the Pottawatomies" arrived at Chicago 
and, disappointed at their failure to participate in 
the massacre and plunder, were ready to wreak 
vengeance on the survivors, including Mrs. Helm 
and other members of Mr. Kinzie's family. Mrs. 
Kinzie says ("Wau-bun" pages 235, 240J : 

"Black Partridge had watched their approach, 
and his fears were particularly awakened for the 
safety of Mrs. Helm (Mr. Kinzie's step-daughter). 
By his advice she was made to assume the ordi- 
nary dress of a French woman of the country. . 

"in this disguise she was conducted by Black 
Partridge himself to the house of Ouilmette, a 
Frenchman with a half-breed wife, who formed 
a part of the establishment of Mr. Kinzie, and 
whose dwelling was close at hand. . . It so 
happened that the Indians came first to this house 
in their search for prisoners. As they approached, 
the inmates, fearful that the fair complexion and 
general appearance of Mrs. Helm might betray 
her for an American, raised a large feather bed 
and placed her under the edge of it, upon the 
bedstead, with her face to the wall. Mrs. Bison, 
the sister of Ouilmette's wife, then seated herself 
with her sewing upon the foot of the bed." 

It was a hot day in August and Mrs. 
Helm suffered so much from her position 
and was so nearly suffocated that she en- 
treated to be released and given up to the 
Indians. "I can but die," said she ; "let them 
put an end to my misery at once." When 
they assured her that her discovery would 
be the death of all of them, she remained 

"The Indians entered and she could occasion- 
ally see them from her hiding place, gliding about 
and stealthily inspecting every part of the room, 
though without making any ostensible search, un- 
til apparently satisfied that there was no one con- 
cealed, they left the house. . . All this time 
Mrs. Bison had kept her seat upon the side of the 
bed, calmly sorting and arranging the patch work 
of the quilt on which she was then engaged and 
preserving the appearance of the utmost tranquil- 
lity. althfJiigh she knew not but the next moment 
she might receive a tomahawk in her brain. Her 
self command unquestionably saved the lives of 
all present. . . From Ouilmette's house the 
party proceeded to the dwelling of Mr. Kinzie." 

The Indians had just left Ouilmette's 
house when one Griffin, a non-commis- 
sioned officer, who had escaped and had 
been concealed among the currant bushes of 
Ouilmette's garden, climbed into Ouil- 
mette's house through a window to "hide 
from the Indians. "The family stripped him 



of his uniform and arrayed him in a suit of 
deer skin, with belt, moccasins and pipe, 
like a French engage," in which disguise he 
also escaped. 

After the massacre, when John Kinzie 
and all the other white settlers and their 
families fled from the place, Ouilmette and 
his family remained, and he was the only 
white resident of Chicago for the following 
four vears. i8i2 to i8i6. (Kirkland's "Story 
of Chicago" ; Hurlbut's "Chicago Antiqui- 

In 1814 Alexander Robinson (afterwards 
chief of the Pottawatomies) came to Chi- 
cago, and he and Ouilmette cultivated the 
field formerly used as the garden of old 
Fort Dearborn; they raised good crops of 
corn and sold the crop of 1816 to Captain 
Bradley, after his arrival at Chicago to re- 
build the fort. (.A.ndreas' "History of Chi- 

He was still in Chicago in 1821. (An- 
dreas', Id. : Kirkland, Id.) 

He had horses and oxen and other stock 
in abundance. In early days he kept a 
small store in Chicago and used to tow 
boats into the Chicago River with his ox 
teams. He also furnished the Fort Dear- 
born garrison with meat and fuel and car- 
ried on trading operations with the Indians 
along the North Shore and in Canada, 
where he frequently went. (Authority, 
Sophia Martell.) 

Mrs. Archibald Clybourne says that Ouil- 
mette raised sheep when he lived in Chica- 
go, and that her mother, Mrs. Galloway, 
used to purchase the wool of him with 
which she spun yarn and knit stockings for 
the Fort Dearborn soldiers. 

Ouilmette was a thrifty Frenchman. In 
1825 he was one of the principal taxpayers 
in Chicago and paid $4.00 taxes that year 
upon property valued at $400, as appears 
by an old tax roll, dated July 25th of that 
year (Blanchard's "History of Chicago," p. 

517), from which rate of taxation it would 
seem that the burden of "taxing bodies," of 
which we hear so much in these days, began 
very early in Chicago's history. With one 
exception, none of the fourteen taxpayers 
of that year owned property in excess of 
$1,000. John Kinzie's holdings appear on 
the same roll as worth $500, while those of 
John B. Beaubien are set down at $1,000; 
the lowest man on the list is Joseph La 
Framboise, who paid fifty cents on property 
valued at $50, and Ouilmette's taxes appear 
considerably above the average in amount. 
He also appears as a voter upon the poll 
book of an election held at Chicago on 
August 7, 1826, at which election it is said 
he voted for John Quincy Adams for Pres- 
ident (Blanchard, Id., p. 519), which is the 
last record I have been able to find of his 
residence in Chicago. 

The Treaty of Prairie du Chien, in de- 
scribing the boundaries of a part of the 
lands ceded by the Indians, and dated July 
29, 1829, begins the description as follows: 

"Beginning on the western shore of Lake 
Michigan, at the northeast corner of the 
field of Antoine Ouilmette, who lives near 
Gross Point, about twelve (12) miles north 
from Chicago, thence due west to the Rock 
River," which is the first evidence I have 
found of Ouilmette's residence in this vi- 
cinity, although he was married to Arch- 
ange in 1796 or 1797 at "Gross Point," or 
what is now Wilmette Village, this being 
the first North Shore wedding of which 
there is any history. (Authority, Sophia 

Ouilmette was a Roman Catholic. In 
April, 1833, he joined with Alexander Rob- 
inson, Billy Caldwell, several of the Beau- 
biens and others, in a petition to the Bishop 
of the diocese of Missouri, at St. Louis, 
asking for the establishment of the first 
Catholic Church in Chicago. The petition 
(written in French) says: "A priest should 



be sent there before other sects obtain the 
upper hand, which very likely they will try 
to do." The early enterprise of the church 
is demonstrated by the fact that the peti- 
tion was received on April i6th and grant- 
ed the next day. (Andreas' "History of 

From the foregoing facts it is evident 
that Ouilmette located in Chicago in 1790, 
and lived there for over thirty-si.K years, 
and that sor-e tir-? bc'^'pcn 1826 and 1829 
he located within the present limits of Ev- 
anston or Wilmette Village, and certainly 
within the Reservation. 

Mrs. Kinzie took Ouilmette's daughter 
Josette with her to the Indian Agency, of 
which her husband was in charge at Old 
Fort Winnebago in Wisconsin, on her re- 
turn from Chicago in 1831. She describes 
her C'Wau-bun," 300) as " a little bound 
girl, a bright, pretty child of ten years of 
age. She had been at the Saint Joseph's 
Mission School." Mrs. Kinzie, at the time 
of the Black Hawk war (1832) fled from 
Fort Winnebago to Green Bay in a canoe 
and took this same little Josette Ouilmette 
with her ("Wau-bun," 426). 

That Josette was a protege of the Kinzie 
family, and that they took a lively interest 
in her welfare, further appears from the 
treaty of 1833 with the Pottawatomies at 
Chicago. She is personally provided for, 
probably at the demand of the Kinzies, in 
the following words: "To Josette Ouil- 
mette (John H. Kinzie, Trustee), $200." 
The other children did not fare so well, for 
the Treaty further provides, "To Antoine 
Ouilmette's children, $300." 

Archange Ouilmette, wife of Antoine, 
was a squaw of the Pottawatomie tribe, be- 
longing to a band of that tribe located at 
the time she was married at what is now 
Wilmette Village, although the band were 
constant rovers over what is now Illinois, 
Michigan, Indiana and Wisconsin. While 

Archange was of the Pottawatomie tribe her 
father was a white man, a trader in the em- 
ploy of the American Fur Company, a 
Frenchman, bearing the rather striking 
name of Francois Chevallier. Archange 
was born at Sugar Creek, Michigan, about 
1764 and died at Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 
1840. (Authority, Sophia Martell, daugh- 
ter, and Israel Martell, grandson of An- 

John Wentworth says in his reminis- 
cences that Ouilmette's daughter, Eliza- 
beth, married for her first husband en May 
II, 1830, Michael Welch, "the first Irish- 
man in Chicago." 

This wedding, with the son of Erin 
groom and the Pottawatomie bride, was 
celebrated in an old log cabin that stood 
until some two years ago (1903) on the 
east side of Sheridan Road, at Kenilworth, 
and about two blocks north of the Kenil- 
worth water tower. I secured a kodak pic- 
ture of this log cabin shortly before it was 
removed, copy of which appears on an 
adjoining page. This cabin was built 
by one John Doyle, who, considering his 
name and date of residence, may be safely 
designated "the first Irishman of the North 
Shore," for I am sure there are few who 
can successfully dispute my statement, nor 
do I see any reason why the North Shore 
should not have its "first Irishman" as well 
as Chicago. 

My authority as to this being the house 
where the wedding was celebrated is Mr. 
Charles S. Raddin, of Evanston, who se- 
cured the information some years ago from 
Mrs. Archibald Clybourne, who may have 
been present at the wedding, although Mr. 
Raddin neglected to ask her. Mr. Raddin 
was further neglectful in failing to get the 
name of the best man and the maid of hon- 
or, and whether they were Irish or Potta- 
watomie. The ceremony was performed by 
John B. Beaubien, a Justice of the Peace, as 



is shown beyond question by the records of 
Peoria County. 

Ouihnette and his family lived in this 
cabin at the time of this wedding, and for 
some time thereafter (authority, Sophia 
Martell, who also corroborates Mr. Raddin 
regarding her sister's marriage), although 
their most permanent abode was about a 
mile south of there, as will be shown later. 

The Treaty of Prairie du Chien with the 
Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawatomies, by 
which the Reservation was ceded to Ouil- 
mette's wife, was concluded July 29, 1829. 
Among other provisions of land for In- 
dians and others, Article 4 of the Treaty 
provides as follows: "To Archange Ouil- 
mette. a Pottawatomie woman, wife of An- 
toine, two sections for herself and her chil- 
dren on Lake Michigan, south of and ad- 
joining the northern boundary of the ces- 
sion herein made by the Indians aforesaid 
to the United States. . . . The tracts 
of land herein stipulated to be granted shall 
never be leased or conveyed by the grantees, 
or their heirs, to any person whatever, with- 
out the permission of the President of the 
United States." 

The land was surveyed by the Govern- 
ment surveyors in 1842, and the patent 
therefor was issued October 29th of the 
same year. 

Site of Evanston Lands Acquired 
From the Indians. — This treaty is of 
special historical interest. By it the United 
States acquired title from the Indians to all 
of the land within the city limits of Evans- 
ton and great tracts to the west, bounded 
as follows : Beginning at the north line of 
Ouilmette's reservation, or a little south of 
Kenilworth on the Lake Shore, due west 
to the Rock River, thence down the 
river and east of it to the Indian 
boundary line on Fo.x River, estab- 
lished by the treaty of 1816; thence 
northeasterly on that line to Lake Michi- 

gan, thence north along the lake shore to 
the place of beginning. (The line men- 
tioned as running "northeasterly to Lake 
Michigan" is the center of the street in 
Rogers Park, known for many years and 
in our records as the "Indian Boundary 
Road," now unfortunately changed by di- 
rection of the City Council of Chicago to 
"Rogers Avenue." It is about half way 
between Calvary Cemetery and the Rog- 
ers Park depot; crosses Clark Street or 
Chicago Avenue at the site of the old toll- 
gate and Justice Murphy's birthplace on 
the opposite corner). 

There should be active co-operation in 
restoring the name "Indian Boundary" to 
this highway. I am informed that the name 
was changed at the solicitation of Mr. Rog- 
ers' family. He was, no doubt, a worthy 
pioneer, but his name seems to have been 
sufficiently perpetuated by the name Rog- 
ers' Park, which was the former village 
now annexed to Chicago. There is, too, a 
railroad station there of that name, and 
many real estate subdivisions also bearing 
his name. This Indian Boundary line is 
not only a great land mark, but the treaty 
which fixed it had great historical signif- 
icance in the development of Illinois. This 
line is referred to in many maps, surveys, 
deeds and conveyances, is in part the divid- 
ing line between the cities of Chicago and 
Evanston, runs in a southwesterly direc- 
tion, intersecting other roads and streets 
in such manner as to make it an important 
and distinctive highway, the importance of 
which will grow more and more as the 
years go by. The disinclination of the 
City Council to disturb historical land- 
marks by changing the names of old high- 
ways should surely have been exercised in 
this instance, and one of the aldermen of 
that ward. Mr. W. P. Dunn, assures me 
that he agrees with this sentiment. 

This treaty also included a vast terri- 



lory lying between the Mississippi and 
Rock rivers in Illinois and Wisconsin, and 
was planned, it is said, with reference to 
the succeeding Treaty of Chicago in 1833, 
to finally clear Western Illinois and South- 
ern Wisconsin of the Indians. "By its pro- 
visions the Indians became completely 
hemmed in or surrounded. To use a com- 
mon saying in playing checkers, the In- 
dians were driven into the 'single corner' 
before they were aware of it." Haines, p 

This treaty was the entering wedge, de- 
signed, as above stated, to eventually oust 
the Pottawatomies and other tribes from 
Illinois and Wisconsin, and the manner in 
which its execution was secured reflects 
no credit upon our nation. If the writers 
who have investigated the subject can be 
relied upon, hardly any treaty with the In- 
dians ever made is subject to more just 

Story of the Ouilmette Reservation. — 
It is claimed by Elijah M. Haines, au- 
thor of "The American Indian," that the 
two sections of land constituting the Ouil- 
mette Reservation, were given to Ouil- 
mette's wife and children as a bribe for the 
husband's influence in securing the execu- 
tion of this treaty. Mr. Haines, late of 
Waukegan, was for some years Speaker of 
the Illinois House of Representatives, and 
spent a portion of each year, for many 
years, among the Indians. In his book he 
devotes some ten pages (550-560) to "the 
ingenious work in overreaching the In- 
dians in procuring the execution of this 
treaty," from which it appears, if Mr. 
Haines is correct, that plans were laid in 
advance by the Government's agents to 
carry it through by electing chiefs to fill 
vacancies in the Pottawatomie tribe, who 
were not only friendly to the whites, but 
who were parties to a prior conspiracy to 
dupe the Indians. As the author says, "the 

jury being thus successfully packed, the 
verdict was awaited as a matter of form." 
Mr. Haines seems to have reached this con- 
clusion after careful investigation, includ- 
ing personal interviews with some of the 
principals, among whom was Alexander 
Robinson, one of the chiefs who was elected 
at the very time the treaty was signed. Mr. 
Haines sets out a personal interview be- 
tween himself and Robinson on the sub- 
ject, which is as follows: 

"Mr. Robinson, when and how did you become 
a chief?" 

"Me made chief at the treaty of Prairie du 

"How did you happen to be made chief ?" 

"Old Wilmette, he come to me one day and 
he say: Dr. Wolcott" (then Indian agent at Chi- 
cago, who Mr. Haines says, planned the deal) 
"want me and Billy Caldwell to be chief. He 
ask me if I will. Me say yes, if Dr. Wolcott want 
me to be." 

"After the Indians had met together at Prairie 
du Chien for the Treaty, what was the first thing 
done ?" 

"The first thing they do they make me and Billy 
Caldwell chiefs; then we be chiefs . . . then 
we all go and make the treaty." 

Chiefs Robinson and Caldwell were hand- 
somely taken care of, both in this treatv 
and subsequent ones, in the way of an- 
nuities, cash and lands, as were also their 
friends. Archange Ouilmette, Indian wife 
of the man designated by Chief Robinson 
as "Old Wilmette," and her children thus, 
according to Mr. Haines, secured the two 
sections of land constituting the Reserva- 
tion under discussion, and which seems to 
show that Ouilmette was, indeed, as al- 
ready stated, a thrifty Frenchman. 

There is ample ground, however, for 
disagreement with Mr. Haines in his volun- 
tary criticism of Ouilmette in this trans- 
action. It must be borne in mind that 
Ouilmette and his family were not only 
friendly to the whites during the stirring 
and perilous times at Chicago in the War 
of 1812, but they themselves had suffered 
depredations at the hands of the Indians, 
as shown by Ouilmette's letter to John H. 



Kinzie. Then, too, he was occupying this 
very land, then of Httle value, and consid- 
ering his fidehty to the Government, not- 
withstanding his marriage to a Pottawato- 
mie wife, it would seem that this cession of 
these two sections of land, under the cir- 
cumstances, was entirely right and prob- 
ably very small compensation for his 
friendly services. Then, too, it must be re- 
membered that he did not get the land, but 
it went to his Pottawatomie wife and her 

Mr. Haines says of this transaction and 
of Dr. Wolcott's and Ouilmette's connec- 
tion with it (p. 557) : "In aid of 
this purpose, it seems he secured the 
services of Antoine Wilmette, a French- 
man, who had married an Indian 
wife of the Pottawatomie tribe, one 
of the oldest residents of Chicago, and a 
man of much influence with the Indians 
and a particular friend of Robinson's." 

It is fair to say that Mr. Haines excuses 
both Robinson and Caldwell for their action 
in the matter, on the ground that they had 
long been friendly to the whites and were 
misled into believing that the integrity of 
their white friends was as lasting as their 
own (p. 556). It is to be regretted that 
Mr. Haines did not express the same views 
as to Ouilmette, for history clearlv demon- 
strates that he was richly entitled to it. 

Ouilmette was also on hand when the 
Treaty of Chicago (1833) was negotiated, 
as he was at Prairie du Chien, for the 
treaty not only provides for the donations 
already mentioned to Chiefs Robinson and 
Caldwell, to Ouilmette's children and 
others, but he secured $800 for himself, as 
the treaty shows. Whether this was com- 
pensation for his hogs that had been "dis- 
troyed" some thirty years before by the In- 
dians, or as further compensation for his 
prior services at Prairie du Chien or at 
Chicago in 1812, is not disclosed, but it cer- 

tainly is evidence of his desire to see that 
his finances should not suffer in deals made 
with his wife's relations. 

Joseph Fountain, late of Evanston, now 
deceased, father-in-law of ex-Alderman 
Carroll, says in an affidavit dated in 1871, 
"that when he first came here he lived with 
Antoine Ouilmette; that at that time he 
(Antoine) was an old man, about 70 years 
of age, and was living upon the Reservation 
with his nephew, Archange, his wife, being 
then absent. . . . That within a year or 
two thereafter the children returned and 
lived with their father upon the Reservation 
The children went away again and return- 
ed again in 1844. They were then all over 
lawful age, had usual and ordinary intelli- 
gence of white people and were competent 
to manage and sell their property. . . . 

That he was intimate with the children 
and their father and after their return as- 
sisted them in building a house to live in on 
the Reservation. That during the last 
twenty (20) years the Indian heirs have 
not been back there. . . . That in the 
years 1852 and 1853 the land was not worth 
over $3.00 per acre." 

I find by inquiry of Mary Fountain, Jo- 
seph Fountain's widow, a very old lady, in 
Evanston, still living in I90I^ and by like 
inquiry of Mr. Benjamin F. Hill" and 
others, that the house just mentioned was 
built of logs, situated on the high bluffs on 
the lake shore, opposite, or a little north of 
Lake Avenue, in the Village of Wilmette, 
and that the former site of the house has 
long since, and within the memory of old 
residents been washed into the lake, many 
acres of land having been thus washed 
away. Mr. Hill says that this house was 
at one time occupied by Joel Stebbins, who 
used it as a tavern. 

IMrs. Fountain died in Evanston February 17, 1905. 

-Benjamin F. Hill died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Oc- 
tober 7. 19l).3 — his residence up ' to that time, however, 
having been m Evanston. 



The affidavit of Mr. Fountain indicates 
that Ouilmette hved on the Reservation un- 
til 1838. His letter of 1839 indicates a 
residence at Racine, at which place he had 
a farm for several prior years, and while 
living in Chicago, or at least a tract of 
land where he frequently went. (Author- 
ity, Sophia Martell.) 

Mr. Benjamin F. Hill says that he knew 
him about the year 1838; that he was then 
a very old man, rather small of stature, 
dark skinned and bowed with age ; that 
about that year he went away. He died 
at Council Bluffs, December i, 1841. 

Mr. Hill says that Mr. Fountain omits 
in his affidavit one item concerning the 
acquaintance between Ouilmette and Foun- 
tain, viz. : a lawsuit, in which Ouilmette 
prosecuted Fountain and others for tres- 
passing upon the Reservation by cutting 
timber, which resulted unfavorably to Ouil- 
mette ; that there was a large bill of court 
costs which Fountain's lawyer collected by 
having the Sheriff levy upon and sell a pair 
of fine Indian ponies belonging to Ouil- 
mette, which were his special pride, and 
that it was immediately after this incident 
that Ouilmette left the Reservation never 
to return. 

(The value of the timber probably ac- 
counts for the selection of this land by 
Ouilmette when the treaty was drawn.) 

There are many other interesting remin- 
iscences among old settlers of Evanston re- 
garding Ouilmette. One from William 
Carney, former Chief of Police of Evans- 
ton and for many years a Cook County 
Deputy Sheriff, who was born in Evanston, 
is to the effect that Ouilmette often went 
through Evanston, along the old Ridge 
trail on which the Carneys lived, on foot 
and always carrying a bag over his shoul- 
der; that the children were afraid of him, 
and that Carney's mother, when he was a 
small bov, used to threaten him with the 

punishment for misconduct of giving him to 
"Old Ouilmette," who would put him in the 
bag and carry young Carney home to his 
squaw. Mr. Carney says, "Then I used to 
be good" ; and it is local history that, in 
later years, my youthful associates used to 
say something to the same effect about be- 
ing good after an interview with Mr. Car- 
ney himself, when he had grown to man- 
hood and become the first Chief of Police 
of Evanston, his brother John constituting 
the remainder of the force. In those days, 
too, "Carney will get you if you don't look 
out !" was a common parental threat in 

As already shown, neither Archange 
Ouilmette nor her children could, under the 
treaty and patent, sell any of the land with- 
out the consent of the President of the 
United States. Consequently there is 
much data respecting the family, both in 
the Recorder's office of this county, in the 
form of affidavits and in the office of the 
Interior Department at Washington, es- 
pecially in the General Land Office and the 
office of Indian Affairs. To some of these 
documents I refer: 

By a petition dated February 22, 1844, 
to the President of the United States, 
signed by seven of the children of Ouil- 
mette (all except Joseph), it appears that 
Archange Ouilmette, the mother, died at 
Council Bluffs on November 25, 1840; that 
six of the children signing the petition then 
resided at Council Bluffs, and one (prob- 
ably the former little Josette) at Fort Win- 
nebago, Wisconsin Territory ; that in con- 
sequence of their living at a remote dis- 
tance, the land is deteriorating in value "by 
having much of its timber, which con- 
stitutes its chief worth, cut off and stolen 
by various individuals living near by," 
which would seem to indicate that people 
were not so good in those days in Evans- 
ton as they have been reputed to be in some 



later days, if the Chicago newspapers can 
be believed in this respect. The petition 
further says: 

"The home of your petitioners, with one 
exception, is at Council Bluffs, with the 
Pottawatomie tribe of Indians, with whom 
we are connected by blood, and that your 
petitioners cannot, with due regard to their 
feelings and interests, reside away from 
their tribe on said Reserve" ; also that 
they have been put to expense in em- 
ploying agents, whose employment has not 
been beneficial. 

The petition then asks leave to sell or 
lease the land, and the prayer concludes 
in the following words: 

"Or, that your Excellency will cause the 
Government of the United States to pur- 
chase back from us said Reserve of land, 
and pay us one dollar and twenty-five cents 
per acre therefor." 

"And your petitioners further show that 
they are now at Chicago on expense, wait- 
ing for the termination of this petition, and 
anxious to return home as soon as possible." 
and request action "without delay." 

As the result of this petition and subse- 
quent ones, Henry W. Clarke was ap- 
pointed a Special Indian Agent to make 
sale of the Reservation, or rather that part 
of it owned by the seven petitioners, so 
that a fair price could be obtained, and sale 
was made to real estate speculators during 
the years 1844 and 1845. I" the corre- 
spondence between the various departments 
of the Government with reference to the 
sale, appear the signatures of John H. Kin- 
zie, John Went worth (then member of 
Congress), William Wilkins, Secretary of 
War, President John Tyler, W. L. Marcy, 
Secretary of War ; also the signatures of 
Presidents James K. Polk and L'. S. 
Grant. ^ 

The south half of the Reservation, in- 
cluding all that is in Evanston (640 acres), 
sold for $1,000, or a little over $1.50 per 
acre. The north section was sold in sep- 
arate parcels for a larger sum. The cor- 
respondence tends to show that the seven 
Ouilmette children carried their money 
home with them, but as the Special Indian 
Agent had no compensation from the Gov- 
ernment and there were several lawyers en- 
gaged in the transaction, the amount that 
the Indians carried back to Council Bluffs 
can be better imagined than described. 

Joseph Ouilmette in the year 1844 took 
his share of the Reservation in severalty, 
deeding the remainder of the Reservation 
to his brothers and sisters, and they in turn 
deeding his share to him. The share that 
he took was in the northeastern part of the 
Reservation ; he secured the best price in 
making a sale and seemed inclined, not only 
to separate his property interests from his 
brothers and sisters, but to be more of a 
white man than an Indian, as he did not 
follow the family and the Pottawatomie 
tribe to the West for several years, but 
adopted the life of a Wisconsin farmer, re- 
moving later to the Pottawatomie Reserva- 
tion in Kansas. 

An affidavit made by Norman Clark, 
May 25, 1 87 1, states that Joseph Ouilmette 
was in 1853 a farmer, residing on his farm 
in Marathon county. Wis., "about 300 miles 
from Racine," and that the $460 he re- 
ceived for his share of the Reservation 
"was used in and about the improvement of 
his farm," upon which he lived for about 
seven years, and that he was capable of 
managing his affairs "as ordinary, full- 
blooded white farmers are" ; that from 
1850 to 1853 he carried on a farm within 
two miles of Racine, presumably on the 
land formerly owned by his father, An- 

It appears from various recorded affi- 



davits that all of the children of Ouil- 
mette are now dead. Such affidavits must 
have been made from hearsay and with a 
view of extinguishing upon the face of the 
records all possible adverese claims, for I 
find by investigation that a daughter of 
Ouilmette (Sophia Martell) is still (1905) 
living on the Pottawatomie Reservation in 
Kansas, at a very advanced age, but with a 
good memory that has served a useful 
purpose in supplying the writer with a few 
of the facts here noted. With this excep- 
tion, all of the children are dead, but many 
of their descendants are still living on this 
same Reservation, and several of them are 
people of intelligence and education, priz- 
ing highly the history of their ancestors. 

Mitchell Ouilmette, on May 2, 1832, (as 
John Went worth says) enlisted in the first 
"militia of the town of Chicago until all 
apprehension of danger from the Indians 
may have subsided" — probably referring to 
the Black Hawk War. Mr. Wentworth's 
authority is a copy of the enlistment roll, 
where, in transacting the copy, his name 
is stated as "Michael," an evident mistake 
in transcribing from the original signa- 

While it is true that Captain Heald, of 
Fort Dearborn, was notified on August 7 or 
9, 1812, of the declaration of war against 
England by a message carried by the 
Pottawatomie chief Win-a-mac, or Win- 
nemeg (the Catfish), from General Hull at 
Detroit, warning Captain Heald that the 
Post and Island of Mackinac had fallen 
into the hands of the British, of the conse- 
quent danger to the Chicago garrison, and 
the probable necessity of retiring to Fort 
Wayne, still it is stated upon good author- 
ity that Louis Ouilmette, son of Antoint, 
learned the same facts from a band of In- 
dians on the North Shore, who had come 
either from Mackinac or from that vicin- 
ity, and at once carried the information to 

the garrison several days before the arrival 
of Win-a-mac. (Authority, data in hands 
of C. S. Raddin.) 

The only relic of Antoine Ouilmette in 
the hands of the Evanston Historical So- 
. ciety is an old chisel, or tapping gouge, 
used by him in tapping maple trees in making 
maple sugar on the Reservation, at a point 
a little west and some two blocks north of the 
present Wilmette station of the Northwest- 
ern Railway, immediately west of Dr. B. C. 
Stolp's residence. This chisel, or gouge, 
was secured by Mr. Benjamin F. Hill in 
this sugar bush soon after Ouilmette went 
away, and there is not the slightest doubt 
of its being the former property of Ouil- 
mette ; for Mr. Hill, who has been quoted 
frequently in this paper, is not only the 
John Wentworth of Evanston in the mat- 
ter of being an early settler (1836), with a 
great fund of authentic information, but 
he is a man of force and intelligence, of ex- 
cellent memory, unquestionable integrity, 
and always interested in historical sub- 
jects, as his many valuable contributions 
to the Evanston Historical Society abun- 
dantly show. 

Convincing evidence of the shortness 
of the span between the wigwam, the log 
cabin and the modern home, is presented 
when we consider that there are many liv- 
in Evanstonians who knew the Ouilmette 
family, and who saw their North Shore 
Reservation in all the primeval beauty of 
its ancient forest and towering elms. 

Indian Trails of the North Shore. — 
"Red Men's Roads" have of late been the 
subject of much investigation. Passing 
reference, therefore, to some of the Indian 
Trails of the North Shore will not be 
out of place here. My information is con- 
fined largely to Evanston and that imme- 
diate vicinity. For over a quarter of a 
century the Northwestern Railway has 
operated what the North Shore residents 



call "The Green Bay Train." A quarter of 
a century before that the white pioneer 
went to "Little Fort" or Waukegan on the 
"Green Bay Road," and before that 
old settlers say it was the "Green Bay In- 
dian Trail." Along this trail, in the 
year 1680, fled the wounded Henri de 
Tonty and his two or three follow- 
ers, in their historic flight from the 
blood-thirsty Iroquois, who time and 
again had also chased their red enemies in 
terror before them along this same Indian 
trail, and, in the later days, the white pio- 
neer saw, in the same trail, the tracks of 
many moccasined feet and of many Indian 
ponies wending their way to and from the 
treaty making councils at Fort Dearborn. 
Evanston historians have long been at 
loggerheads as to the location of this 
Green Bay Road. They all agree that it 
followed the line of Clark Street north, to a 
point opposite the north line of Rose Hill 
Cemetery, and there the trouble begins. 
Some insist that it went due north, follow- 
ing Clark Street and its Evanston exten- 
sion — called there Chicago Avenue — to a 
point a little north of the Evanston light- 
house, there reaching "the Ridge." Others 
claim that its divergence to 'the Ridge" was 
at the point of difference. Probably Both 
are right, each route being used, accord- 
ing to the wetness or dryness of the sea- 
son. At all events, there is no doubt — for 
old settlers all agree, from Benjamin F. Hill, 
who came to Evanston in 1836, to Frances 
E. Willard, author of "The Classic Town" 
in 1892 — that through Evanston there were 
at least two well-defined north and south 
Indian trails, one following "the Ridge" 
or the high ground that extends from the 
terminus of Lincoln Avenue at Bowman- 
ville, or Rose Hill, on the south, to the high 
blufif on the lake front to the north of 
Evanston, and the other trail was right on 
the bank of the lake shore. This latter 

trail, however, there is reason to believe, 
was a very ancient trail, leading to the 
chipping stations or shops already de- 
scribed; and, in the later days, when the 
settlers began to arrive, and when weapons 
were purchased of traders — and, therefore, 
no further use for the primitive article — 
this latter trail was used only in following 
the game that also used it. "The Ridge" 
trail ran to the south, along the high 
ground, through Rose Hill Cemetery, 
reaching both the ancient and the modern 
Indian Village somewhere in that vicinity — 
probably at or near the western limits of 
the cemetery or on the North Branch. 
There is abundant evidence to show that 
north of Evanston, this trail, which reaches 
the Lake Shore in the north part of Evans- 
ton, led to Milwaukee and even north of 
that, following generally the present line of 
Sheridan Road — with a branch around the 
south end of "The Skokie," reaching the 
North Branch of the Chicago River at or 
near its source, and in turn the Desplaines 
River and the Lake region to the north- 
west. One authority places the "Little 
Fort (Waukegan) Trail" six miles west of 
Evanston, on one of the sand ridges there. 
.As these ridges (of which there are sev- 
eral) lie generally alongside low, marshy 
places between the ridges, and as these 
ridges extend north and south, it is no 
doubt true, considering the Indian popula- 
tion and the important points both north 
and south, that there were well defined In- 
dian trails on all of them, with branches in 
varying directions, that would lead to Lit- 
tle Fort; but whatever may have been the 
name of this western trail, the most direct 
ones from Chicago to Little Fort were 
through Evanston. 

The existence and location of these 
Evanston trails is not left in doubt, for 
there are several living witnesses, both in 
Chicago and Evanston, who have seen them 



and have traveled them. The Ridge Trail 
had been in such constant use that the path 
was worn more than a foot into the ground 
from constant travel. Major Mulford, one 
of Evanston's pioneers, had his home ad- 
joining his trail, immediately west of the 
present site of Calvary Cemetery, and was 
frequently visited there by his Chicago 
friends, among them Fernando Jones. The 
site of this trail is known as Ridge Boule- 
vard, in Evanston, and upon it live many of 
Chicago's leading citizens. 

Mr. B. F. Hill, in describing the Ridge 
Trail, says: "On each side of the Ridge 
and close to it, were two Indian trails, 
where the Indians traveled north and south. 
One was about where Ridge Avenue now 
is, and the other in the neighborhood of As- 
bury Avenue, or perhaps a little west of 
that. These trails were so much used that 
the path was worn more than a foot into 
the ground from the constant travel, show- 
ing that these trails had been used for 
many years." 

Indian Trees of the North Shore.— 
There are, at various places along the 
North Shore, and following closely the line 
of several of the old Indian trails, some 
curious trees that apparently have been 
broken, or rather bent and tied down while 
saplings by Indians to mark these trails; 
that custom has been followed in other lo- 
calities, among which, it is said, is the Brad- 
dock trail, several localities near Fox Lake, 
111., also in the vicinity of Mackinac, and it 
is entirely probable here. The trees are in- 
variably large and, if this convenient and 
plausible theory is correct, some of this work 
of so marking the trails must have been 
done a century and more ago, for many of 
the trees are white oaks of considerable size. 
These trees, and this theory, present also a 
most interesting field for inquiry and specu- 
lation. Photographs of some of these trees 
were taken by Mr. A. W. Watriss of Rog- 

ers Park, who, as well as Mr. C. S. Rad- 
din of the Evanston Historical Society and 
Vice-President of the Chicago Academy of 
Sciences, have taken great interest in this 
subject. One of these trees is located on 
the county line, beside the railroad tracks 
of the Northwestern Railroad at the south- 
west corner of the Highland Park Ceme- 
tery, and can easily be seen from passing 
trains ; and another at Calvary Cemetery, 
west of the railroad, can also be so seen ; 
and one of them long stood in the dooryard, 
at Davis Street and Hinman Avenue, of the 
late Dr. Miner Raymond, of Evanston, 
father of Messrs. Samuel, James and Fred 
D. Raymond. 

But some six years ago there were eleven 
of these trees in perfect alignment, leading 
from the site of the old Indian Village at 
Highland Park in a northwesterly direct 
tion for several miles. Most of them are 
still standing and can be easily identified; 
and what is particularly of interest is the 
fact that all of these trees are white oaks, 
while another old trail farther to the south, 
near Wilmette, are without exception 
white elms, indicating system in the selec- 
tion. Those in the City of Evanston were 
oaks, and supposed by the supporters of 
this theory to lead to the chipping stations 
or shops on the lake shore. Two or three 
of these trees were also located on the 
North Branch of the Chicago River, near 
the Glen View Golf Club, probably mark- 
ing the trail to one of the near-by villages. 
Another circumstance that gives color to 
this contention is, that where those trees are 
found was once a dense and heavy forest, 
where it is probable that an Indian trail 
would be marked, if marked at all. 

There is still another theory to the ef- 
fect that these trees were bent down when 
young saplings, and used in the construction 
of wigwams by covering them with mats — a 
common method among the Algonquins ; 



but as these trees generally stand alone, 
with no near-by duplicates, there seems to 
be little to warrant this contention. 

Another North Shore tree that has be- 
come historic on account of the attention of 
the modern newspaper reporter, is what 
was known as "the Pottawatomie tree," lo- 
cated about three miles west of Wilmette, 
on the farm of M. A. Kloepfer, who se- 
cures quite a revenue from its exhibition. 
This was a remarkable tree, but is now 
dead, having been partially destroyed by 
fire and cut off some thirty feet from the 
ground. It was said to be the largest 
tree in Illinois, a cottonwood, i6o feet high 
and eighteen feet in diameter, with a hol- 
low trunk that would hold thirty-one people. 
All sorts of Indian traditions, of the im- 
promptu variety, have been related with ref- 
erence to its Indian history, most of them be- 
ing about as reliable as the average historical 
novel, or the relation of an old settler in his 
dotage, who sometimes has been found to 
know many things that were not so. Still, 
it may be true that such a tree, towering so 
high above the surrounding forest, may, on 
account of being such a conspicuous land- 
mark, have been a place of Indian rendez- 

Indian Camps and Villages. — .\ picture 
of an Indian country would be sadly dis- 
appointing and deficient without the In- 
dian camps and villages, and, therefore, I 
direct your attention to the sites of such 
camps and villages as I have been able 
to locate in Evanston and vicinity. 

The village near Bowmanville, already 
referred to, was designated by the late Karl 
Dilg, in an article published in "The Lake 
Mew Independent," as "Chicago's Great- 
est Indian Village," and it is quite certain 
that there is every reason for giving it that 
name. The vast number and variety of the 
weapons, utensils, chippings, bits of pottery 
and litter of many descriptions not only in- 

dicate an unusual population, but extended 
residence for a very long space of time. 
Some of these utensils are claimed to be 
pre-historic and very ancient, and the area 
covered by them, extending practically 
over the territory from Rose Hill Cemetery 
to the North Branch of the Chicago River, 
with like finds as far north as High Ridge, 
would indicate a very extensive village. 
Another populous village is said to have 
been at Niles Center, one at Forest Glen, 
or Edgebrook, and still another on the 
North Branch of the Chicago River, near 
the Glen View golf-grounds. One of these 
villages is, in all probability, the one re- 
ferred to in Marquette's diary as being six 
leagues (or some i8 miles) to the north. 
These locations by Mr. Dilg are further 
corroborated by Mr. Albert F. Scharf, who 
has made extensive personal examination 
of the ground, and has shown many of the 
locations upon a map, which not only seems 
to have been prepared with great care, but 
which is, in many instances that I could 
name, entirely corroborated by other inde- 
pendent investigations. Mr. Dilg locates 
also another village on the Ridge Trail at 
Rogers Park, which he says is practically 
a continuation of this Bowmanville village, 
"as there are chips everywhere" in this vi- 
cinity indicating this fact and such inhabi- 
tants to the Evanston City Limits on "the 
Ridge" ; and further claims that these vil- 
lages are of great antiquity, reaching back 
to the time of the Mound Builders, and cor- 
roborated, he says, by tht utensils found, 
some of copper, and by the further fact 
that there is no written history concerning 
any such population as must have lived for 
a long space of time in this locality. 

Whether Mr. Dilg be right or wrong in 
these conclusions, it is certain that these 
were populous villages in times of which 
there is no written history of this vicinity, 
and these same localities were in later times 



favorite camping grounds and smaller vil- 
lage sites for the Pottawatomies, as is 
abundantly shown by the testimony of 
many early pioneers who saw them here 
along the North Branch of the Chicago 

j\Ir. Budlong. proprietor of the present 
extensive truck farm, or garden, at Bow- 
manville, very recently (1904) in excavat- 
ing a gravel-pit, unexpectedly opened and 
exposed to view an Indian grave of more 
than ordinary interest. The grave con- 
tained fourteen skeletons buried in a 
circle, the feet without exception pointing 
toward the center. Although apparently 
well preserved when uncovered, they soon 
crumbled to pieces after being exposed to 
the air. The site of this grave is about ten 
rods north of Foster Avenue, and of the 
center of Section 12 ; and, when California 
Avenue is opened, the site of these graves 
will be in that highway (authority, \\'i\- 
liam A. Peterson, who pointed out the lo- 
cation to the writer.) It is reasonable to 
suppose that these fourteen mute tenants 
of Mr. Budlong's gravel-pit were Potta- 
watomies, who were some of the later res- 
idents of the Bowmanville Indian Village. 

Two small villages are said to have been 
located at Rogers Park, on the Indian 
boundary line, and between Clark Street 
and the Lake, one of them within the pres- 
ent limits of Evanston (authority, Albert F. 
Scharf's map). The same authority lo- 
cates a small village at the foot of Demp- 
ster Street, in Evanston, which must have 
been done by the litter of a temporary vil- 
lage or camp that was there about the year 
1840, during the summer season, and oc- 
cupied by a small roving band of Potta- 
watomie fishermen, described by an Evans- 
ton pioneer, James Carney, who visited them. 
Still another small village was on the north 
side of Hill Street, in Wilmette, about 300 
feet east of Sheridan Road, on the north 

boundary of the Evanston golf-grounds, 
and one also at Gross Point, I am informed. 
In 1835, when the Carney family first 
came to Evanston, there was, at about the 
southwest corner of Davis Street and Wes- 
ley Avenue, in Evanston, a log hut, with 
roof of straw, that is said to have been 
constructed by Indians, and that was, in 
fact, inhabited by them (one or two fam- 
ilies), for quite a time while hunting in 
the vicinity. 

Immediately north of Sheridan Road, 
where it turns to the west, some two or 
three blocks north of the Evanston light- 
house, fronting the lake shore and on the 
property belonging to Mr. Charles Deering, 
was another Indian Village consisting of 
from fifteen to twenty wigwams. It must 
have been quite a permanent place of abode, 
for they had a cornfield there, and the 
mounds showing where the corn grew 
in rows could be seen but a few years 
ago. Mr. James Carney, of Evanston, vis- 
ited this village when a small boy, and has 
a vivid recollection of the wigwams built 
of rushes and mats, the Indians, their 
squaws, the children, the dogs, and espe- 
cially of five or six of the Indians who fol- 
lowed him home after one of his visits to 
secure a certain black pup to which they 
took a fancy, which Mrs. Carney, his 
mother, gave them, much to his disappoint- 
ment, for he, too, was fond of the dog. This 
was done while James was in hiding in a 
hay stack back of the house. 

In 1852 Dr. Henry M. Bannister and a 
companion, while hunting on the Lake 
Shore discovered the site of an Indian vil- 
lage immediately south of what is now 
Greenleaf Street and east of the present 
Sheridan Road and lying east of the shop 
or chipping station before described. The 
site was well defined, not only by the fire 
places, but by the litter of many kinds, in- 
cluding broken utensils and pottery. This 



discovery of Dr. Bannister's has received 
ample corroboration by other investiga- 

StiU another village is thus described by 
Mr. B. F. Hill, of Evanston : 

"The Indians had winter quarters at Wil- 
mette and lived in wigwams made of poles 
and mats of rushes. The village was 
where the Westerfield place used to be, 
near the present intersection of Lake Ave- 
nue and Sheridan Road. It was their cus- 
tom to come there late in the fall and stay 
for the winter." (This village was com- 
posed, not only of Indians, but French and 
half-breeds, the Ouilmettes and some of the 
Beaubiens are said to have lived with them 
part of the time). 

A part of the same interview with Mr. 
Hill is also of interest in this connection. I 
quote from it as follows: "Evanston was 
quite a hunting ground for the Indians on 
account of the deer being plenty there. 
During the early years of my residence here 
Indians were coming and going all the 
time, traveling north and south from 
Chicago, Green Bay and other points, in- 
cluding the winter village at Wilmette, and 
to and from the lake on hunting expedi- 
tions. The last band that I remember of 
seeing was some time in the early for- 
ties ; they were camping temporarily on the 
side of the road and at about what is now 
the intersection of Lake Avenue and Eighth 
Street in Wilmette. 

"I remember seeing John Kinzie Clark, 
who had a ranch in Northfield, where he 
raised ponies, on one occasion, coming 
along through the Wilmette woods with 
three or four Indian ponies. He was a 
great hunter, and, on this occasion, had three 
or four deer tied onto the backs of the pon- 
ies. He was riding one pony and the pony 
to the rear had his bridle tied to the tail of 
the pony Clark was riding, and the whole 
string was thus tied together, Indian file or 
tandem fashion. 

"The Indians I have described were all 
Pottawatomies. Roaming bands frequent- 
ly camped near my father's house and 
would call and trade." ("Our Indian Pre- 
decessors," 23.) 

The wigwams of all these North Shore 
camps and villages have, like their builders, 
disappeared forever from the earth, but it 
is a pleasing reverie to think of them and 
of the forests and the ridges and the North 
Shore, as in those olden days they used to 

The Indian Mounds and Graves of the 
North Shore are also most interesting land 
marks. Indian graves have been found in 
Evanston in many localities along the lake 
front, one on the property of Dr. Robert D. 
Sheppard, by Mr. C. S. Raddin and Dr. 
William A. Phillips, two by my father, Al- 
din J. Grover, in the year 1866, in laying 
the foundation for "Heck Kail," the first 
building constructed on the Northwestern 
L^niversity campus ; two more about a block 
north of Mr. Charles Deering's residence, 
on the bank of the lake ; another in the ex- 
cavation for the foundation of James 
Rood's building on Davis Street, some ten 
years ago. 

The emblematic or totemic mound, in the 
form of a huge lizard that was under the 
present site of the Wellington Street Sta- 
tion of the Northwestern Elevated Rail- 
road, may well be classed among the North 
Shore landmarks, and I was informed its 
existence has been fully authenticated. An- 
other one used for burial purposes, and 
now also obliterated, was located near the 
Saint Paul Railway viaduct, at the intersec- 
tion of Ridge Boulevard in Evanston. This 
mound was excavated some fifty years ago 
by Evanston pioneers, Joel Stebbins, Paul 
Pratt and James Colvin, who found a col- 
lection of "war instruments and skeletons." 
(Authority, James Carney, of Evanston.) 

Another landmark that may well be 
classed under this heading is across the ra- 



vine from the residence and on the premises 
of the late McGregor Adams, at Highland 
Park, which is circular in form, and about 
thirty feet in diameter, with a round eleva- 
tion in the center, and is said to have been 
the site of a huge wigwam used as a "coun- 
cil house," with trails leading to it from 
the west, marked by the trees elsewhere de- 

But to return to Evanston : there was an 
Indian cemetery beside the Green Bay or 
Ridge Avenue trail, some four or five 
blocks northwest of the Evanston light- 
house, and extending from the Evanston 
Hospital north to the lake, terminating 
about at the property now owned by Mr. P. 
W. Gates, and extending across the eastern 
edge of the Evanston golf-grounds. The 
last burial there is fully described in 
Frances E. Willard's history of Evanston, 
"The Classic Town" (page 21). The last 
burial in this cemetery is well authenticated 
by old settlers. 

"This Indian's coffin was made of poles 
or saplings, laid up like a log house and 
bound together at the corners with withes 
of bark, and the top was also of poles fas- 
tened in like manner. With him was bu- 
ried his gun and tomahawk and his dog. 
He was buried in a sitting posture, above 
ground, and facing the east." (See Mr. 
Hill's account of this in Miss Willard's 
"Classic Town.") 

Some old settlers (then boys) were kept 
awake many nights by visions of the grin- 
ning skeleton, which they saw by peeping 
through the cracks between the poles, 
which immediately preceded their flight in 
terror to their home. The tomahawk bu- 
ried with this Indian was found on the 
site of the grave of this identical Indian in 
1875. and is now the property of the Evans- 
ton Historical Society. The exact site of 
this burial is on the west side of Ridge 
Boulevard, a little north of the intersection 

of Sheridan Road and thirty to forty feet 
south of Joseph Nellessen's house, and it 
may be of interest to Evanston golf en- 
thusiasts, who pursue the game until the 
shadows of evening fall, to know that Hole 
or Green No. 9, of the Evanston Golf Club's 
course, is within less than fifty feet of this 
former sepulcher. (Authority. B. F. Hill, 
who saw, when a boy, the grave, procured 
the tomahawk and presented it to the Ev- 
anston Society, and who has described to 
the writer the exact location as deter- 
mined bv the modern landmarks just 

The many burials, so wildly scattered 
over Evanston, have an important signifi- 
cance in the respect that they indicate more 
than the ordinary scattering Indian popu- 

Recollections of Later Settlers. — In 
later years and, even as late as 1870, single 
Indians and very small bands or families, 
came through Evanston, traveling to and 
from the north and Chicago, following the 
railroad and the lake. I have personal rec- 
ollection of such visitors on two or three 
occasions between 1866 and 1870, when 
they would camp and spend the night vn- 
der the oaks at the northeast corner of 
Sherman Avenue and Lake Street ; but 
these were not the wild prairie Indians of 
the olden time, and their character may be 
illustrated by an anecdote. A year or two 
ago I was visiting the summer home of a 
Kentucky gentleman on Lake Huron. His 
family had a colored cook — "Aunt Caro- 
line" — who had never before been in the 
North. My friend had in his employ, about 
his grounds, several half-breed Chippewas 
(Ojibways). The next morning, after 
■"Aunt Caroline's" arrival, one of the chil- 
dren of the family tried to alarm her by 
saying that the Indians were apt to scalp 
her, to which she replied: "Law no. hone\- ! 
them's pet Indians." 



Five Great Treaties — Removal of the 
Pottawatomies. — I-"ive important treaties 
preceded and were effective in divesting the 
Pottawatomies of their title to this part of 
the land of the Illinois. The first was the 
treaty of Greenville, effected by William H. 
Harrison, as aid-de-camp to Major-General 
Anthony Wayne, August 3, 1795, by which 
the Indians ceded "one piece of land six 
miles square at the mouth of the Chikago 
River, emptying into the southwest end of 
Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly 

The second was the treaty of Saint Louis, 
concluded August 24, 1816, and negotiated 
by Gov. Xinian Edwards, by which the In- 
dians ceded twenty miles of lake front, di- 
rectly south of Evanston, and a great ad- 
jacent territory lying to the west and south. 
The northern boundary of this cession (ten 
miles north of the Chicago River) is what 
has been known by Ridgeville and Evans- 
ton citizens, for some fifty years, as "the 
Indian Boundary line" and "Indian Boun- 
dary Road," above referred to. The south- 
ern boundary of the land ceded by this 
treaty began on the lake shore, ten miles 
south of the Chicago River. The Indians 
retained by the provisions of this treaty 
the right to hunt and fish, within the tract 
of land ceded, "so long as it may continue 
to be the property of the United States." 
The object of the Government in securing 
this land, was said to be "to construct a 
military road to facilitate the building of 
the proposed ship canal." (Blanchard, 
supra, 419.) 

The third of the treaties referred to was 
the Treaty of Chicago, concluded August 
29, 1 82 1, by which the Pottawatomies ceded 
some 5,000,000 acres of land in Michigan, 
and thus began the most important cessions 
of their large domain. It was at Chicago 
at this time that the Pottawatomie Chief 
Me-te-a made his eloquent and historical 

speech, so often quoted by Indian histori- 
ans. It is of interest to show the feeling of 
the Pottawatomies in regard to parting 
with their lands. The following quotations 
are from Samuel G. Drake's "Book of the 

"You know that we first came to this country 
a long time ago, and when we sat ourselves down 
upon it, we met with a great many hardships and 
difficulties. Our country was then very large; but 
it has dwindled away to a small spot, and you 
wish to purchase that. . . . We have brought all 
the warriors and the young men and women of 
our tribe that one part may not do what the oth- 
ers object to. . . . Our country was given to us 
by the Great Spirit, who gave it to us to hunt 
upon, to make our cornfields upon, to live upon, 
and to make our beds upon when we die, and He 
would never forgive us should we bargain it 
away. When you first spoke to us of lands at St. 
Mary's we said we had a little and agreed to sell 
you a piece of it ; but we told you we could spare 
no more. Now you ask us again. You are never 
satisfied. We have sold you a great tract of land 
already, but it is not enough. . . . V<iu are grad- 
ually taking away our hunting grounds. Your 
children are driving us before them. We are 
growing uneasy. What lands you have you can 
retain forever, but we shall sell no more. You 
think, perhaps, that I speak in passion, but my 
heart is good towards you. I speak like one of 
your own children. I am an Indian, a red-skin, 
and live by hunting and fishing, but my country is 
already too small, and I do not know how to bring 
up my children if 1 give it all away. . , . We 
speak to you with a good heart and the feelings of 
a friend. You are acquainted with this piece of 
land — the country we live in. Shall we give it 
up? Take notice it is a small piece of land, and 
if we give it away what will become of us? . . . 
If we had more land, you should get more, but 
our land has been wasting away ever since the 
white people became our neighbors and we now 
have hardly enough left to cover the bones of our 
tribe. You are in the midst of your red children. 
We all shake hands with you. Behold our war- 
riors, our women and children. Take pity on 
us and on our words." 

The fourth of the treaties in question was 
that of Prairie du Chien, concluded July 29, 
1829, ceding the lake front from Kenilworth 
to Rogers Park, including Wilmette and 
Evanston and lands to the west, fully men- 
tioned in references to Ouilmette, his fam- 
ily and Reservation. 

The fifth of the treaties mentioned was 
the final treaty of Chicago, concluded Sep- 
tember 26, 1833, by which the Pottawato- 
mies ceded to the United States all that 


remained of their lands in Illinois and Wis- 
consin ("supposed to contain," the treaty 
says, "about five million acres"), and which 
provided for and resulted in their removal 
from Illinois and west of the Mississippi. 

There is a very numerous class of Ameri- 
can writers who have little or no sympa- 
thy with the Indian or his supposed rights ; 
they look upon him and the land he has oc- 
cupied as not only the inevitable, but the 
just spoil of advancing civilization. It must, 
however, be a man with a heart of stone 
that could view, without some feeling of 
sentiment, this once proud and powerful na- 
tion, compelled by circumstance to which 
they had made no contribution, to desert the 
land of their fathers and terminate a resi- 
dence of more than a century and a half, at 
the demand of more powerful masters. 

Chicago in 1833 was an insignificant 
frontier village ; but it was then the scene 
of a great and historic drama, both pictur- 
esque and pathetic. At the time the treaty 
was concluded an English writer, a gentle- 
man of learning — Charles J. Latrobe — was 
making a tour of this country, and was in 
Chicago. In a book dedicated to Washing- 
ton Irving, entitled "Rambler," printed in 
London in 1835, he describes the scene from 
which I quote : 

"When within five miles of Chicago we came to 
the first Indian encampment; five thousand Indians 
were said to be collected around this little upstart 

"We found the village on our arrival crowded 
to excess, and we procured with great difficulty a 
small apartment, comfortless and noisy from its 
close pro.ximity to others, but quite as good as we 
could have hoped for. The Pottawatomies were 
encamped on all sides — on the wide level prairie 
beyond the scattered village, beneath the shelter 
of the low woods on the side of the small river, 
or to the leeward of the sand hills near the beach 
of the lake. They consisted of three principal 
tribes with certain adjuncts from smaller tribes. 
The main divisions are, the Pottawatomies of the 
prairie and those of the forest, and these are sub- 
divided into distinct villages under their several 
chiefs. . . . 

"A preliminary council had been held with the 
chiefs some days before our arrival. The princi- 
pal commissioner had opened it, as we learned, by 

stating that, 'as their great father in Washington 
had heard that they wished to sell their land, he 
had sent Commissioners to treat with them.' The 
Indians promptly answered by their organ 'that 
their great father in Washington must have seen a 
bad bird which had told him a lie, for that, far 
from wishing to sell their land, they wished to 
keep it.' The commissioner, nothing daunted, re- 
plied : 'That nevertheless, as they had come to- 
gether for a council, they must take the matter 
into consideration.' He then explained to them 
promptly the wishes and intentions of their great 
father, and asked their opinion thereon. Thus 
pressed, they looked at the sky, saw a few wander- 
mg clouds, and straightway adjourned sine die, 
as the weather is not clear enough for so solemn 
a council. 

"However, as the treaty had been opened, pro- 
vision was supplied to them by regular rations; 
and the same night they had great rejoicing — 
danced the war dance, and kept the eyes and ears 
of all open by running and howling about the 

"Such was the state of affairs on our arrival. 
Companies of old warriors might be seen sitting 
smoking under every bush, arguing, palavering or 
'pow-wowing' with great earnestness; but there 
seemed no possibility of bringing them to another 
council in a hurry. . . 

"Next in rank to the officers and commissioners, 
may be noticed certain store-keepers and mer- 
chants here ; looking either to the influx of new 
settlers establishing themselves in the neighbor- 
hood, or those passing yet further to the westward, 
for custom and profit ; not to forget the chance of 
extraordinary occasions like the present. Add to 
these a doctor or two, two or three lawyers, a ' 
land agent, and five or six hotel-keepers. These 
may be considered as stationary, and proprietors 
of the half a hundred clap-board houses around 

"Then, for the birds of passage — exclusive 
of the Pottawatomies, of whom more anon — and 
emigrants and land speculators as numerous as the 
sands. You will find horse-dealers and horse- 
stealers ; rogues of every description, white, black, 
brown, and red ; half-breeds, quarter-breeds, and 
men of no breed at all ; dealers in pig:s, poultry 
and potatoes ; men pursuing Indian claims, some 
for tracts of land, others, like our friend Snipe 
(one of his stage coach companions on the way), 
for pigs which wolves had eaten, creditors of the 
tribes or of particular Indians, who know that they 
have no chance of getting their money, if they do 
not get it from the government agents — sharpers 
of every degree; peddlers, grog-sellers, Indian 
agents and Indian traders of every description, 
and contractors to supply the Pottawatomies with 
food. The little village was in an uproar from 
morning to night, and from night to morning; for, 
during the hours of darkness, when the housed 
portion of the population of Chicago strove to ob- 
tain repose in the crowded plank edifices of the 
village, the Indians howled, sang, wept, yelled and 
whooped in their various encampments. 

"I loved to stroll out toward sunset across the 
river, and gaze upon the level horizon, stretching 



to the northwest over the surface of the prairie, 
dotted with innumerable objects far and near. 
Not far from the river lay many groups of tents 
constructed of coarse canvas, blankets and mats, 
and surmounted by poles supporting meat, moc- 
casins and rags. Their vicinity was always en- 
livened by various painted Indian figures, dressed 
in the most gaudy attire. The interior of the hov- 
els generally displayed a confined area, perhaps 
covered with a few half-rotten mats or shavings, 
upon which men. women, children and baggage 
were heaped pell-mell. 

"Far and wide the grassy prairie teemed with 
figures ; warriors mounted or on foot, squaws and 
horses ; here a race between three or four Indian 
ponies, each carrying a double rider, whooping and 
yelling like fiends ; there a solitary horseman with 
a long spear, turbaned like an Arab, scouring 
along at full speed ; groups of hobbled horses, In- 
dian dogs and children, or a grave conclave of 
gray chiefs seated on the grass in consultation. 

"It was amusing to wind silently from group to 
group — here noting the raised knife, the sudden 
drunken brawl, quashed by the good-natured and 
even playful interference of the neighbors; there 
a party breaking up their encampment, and falling 
with their little train of loaded ponies and wolfish 
dogs into the deep, black narrow trail running to 
the north. You peep into a wigwam and see a 
domestic feud ; the chief sitting in dogged silence 
on the mat, while the women, of which there were 
commonly two or three in every dwelling, and who 
appeared every evening more elevated with the 
fumes of whisky than the males, read him a lect- 
ure. From another tent a constant voice of 
wrangling and weeping would proceed, when sud- 
denly an offended fair one would draw the mat 
aside, and taking a youth standing without by the 
hand, lead him apart and sitting down on the 
grass, set up the most indescriable whine as she 
told her grief. Then forward comes an Indian, 
staggering with his chum from a debauch; he is 
met by his squaw, with her child dangling in a 
fold of her blanket behind, and the sobbing and 
weeping which accompanies her whining appeal to 
him, as she hangs to his hand, would melt your 
heart, if you did not see that she was quite as tipsy 
as himself. . . . 

"It is a grievous thing that the government is 
not strong-handed enough to put a stop to the 
shameful and scandalous sale of whisky to those 
poor, miserable wretches. But here lie casks of 
it for sale under the very eyes of the Commis- 
sioners, met together for purposes which demand 
that sobriety should be maintained, were it only 
that no one should be able to lay at their door an 
accusation of unfair dealing, and of having taken 
advantage of the helpless Indian in a bargain, 
whereby the people of the United States were to 
be so greatly the gainers. . . . 

"Day after day passed. It was in vain that the 
signal gun from the fort gave notice of an as- 
semblage of chiefs at the council fire. Reasons 
were always found for its delay. One day an in- 
fluential chief was not in the way; another, the 
sky looked cloudy, and the Indian never performs 
an important business except the sky be clear. At 

length, on September 21st, the Pottawatomies re- 
solved to meet the Commissioners. We were 
politely invited to be present. 

"The council fire was lighted under a spacious 
open shed on the green meadow, on the opposite 
side of the river from that on which the fort 
stood. From the difficulty of getting all together, 
it was late in the afternoon when they assembled. 
There might be twenty or thirty chiefs present, 
seated at the lower end of the enclosure, while the 
commissioners, interpreters, etc., were at the up- 
per. The palaver was opened by the principal 
Commissioner. . . . 

"The relative positions of the Commissioners 
and the whites before the council fire, and that of 
the red children of the forest and prairie, were to 
me strikingly impressive. The glorious light of 
the setting sun streaming in under the low roof of 
the council house, fell full on the countenances of 
the former as they faced the west — while the pale 
light of the east hardly lighted up the dark and 
painted lineaments of the poor Indians, whose 
souls evidently clave to their birthright in that 
quarter. Even though convinced of the necessity 
of their removal, my heart bled for them in their 
desolation and decline. Ignorant and degraded 
as they may have been in their original state, their 
degradation is now ten-fold, after years of inter- 
course with the whites; and their speedy disap- 
pearance from the earth appears as certain as 
though it were already sealed and accomplished. 

"Your own reflections will lead you to form the 
conclusion — and it will be a just one — that even 
if he had the will, the power would be wanting for 
the Indian to keep his territory, and that the busi- 
ness of arranging the terms of an Indian treaty — 
whatever it might have been two hundred years 
ago. while the Indian tribes had not, as now, 
thrown aside the rude but vigorous intellectual 
character which distinguished many among them 
— now lies chiefly between the various traders, 
agents, creditors and balf-breeds of the tribes, 
on whom custom and necessity have made the de- 
graded chiefs dependent, and the Government 
agents. When the former have seen matters so 
far arranged their self-interests and various 
schemes and claims are likely to be fulfilled and 
allowed to their hearts' content, the silent acqui- 
escence of the Indian follows of course; and till 
this is the case, the treaty can never be amicably 
effected. In fine, before we quitted Chicago on 
the 25th, three or four days later, the treaty with 
the Pottawatomies was concluded — the Commis- 
sioners putting their hands, and the assembled 
chief their paws, to the same." 

Thus, as so ably described by the English 
writer, was consiiinmated the transfer by 
which Illinois ceased to be the land of the 
Indian. The Indians received as compensa- 
tion for this vast grant $100,000 "to satisfy 
sundry individuals in behalf of whom res- 
ervations were asked, which the Commis- 
sioners refused to grant"; $175,000 to "sat- 



isfy the claims made against" the Indians ; 
$100,000 to be paid in goods and provisions ; 
$280,000 to be paid in an annuity of $14,000 
each year for twenty years; $150,000 "to 
be apphed to the erection of mills, farm 
houses, Indian houses, blacksmith shops, ag- 
ricultural improvements," etc., and $70,000 
"for purposes of education and the encour- 
agement of the domestic arts." 

One remarkable feature of this treaty is 
the fact that, by its provisions, some five 
hundred to one thousand persons, most of 
them with no Indian blood in their veins, 
derived personal gain from the transaction ; 
the allowance and payment of individual 
claims ranging in amount from a few dol- 
lars to many thousands, and, as already 
noted, about one-third of the cash consider- 
ation was thus disbursed. Among the in- 
dividual beneficiaries also appear the follow- 
ing: Alexander Robinson, $10,000 cash 
and $300 annuity, "in addition to annuities 
already granted"; Billy Caldwell, $10,000 
cash and $400 annuity, "in addition to an- 
nuities already granted" ; John Kinzie 
Clark, $400; allowances to Ouilmette and 
his family, already noted ; "John K. Clark's 
Indian children $400" Qohn Kinzie Clark 
— see B. F. Hill's interview supra), and 
various allowances to the Kinzie family. 

The mere reading of the treaty demon- 
strates that the "birds of pasage," "land 
speculators," "men pursuing Indian claims," 
"creditors of the tribe," "sharpers of every 
degree," and "Indian traders of every 
description," so graphically described by 
the English tourist, constituted no small 

minority of the assembly at Chicago on this 
occasion, or of those who had to do with 
framing that part of the treaty that pro- 
vided for the payment of individual claims. 

Three years after the signing of this last 
treaty and in the years 1835 and 1836, the 
Pottawatomies — or at least the most of 
them — then some 5,000 in number, were re- 
moved west of the Mississippi, into Mis- 
souri, near Fort Leavenworth. They re- 
mained there but a year or two on account 
of the hostility of the frontier settlers, and 
were again removed to Council Bluffs, and 
in a few years again to a reservation in 
Kansas, where three or four hundred of 
their number still exist, while others are in 
the Indian Territory. Their history since 
leaving Illinois has been in the main that 
of all the Indian tribes — a steady dwindling, 
until less than what was one-fourth of 
their numbers in 1836 now remain. 

These transactions are all within the 
memory of many living citizens. A little 
more than half a century has rolled by since 
these children of the prairie and of the for- 
est took their farewell look at old Lake 
Michigan and crossed, for the last time, in 
their westward journey, the plains and 
woods and streams of the land of the Illi- 
nois. Their fathers entered here with strong 
and bloody hands; peacably, yet by still 
stronger hands, have they gone the way of 
all their race. They have caused the white 
man to hear and to speak of the last of the 
Illinois ; and soon — too soon — will the white 
man also hear of the last of the Pottawa- 



The Beginning — First Meeting of the 
Founders — Prime Movers in the Enter- 
prise — Resolutions and Draft of Charter 
Adopted — The Legislature Acts — First 
Board of Trustees — Organization Ef- 
fected — Search for a Site for the New 
Institution — The Present Location at Ev- 
anston Finally Selected — Acquisition of 
Lands — Valuable Real Estate in Chicago 
Retained as Part of the Endozvnient — 
Election of a President is Decided Upon. 

Most American Universities that have 
attained to a position of strength and wide 
usefuhness have had humble beginnings, 
and have gathered volume and momentum 
through a long period of years. They have 
acquired, too, in that time, a style and a 
spirit, all their own, which it is difficult to 
portray in words. It needs the experience 
and interest of an alumnus to give life to 
what would be the dreary details of its 
progress ; yet these details are what we call 
history. They are the footprints of its for- 
ward march. What Northwestern Univer- 
sity is now, is — to most of us — the thing 
that makes the story of interest. This will 
be hinted at in the progress of this narra- 
tion, and will be told more fully by other 
writers. The period of the existence of 
Northwestern University has been under 
the close observation of men now living. 
One of its original founders — then a young 

man, now full of years — still tarries among 
us, and some of its earliest graduates are 
still in the vigor of life. Its records are all 
accessible, unfaded as if written only yes- 
terday. Its growth coincides with that of 
the town in which it is located and the 
neighboring city. It is a perilous task to 
deal with names so familiar as the names of 
the men who have chiefly wrought out its 
fortunes, or with events so recent. We can 
deal more bravely, and perhaps more freely, 
with men and events of a few centuries 

First Meeting of the Founders. — It was 
on May 31, 1850, that a little company of 
men gathered by appointment in the dingy 
law office of Grant Goodrich, on Lake 
Street, between Clark and Dearborn, in the 
City of Chicago, over the hardware store 
of Jabez K. Botsford. That region was 
then the very heart of the business life of 
Chicago. These men were convened for 
the ambitious purpose of establishing a uni- 
versity at what they considered the Center 
of Influence in the Northwest, under the 
patronage and government of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Chicago then had three 
Methodist Churches: Clark Street, the 
munificent Mother of Chicago Methodism, 
on the South Side ; Canal Street on the 
West Side; and Indiana Street Chapel on 
the North Side. The men present were 
representatives of those churches. The 



most positive an4 aggressive among them 
were Grant Goodrich and John Evans. The 
latter was most Ukely the leader, for he was 
a man who dreamed great dreams, and then 
set to work to realize them. The roll of the 
founders who disposed themselves in the law 
office that day were: Rev. Richard Haney, 
then pastor of Clark Street Church; Rev. 
R. K. Blanchard, Pastor of Canal Street 
Church; Rev. Zadok Hall, Pastor of In- 
diana Street Church ; Grant Goodrich, An- 
drew J. Brown, John Evans, Orrington 
Lunt, Jabez K. Botsford and Henr\- \V. 
Clark; three ministers of the gospel, three 
attorneys, one physician and two mer- 
chants evidenced that the future would 
not neglect the departments of Theology, 
Medicine, Law and, possibly. Commerce. 
These were devoted men, men of zeal, en- 
thusiastic Methodist Christians who had 
faith in the future and wished their church, 
in its educational work, to share in the op- 
portunities they believed the future had in 
store. There was, at that time, no institu- 
tion of college rank nearer than Galesburg, 
Illinois, where Knox College was situated. 
The only other colleges in the State at that 
time were Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
Shurtleff at Alton, and McKendree at 
Lebanon ; and inasmuch as Chicago was to 
be the metropolis of the Northwest and a 
great center of population, it should also 
be a seat of learning. 

The chair was taken by Grant Goodrich. 
The work of the meeting had been cut and 
dried. Brother Goodrich had a little paper 
in his pocket which he was prepared to read, 
explaining the purpose of their gathering. 
He was the Methodist attorney of Chicago. 
There were other Methodist lawyers in 
Chicago, but he over-topped them ; he was 
earlier in the field ; keen, combative, per- 
sistent, devoted to his clients and of stain- 
less honor, a man who wanted his own wa\' 
and fought for it. There were men in 

that company who would give Brother 
Goodrich good battle if he left any weak 
points exposed, notably Dr. Evans, who had 
a mind of his own and no hesitancy or lack 
of skill in expressing it. The scheme of 
Northwestern University bears the marks 
of his far-seeing mind, whose plans were 
uniformly bold and full of faith, and which, 
with the added element of time, have, in 
almost every scheme with whicli he was 
connected, achieved a splendid result. 

Steps Taken for Founding the Univer- 
sity. — The purpose of the meeting was 
briefly explained. Andrew J. Brown was 
made Secretary, and then the paper was 
produced — the first formal step in the 
establishment of the University. That 
paper read as follows : 

"Whereas. The interests of sanctified learning 
require the immediate establishment of a univer- 
sity in the Northwest, under tlie patronage of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church : 

"Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed 
to prepare a draft of a charter to incorporate a 
literary university, to be located at Chicago, to 
be under the control and patronage of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, to be submitted to the 
ne.xt General Assembly of the State of Illinois. 

"Resohed, That said committee memorialize 
the Rock River, Wisconsin, Michigan and North 
Indiana Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, to mutually take part in the government 
and patronage of said university. 

"Resolved, That a committee of three be ap- 
pointed to ascertain what amount can be obtained 
for the erection and endowment of said institu- 

These resolutions were spoken to by 
Rev. Richard Haney, the foremost preacher 
in Rock River Conference, at that early 
day pastor of its leading pulpit, a man of 
commanding presence and persuasive 
speech, and very loyal to his church and all 
her agencies, against whom posterity has no 
charge to make that he did not labor tire- 
lessly or wisely, or plan broadly for the 
coming years, and a man who was destined 

F»^'?*vkr- ^-^Tas^ 


K .^V^SL^'W^ 




to be associated with Northwestern Univer- 
sity, as a Trustee, till his death, and who, 
during that time, never missed an annual 
meeting of its Board of Trustees, save one, 
when sickness interfered. 

Then Dr. Evans spoke, with kindling eye 
and with the fervid speech of a great pro- 
moter. He saw the future in the instant. 
He would associate the cause of education 
with the inevitable growth of Chicago and 
the increase of values of property. Let 
men sacrifice something now, and the com- 
ing peoples would pay tribute to their de- 
votion and sagacity, was the burden of his 

The resolutions were unanimously 
adopted. The two committees suggested 
were appointed: First, On the Charter — 
John Evans, A. J. Brown, E. G. Meek. A. 
S. Sherman and Grant Goodrich; Second, 
On Co-operation of Northwest Conferences 
—Rev. R. Haney, Rev. R. H. Blanchard 
and Dr. John Evans. They were requested 
to report in two weeks from that date, at 
three o'clock p. m., at the Clark Street 
parsonage. They meant business, and the 
committees went immediately about their 
work. Promptly at three o'clock of the 
day appointed, the brethren gathered in the 
parlor of Brother Haney 's parsonage on 
Clark Street, in the rear of the First Church. 
Dr. Evans reported for his committee the 
draft of a charter as follows : 

Form of Charter Proposed. 
Section I. — Be it enacted by the people of the 
State of Illinois, represented in the General .As- 
sembly : That Richard Haney. Philo Judson, S. P. 
Keyes and A. E. Phelps, and such persons as shall 
be appointed by the Rock River Annual Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal Church to suc- 
ceed them in the said office ; Henry Summers, 
Elihu Springer, David Brooks and Elmore Yo- 
cum, and such persons as shall be appointed by 
the Wisconsin .Annual Conference of said Church 
to succeed them ; four individuals, if chosen, and 
such persons as shall be appointed to succeed 
them by the Michigan .Annual Conference of said 

Church; four individuals, if chosen, and such 
persons as shall be appointed to succeed them by 
the North Indiana Annual Conference of said 
Church ; H. W. Reed, I. I. Stewart, D. N. Smith 
and George M. Teas, and such persons as shall be 
appointed to succeed them by the Iowa Annual 
Conference of said Church ; four individuals, if 
chosen, and such persons as shall be appointed to 
succeed them by the Illinois Annual Conference of 
said Church ; A. S. Sherman, Grant Goodrich, 
Andrew J. Brown, John Evans, Orrington Lunt, 
J. K. Botsford, Joseph Kettlestrings, George F. 
Foster, Eri Reynolds, John M. Arnold, Absalom 
Funk and E. B. Kingsley, and such persons, citi- 
zens of Chicago or its vicinity, as shall be ap- 
pointed by the Board of Trustees hereby consti- 
tuted to succeed them ; be and they are hereby 
created and constituted a body politic and corpor- 
ate, under the name and title of the Trustees of the 
Northwestern University, and henceforth shall be 
styled and known by that name, and by name and 
style to remain and have perpetual succession, with 
power to sue and to be sued, plead and be implead- 
ed, to acquire, hold and convey property, real, per- 
sonal or mi.xed, in all lawful ways ; to have and to 
use a common seal and to alter the same at pleas- 
ure; to make and alter, from time to time, such by- 
laws as they may deem necessary for the govern- 
ment of said institution, its officers and servants, 
provided such by-laws are not inconsistent with 
the Constitution and laws of this State and of the 
United States, and to confer on such persons as 
may be considered worthy such academical or hon- 
orary degrees as are usually conveyed by similar 

Section ^.— The term of office of said Trustees 
shall be four years, but that of one member of the 
Board for each Conference enjoying the appoint- 
ing power by this act, and (the) term of three of 
the members whose successors are to be ap- 
pointed by the Board hereby constituted, shall ex- 
pire annually, the term of each member of the 
Board herein named to be fixed by lot at the first 
meeting of said Board, which Board shall, in 
manner above specified, have perpetual succession, 
and shall hold the property of said institution sole- 
ly for the purposes of education, and not as a 
stock for the individual benefit of themselves or 
any contributor to the endowment of the same ; 
and no particular religious faith shall be required 
of those who become students of the institution. 
Nine members shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of any business of the Board, except 
the appointment of President or Professor, or the 



establishment of chairs in said institution, and the 
enactment of by-laws for its government, for which 
the presence of a majority of the Board shall be 

Section S- — Said Annual Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, under whose con- 
trol and patronage said University is placed, shall 
each also have the right to appoint annually two 
suitable persons, members of their own body, 
visitors to said Universitj', who shall attend the 
examination of students, and be entitled to par- 
ticipate in the deliberations of the Board of 
Trustees and enjoy all the privileges of members 
of said Board, except the right to vote. 

Section 4. — Said institution shall remain located 
in or near the City of Chicago, Cook County, and 
the corporators and their successors shall be com- 
petent in law or equity to take to themselves, in 
their said corporate name, real, personal or mixed 
estate, by gift, grant, bargain and sale, conveyance, 
will, devise or bequest of any person or persons 
whomsoever ; and the same estate, whether real, 
personal or mixed, to grant, bargain, sell, convey, 
devise, let, place out at interest, or otherwise dis- 
pose of the same for the use of said institution in 
such manner as to them shall seem most beneficial 
to said institution. Said corporation shall faith- 
fully apply all the funds collected, or the proceeds 
of the property belonging to the said institution, 
according to their best judgment, in erecting and 
completing suitable buildings, supporting necessary 
officers, instructors and servants, and procuring 
books, maps, charts, globes and philosophical, 
chemical and other apparatus necessary to the 
success of the institution, and do all other acts 
usually performed by similar institutions that may 
be deemed necessary or useful to the success of 
said institution, under the restrictions herein im- 
posed : Provided, nevertheless, that in case any 
donation, devise or bequest shall be made for par- 
ticular purposes, accordant with the design of the 
institution, and the corporation shall accept the 
same, every such donation, devise or bequest shall 
be applied in conformity with the express condi- 
tions of the donor or devisor: provided, further, 
that said corporation shall not be allowed to hold 
more than two thousand acres of land at any one 
time, unless the said corporation shall have re- 
ceived the same gift, grant or devise ; and in such 
case they shall be required to sell or dispose of the 
same within ten years from the time they shall 
acquire such title; and, on failure to do so, such 
lands, over and above the before-named two thou- 

sand acres, shall revert to the original donor, 
grantor, devisor or their heirs. 

Section 5. — The Treasurer of the institution, 
and all other agents when required, before entering 
upon the duties of their appointment, shall give 
bond for the security of the corporation in such 
penal sums, and with such securities as the cor- 
poration shall approve, and all process against the 
corporation shall be by summons, and the service 
of the same shall be bj' leaving an attested copy 
thereof with the Treasurer, at least sixty days be- 
fore the return day thereof. 

Section 6. — The corporation shall have power to 
employ and appoint a President or Principal for 
said institution, and all such professors or teachers 
and all such servants as shall be necessary, and 
shall have power to displace any or such of them 
as the interest of the institution shall require, to 
fill vacancies which may happen by death, resig- 
nation or otherwise, among said officers and ser- 
vants, and to prescribe and direct the course of 
studies to be pursued in said institution. 

Section 7. — The corporation shall have power to 
establish departments for the study of any and all 
the learned and liberal professions in the same, to 
confer the degree of doctor in the learned arts and 
sciences and belles-lettres, and to confer such other 
academical degrees as are usually conferred by the 
most learned institutions. 

Section 8. — Said institution shall have the power 
to institute a board of competent persons, always 
including the faculty, who shall examine such in- 
dividuals as shall apply, and if such applicants are 
found to possess such knowledge pursued in said 
institution as, in the judgment of said Board, ren- 
ders them worthy, they may be considered gradu- 
ates in course, and shall be entitled to diplomas ac- 
cordingly on paying such fee as the corporation 
shall affix, which fee, however, shall in no case 
e.xceed the tuition bills of the full course of studies 
in said institution. Said Examination Board 
may not exceed the number of ten. three of whom 
may transact business, provided one be of the 

Section g. — Should the corporation at any time 
act contrary to the provisions of this charter, or 
fail to comply with the same, upon complaint 
being made to the Circuit Court of Cook County, a 
scire facias shall issue, and the Circuit Attorney 
shall prosecute, on behalf of the people of this 
State, for the forfeiture of this charter. 

This act shall be a public act, and shall be con- 
strued liberally in all courts, for the purpose 
herein expressed. 



The draft of the charter was approved 
as read, and it was agreed that the Legi'5- 
lature, at its ensuing session, should be 
asked to enact it into law. A memorial 
was framed at the same meeting to the dif- 
ferent conferences in the region of the 
Northwest, asking their participation. Min- 
nesota, Nebraska and the Dakotas were then 
unknown quantities in their conception of 
the Xorthwest, and were not included in 
the memorial. 

Organization is Effected — The charter 
became a law at the ensuing session of the 
Legislature, the act being signed by Sidney 
Breese, Speaker of the House, and Lieuten- 
ant-Governor William McMurtry, as Presi- 
dent of the Senate, and received the approval 
of Gov. A. C. French, January 28, 1851. On 
the 14th of June, next ensuing, the first 
meeting of the corporation was held for 
purposes of organization, and their first 
formal action was the election of Dr. \. S. 
Davis as Trustee, to succeed Eri Reynolds, 
one of the charter members, who had died. 
They accepted the act of the Legislature, 
divided the members into classes by lot, and 
adopted a plan of operations for the estab- 
lishment of the College of Liberal Arts, 
with a President who should be Professor 
of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, a 
Professor of Mathematics, one of Natural 
Sciences, and another of Modern Lan- 
guages. A Preparatory School was like- 
wise contemplated in the City of Chicago, 
where there was not, at that time, even a 
high school, and steps were taken to raise 
money for these purposes. Beginning at 
the bottom, their thought was, first, to set 
the Preparatory School in operation. For 
this purpose twenty-five thousand dollars 
was needed. It was firmly resolved, "that 
no debts should be contracted or money ex- 
pended, without the means be first pro- 
vided," and Congress was to be memorial- 
ized for a grant of lands to the Northwest- 

ern LTniversity. Nothing ever resulted from 
this memorial, but the Trustees were not 
idle in other directions. They organized 
by the election of Dr. John Evans, the 
master spirit among them, as President; 
A. S. Sherman as Vice-President; Andrew 
J. Brown as Secretary ; and Jabez K. 
Botsford as Treasurer. These, with Grant 
Goodrich, George F. Foster and Dr. N. S. 
Davis, constituted the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Board. 

Seeking a Site. — The Committee on Site 
for the Preparatory School reported 
August 4, 1852, recommending the purchase 
of the property of the First Universalist 
Society in Chicago, which had a frontage 
of eighty feet on Washington Street, about 
the middle of the block east of the Clark 
Street Methodist Episcopal Church, at a 
cost of four thousand dollars, one-half cash 
and the balance in three years, at six per 
cent interest. On August 28th they raised 
their bid on this property to forty-eight 
hundred dollars, and started a subscription 
for the purpose of securing funds. Evi- 
dently there was a hitch in the negotiations, 
for the Board appointed Dr. Evans and 
Orrington Lunt to view other lots for the 
same purpose. That committee turned aside 
from the Universalist Church property, and 
recommended the purchase of a lot about 
two hundred feet square at the corner of 
LaSalle and Jackson Streets, from P. F. W. 
Peck. This situation was thought to be 
a little remote, but, the lot being larger, it 
was deemed more desirable for the pro- 
posed Preparatory School, and the purchase 
was consummated — a thousand dollars be- 
ing paid down, contributed by a few of the 
brethren. The title was taken in the name 
of John Evans, to be later transferred to 
the Trustees of Northwestern University. 
The consideration was eight thousand dol- 



Erection of Building Authorized. — On 

September 22, 1852, the erection of a build- 
ing upon this property was authorized, to 
accommodate three hundred students, and, 
on the same date a committee was ap- 
pointed, consisting of S. P. Keyes, N. S. 
Davis and Orrington Lunt, to recommend 
a site for the Collegiate Department. The 
ambition and scope of these early founders 
is seen in a series of resolutions adopted 
at this meeting, appealing to the Methodist 
people of the Northwest not to multiply 
higher institutions of learning, but to con- 
centrate their effort upon a single institu- 
tion, viz., the Northwestern University, 
and to make it an institution of the highest 
order of excellence, complete in all its 
parts; and, further, they resolved to ask 
from the Legislature power to establish pre- 
paratory schools in different sections of the 
Northwest, and to affiliate preparatory in- 
stitutions already in existence. 

In the following October Rev. Philo Jud- 
son was appointed to solicit subscriptions 
for the new enterprise. He had been pastor 
of the Clark Street Church, was an accom- 
plished and influential preacher and a man 
of affairs, with just the make-up to 
appeal to the constituency of the new 
institution. His first duty was to obtain 
funds for the Preparatory School on La- 
Salle Street. 

Site for Collegiate Department Sought. 
— But the developments with reference to 
the site of the Collegiate Department were 
destined to turn the Trustees away from 
Chicago. The Committee on Site con- 
sidered a location at Rose Hill, strongly 
commended by William B. Ogden ; a farm 
near Jefferson was looked upon with favor ; 
then the Lake Shore in the region of Win- 
netka and Lake Forest. The region contig- 
uous to Chicago on the north, because it 
was swampy, was usually avoided in going 

north by taking what was known as the 
"Old Sand Road.'' This road veered to 
the northwest at a point half a mile west 
of the northern limit of Lincoln Park — at 
that time an old Chicago Cemetery — and 
struck the Ridge Road just north of what 
is now Rose Hill Cemetery, then known as 
Rose's Ridge. Thus, to the ordinary 
traveler, the region north of Lincoln Park, 
adjoining the lake, was a terra incognita. 
Orrington Lunt had casually visited that 
region and demanded, before a location was 
settled upon, that the Lake Shore be ex- 
plored. He delayed a decision upon the 
Jefferson property and arranged a tour of 
inspection of the Lake Shore. Andrew J. 
Brown recalls it as of the Fourth of July. 
1853. Disposed in various vehicles, the 
Trustees took the Sand Road, stopped for 
lunch at the Rose's Ridge Tavern, and 
pursued their way along the Ridge Road 
to what is the corner of Ridge Avenue and 
Clark Street ; thence following an old cow 
path easterly, over the slough in the region of 
Davis Street and Sherman Avenue, they 
found themselves in a splendid oak forest 
skirting the Lake Shore, the remains of 
which will help us to recall that scene of ex- 
ploration for a university site fifty years 
ago. To see it was to desire it. 
Three hundred and eighty acres lay 
in a single tract, owned by Dr. J. 
H. Foster. The price asked was twenty- 
five thousand dollars — far in excess of its 
value, as values were then estimated. The 
terms were easy; one thousand dollars 
down, the balance in ten years at six per 
cent interest. Releases might be given from 
time to time on payment of one hundred 
dollars per acre. The purchase was con- 
summated, and the college site and college 
town, made up of forest and swamp, was 
permanently located. 



It was decided that it was "inexpedient 
to erect a Preparatory School in -the City 
of Chicago at the present time" ; the chosen 
site for that building, however, was good 
enough to keep, and, in the years to come, 
as the site of the Grand Pacific Hotel, and 
later, of the Illinois Trust and Savings 

Bank, would furnish valuable endowment 
for the fledgling college. 

The Trustees decided likewise to elect a 
President of the institution, whose first duty 
should be to procure subscriptions and plan 
for the establishment of an endowment for 
the University. 



Dr. Hinman Chosen First President — Sale 
of Scholarships Begins — Career of the 
New President Cut Short by His Early 
Death — Town Platted and Named in 
Honor of Dr. John Evans — Garrett Bib- 
lical Institute Established — First Corps 
of College Professors Elected — Universi- 
ty Assets in 1854 — Four-Mile Anti- 
Liquor District Established by Act of the 
Legislature — The Teaching Force In- 
creased — Dr. Evans' Land Policy — The 
Institution is Opened for Pupils — Some 
of the First Students. 

At the meeting of June 23, 1853, Dr. 
Clark T. Hinman was unanimously elected 
the first President of the University. He 
was thirty-six years of age, a Trustee from 
Michigan Conference and principal of Al- 
bion Seminary. He was a graduate of 
VVesleyan University, Connecticut, and had 
been principal of Newbury Seminary, in 
Vermont. He was a man of zeal and 
method. He laid hands upon one and an- 
other of the Trustees, .and took them out 
among their business acquaintances to give 
him an opportunity to present his cause. 
The scheme of raising money, which was 
adopted, and which Dr. Hinman was 
especially to present, was by the sale of 
scholarships. Perpetual scholarships were 
issued, which were to entitle to tuition the 
purchaser, his son or grandson and other 

descendants by will, and were sold for one 
hundred dollars ; transferable scholarships 
were sold for one hundred dollars, entitling 
the holder to five hundred dollars in tuition ; 
and scholarships were sold for fifty dollars, 
entitling the holder to two hundred dollars 
in tuition. A bond was issued on the first 
payment, and the scholarship was to be 
issued on the completion of payments with- 
in an allotted time. One-half of the funds 
from these sales was to be used for pur- 
poses of instruction, and the other half for 
the purchase of lands, not to exceed twelve 
hundred acres, as a site for the University 
and for the erection of buildings. The 
Trustees evidently thought that some tan- 
gible equivalent must be tendered for 
money spent for education in that early 
day. Scholarships certainly proved market- 
able ; and, if the same zeal had been exer- 
cised in the careful collection of the 
amounts pledged for them as was shown in 
their sale, the growth of the institution 
would have been more rapid ; for Dr. Hin- 
man disposed of them with great success 
among all sorts and conditions of men — on 
Water Street, among commission men and 
grain dealers : on Canal Street, to the lum- 
ber men; in town, to the merchants; and 
in the country, to the farmers. In the short 
period of his service he sold scholarships 
to the amount of $64,600, while others, under 
the stimulus of his activity, sold $37,000 



worth. He was dreaming, meanwhile, of 
the institution whose financial foundations 
he sought to lay, but death overtook him 
ere his dream had been realized. He died 
in 1854, one year before the formal open- 
ing of the institution in which he hoped to 
teach as Professor of ;\Ioral and Intellectual 

Town Platted and Named — Public Parks. 
— In the meantime, the land purchased by 
the Trustees from Dr. Foster, and some 
two hundred and forty-eight acres adjoining 
it on the west, which had been purchased 
by Andrew J. Brown and Harvey B. Hurd, 
was laid out into lots and blocks, and platted 
and named Evanston, in honor of Dr. John 
Evans. The University's part was bounded 
on the west by Sherman Avenue. What lay 
west of Sherman Avenue was in the Brown 
and Hurd tract. Many of the avenues and 
streets bear the names of the favorite 
friends of the University — as Orrington 
Avenue, named for Orrington Lunt ; Sher- 
man Avenue, for A. S. Sherman ; Hinman 
Avenue, for Dr. Hinman, the first President ; 
Judson Avenue, for Rev. Philo Judson; 
Davis Street, in honor of Dr. N. S. Davis. 
Six public parks were included in the 
plan to beautify the future Evanston, and 
the Lake Shore, from Davis Street to Uni- 
versity Place, east of Michigan Avenue, 
was dedicated to the same purpose. The 
contemplated campus extended from the 
projection eastward of the south line of 
Foster Street to the north line of University 
Place — a beautiful and spacious campus, 
respected Founders, but hardly enough for 
a university of so ambitious a title as yours. 
But Block I. to Simpson Street — so they 
thought — might be used as a campus in an 
emergency, and they still held lands to 
the north, unplatted, which might be used 
for the same purpose, but which, in their 
wildest dreams, they did not fancy would be 
needed for the campus of the institution 
they were founding. 

Garrett Biblical Institute Founded. 

— The scheme of a Biblical Institute had 
been started in Chicago by the same found- 
ers, and Eliza Garrett, by her will, had ar- 
ranged for the endowment of such an insti- 
tution ; but the beginnings of the institution 
were had in February, 1854. To them the 
Trustees of the University ofifered a site at 
a nominal rent. The ofi'er was accepted 
and an institution established on the campus 
that was destined to make splendid history 
in theological education. Streets were 
graded in the growing town; transporta- 
tion was furnished by the Chicago & Mil- 
waukee Railroad — now the JMilwaukee di- 
vision of the Chicago Northwestern — the 
right of way for which was given by Brown 
& Hurd. It is notable that this gift was 
coupled with the agreement that all pas- 
senger trains should stop at Evanston — an 
agreement that it would be difficult for the 
road to fulfill. 

Not content with their three hundred 
acres of ground, the Billings farm (con- 
tiguous to their first purchase) was bought, 
consisting of twenty-eight acres, for three 
thousand dollars. They chose to forget, for 
the time being, one of their earlier resolu- 
tions, viz. : "Resolved, That no debts shall 
be contracted or money expended without 
the means be first provided." It was a 
purchase on time, and time, they believed, 
was on their side. Values of their sub- 
divided property were advancing. They 
could soon open their school, possibly in 
1855. To this end they elected a small 
corps of professors in June, 1854: Henry 
S. Noyes, Professor of Mathematics ; W. 
D. Godman, Professor of Greek; and Abel 
Stevens, Professor of Literature. 

When the Treasurer made his report in 
1854, the assets of the University, in land, 
notes and subscriptions, were estimated at 
$281,915, with liabilities of $32,255.04. The 
Foster purchase had increased in value from 
$25,000 to $102,000; the Billings farm from 



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S3.000 to $4,2CX); and the Peck purchase, 
from $8,000 to $43,400. Subscriptions to 
scholarships made up the remainder of the 
estimated wealth. 

Site of the University Described. — 
It was probably at the annual meeting in 
June, 1854. that the hopeful feeling and 
aggressive spirit of the Trustees of the 
institution were voiced in a report which 
was of the nature of a proclamation and 
formulation of their plans, as thus far de- 
veloped. They offered devout praise to 
God and their sincere thanks to the found- 
ers for the present success and the future 
prospects of the University. They described 
the location at Evanston in glowing terms, 
stating that. "On the shore of Lake Michi- 
gan, eleven miles north of the City of Chi- 
cago and on the line of the Chicago & 
Milwaukee Railroad — the site being large, 
beautiful and healthful, including some four 
hundred and forty acres of land, sufficiently 
elevated above the lake and the surrounding 
country to afford an extensive view of each, 
extending nearly two miles along the shore 
and about one-half of it covered with a 
young and thrifty forest in its natural state, 
affording the lovers of good taste every 
facility desirable for the most lovely resi- 
dence in the country — a town has been laid 
out and named Evanston. The University 
buildings will occupy the latitudinal center 
of the town and the highest point of land, 
covered with a beautiful grove, and inclin- 
ing at an angle of some thirty degrees 
toward the lake shore." They add that, 
"In respect of the motive in selecting the 
site of the University and establishing the 
institution, neither local prejudice nor a 
spirit of opposition to kindred institutions 
has had any place in the hearts of its 
friends, but rather a desire to meet ad- 
equately the growing need in the Northwest 
of a university of the highest grade, adapted 
to the country, to its increasing prosperity 

and the advanced state of learning in the 
present age. Its location makes it central 
for the entire Northwest; and the magni- 
tude of the enterprise, by developing the 
educational resources of the country on a 
large scale, and by stimulating a spirit of 
noble, generous rivalry, will benefit institu- 
tions of every grade. We very frankly, and 
we hope not ostentatiously, aver our design 
of making it an institution second to none, 
and worthy of the country in which it is 
located and its name, 'The Northwestern 
University.' " 

Teaching Features of the University. — 
They then jiroceed to state its distinctive 
features: Undergraduate courses of in- 
struction ; Post-Graduate courses ; a j\Ied- 
ical Department in the near future ; a Law 
School. P>ut immediate attention was to be 
given to the College of Literature, Science 
and the Arts, with a classical course of four 
years, a scientific course and an elective 
course of the same duration. The condi- 
tions of admission were to be the same as 
those of other colleges of the country, not 
excepting Yale or Harvard. The scheme 
of contemplated professorships numbered 
fourteen, among which were some not yet 
realized; as a Professorship of the Fine 
Arts and Arts of Design, a Professorship 
of Didactics, of Physical Education and 
Hygiene. Young men were had in mind for 
these various chairs, some of whom were to 
increase their efficiency by devoting a year 
or more to travel in Europe and to study in 
the best Eastern Universities, comparing 
their own modes of instruction and profiting 
by the society of the ripest scholars of the 
age. Abel Stevens, William D. Godman 
and Henry S. Noyes had been selected for 
Literature, Greek and Mathematics. The 
merits of these men were set forth in a 
manner that showed their confidence, as, for 
instance: "To speak of their qualifications 
is superfluous" ; and then, speaking of 



Abel Stevens, they say: "As a rhetorician 
and finished scholar in English Literature, 
Abel Stevens stands beside the finest writ- 
ers of the nation, and as a preacher, and 
particularly a platform speaker, is unsur- 
passed in America." The commendation 
was doubtless merited; but their expres- 
sions lead us to say, verily those founders 
knew how to blow the Northwestern trum- 

They hoped to fill the remaining chairs, 
or such as were needed, at the subsequent 
session. They presented a tabulation of 
their net assets, showing the estimate of their 
resources in land and promises at $250,000, 
to which they proposed to add $150,000 by 
the sale of scholarships, and $100,000 by 
donations— the last for the purpose of erect- 
ing suitable buildings, including an observa- 
tory, and purchasing a library, cabinet, ap- 
paratus and other university fixtures. This 
report, or proclamation, was signed by 
Grant Goodrich, Chairman of the Commit- 
tee, attorney and special pleader for the in- 
fant University, and bears date July 4, 1854 
— the spirit of the day, no doubt, giving 
color to his rhetoric and a touch of ex- 
travagance to the document. But he was in 
earnest, and so were they all. 

When the Board met in June, 1855, Dr. 
Hinman, was no longer with them. That 
eager spirit had succumbed to the burden of 
his labors. He had undertaken to increase 
the endowment from the sale of scholar- 
ships to $250,000, and to secure the needed 
$100,000 for the erection of buildings. 
There is every probability that, with his 
rare faculty for influencing men, he would 
have accomplished even more than he had 
undertaken had time permitted. Fitting 
resolutions were passed, recounting the ser- 
vice which this gifted young man had 
rendered and the hopes that were enter- 
tained of him. Those inadequate resolu- 
tions have perished; at least, they are not 

of record. His monument is in the insti- 
tution he helped to found; and, while it 
lives, his name and his service will not be 
forgotten. They sought two years later to 
perpetuate his memory by some monument 
on the college grounds. It is, perhaps, well 
that they failed in this, for he partakes, with 
others, in the monumental character of the 
entire University enterprise to the devotion 
and sacrifice of its founders. 

At this session of the Board the liberal 
policy of the institution was signalized by 
the grant of a large lot for the Evanston 
public schools, and it was decided that the 
formal opening of the University should 
take place on November ist of the same 
year. A building was in course of erection, 
at the southeast corner of Block 20, on 
Davis Street, near Hinman Avenue, in 
which to house the infant college. Sub- 
scriptions, running through three years had 
been taken for this purpose. That building 
is with us still: the "Old College"' on the 
campus, a building about fifty feet in width 
and forty feet in depth, of three stories in 
height with an attic and a belfry. It con- 
tained six class-rooms, a chapel, a small 
museum and halls for two literary societies, 
with three rooms in the attic, where, with 
a little oat-meal for food, a few aspiring 
students might board themselves and com- 
pensate the University for their rent by 
ringing the college bell. The chapel fur- 
nished the meeting place of the Society of 
the First Methodist Church until they 
erected a church edifice of their own. 
Other meetings, political and social, were 
also held there. 

The liberal spirit of the founders was 
further evidenced at this meeting by the 
adoption of the report of the Committee on 
Professorships, which declared that, "In 
the election of Professors of Northwestern 
University, the Board of Trustees will have 
reference to character and qualifications 


alone : that is to say, that a professor need 
not necessarily be a Methodist." 

The Anti-Liquor Limit Established. — 
It was at this meeting that an amend- 
ment to their charter, enacted at the last 
session of the Legislature, was accepted, 
two sections of which were fraught with 
tremendous issues for the future institution. 
Section ii provided that, "No spirituous, 
vinous or fermented liquors shall be sold, 
under Jicense or otherwise, within four 
miles of the location of said University, ex- 
cept for medicinal, mechanical or sacra- 
mental purposes, under a penalty of twenty- 
five dollars for each ofifense, to be re- 
covered before any Justice of the Peace in 
said County of Cook; provided, that so 
much of this act as relates to the sale of 
intoxicating drinks within four miles may 
be repealed by the General Assembly when- 
ever they think proper." This created a 
prohibition district, ostensibly for the pro- 
tection of the students against the tempta- 
tions of the saloon, and incidentally protect- 
ing the city that should grow up about the 
University from the evils of the liquor traf- 
fic: and against this prohibition, the arts 
and persistence of the traffic in ardent 
spirits were to be continuously exerted. 
The third section of the amendment or- 
ganized the University into a Trust Com- 
pany, presumably for its own benefit, but 
its language was broader than that. It 
said, "The said corporation shall have 
power to take, hold, use and manage, lease 
and dispose of all such property, as may in 
any manner come to said corporation, 
charged with any trust or trusts, in con- 
formity with such trusts and direction, and 
to execute all such trusts as may be confided 
to it." Section 4 conceded the public value 
of such an institution as the Northwestern 
University, and ordained, "That all prop- 
erty, of whatever kind or description, be- 
longing to or owned by said corporation. 

shall be forever free from taxation for 
any and all purposes. This act shall be 
public and take effect from and after its 
passage." It was signed by the Speaker 
of the House and President of the Senate, 
and approved by Joel A. Matteson, Gover- 
nor. February 14, 1855. 

On June 15th the chosen corps of teach- 
ers was sought to be increased by the ad- 
dition of Dr. J. V. Z. Blaney, to the pros- 
pective faculty, as Professor of Chemistry, 
of whom similar high praise could be given, 
as to fitness for the work upon which 
he was expected to enter, as to his colleagues 
in the notable pronunciamento of July 4, 
1854 ; but it was discovered that there was 
not a sufficient number of Trustees present 
to constitute a quorum for the election of 
professors, so the election was declared 
void, but, in 1857, he was duly elected to 
the chair of Natural Science. 

It was now apparent that it would be 
difficult to hold the entire territory of the 
Northwest to the policy of a single institu- 
tion, for the Trustees were requested to 
permit cancelling of notes taken in Iowa for 
the sale of scholarships, or to allow the 
notes and subscriptions to be transferred 
to the Iowa Wesleyan University. The 
request was not granted, but it gave evi- 
dence of a tendency which was sadly noted 
to localize interests in the matter of educa- 
tion in portions of the district, which had 
been chosen as the field for the University. 

In July, 1855, a movement was started 
by Dr. Evans, and strongly advocated by 
him, seeking to fasten upon the Trustees 
the policy of withholding its property from 
sale and reserving it exclusively for pur- 
poses of lease. That far-sighted man saw 
clearly the value of the property for pur- 
pose of endowment, but overlooked the 
practical difficulty of successfully maintain- 
ing possession of a large body of land 
within the limits of a corporation such as 



Evanston was destined to be, on such a 
basis. With their usual sagacity, the 
Trustees laid his resolution on the table, 
even though Dr. Evans urged it with his 
usual vigor and persistence. 

University Opened — First Students. — 
The frame building on Davis Street was 
completed for occupancy by November, 
1855, ^"d circulars had been sent out in- 
viting the Northwestern students to as- 
semble. Professor Noyes was on hand to 
teach mathematics, and Professor Godman, 
likewise, to teach the classics. Professor 
Abel Stevens did not appear ; nor was he 
greatly needed, for there were only ten 
students in all, and their requirements could 
be easily met by two instructors. Indeed, 
though Professor Stevens was announced 
for the following year, he did not even then 
appear; and the name of Abel Stevens, the 
gifted historian of Methodism, is connected 
with the fortunes of Northwestern only 
as a "Might have Been." The roll of pupils 
for that year will always be of interest, 
as the advance guard of that great com- 
pany that, in time, should be permanently 
enrolled as students of the University. 
There were Thomas E. Annis, Winchester 
E. Clifford, Samuel L. Eastman, J. Marshall 
Godman, Horace A. Goodrich, C. F. Staf- 

ford, Hart L. Stewart, Albert Lamb and 
Elhanon Q. Searle. There is one name 
lacking, but history has often to bewail that 
there are blanks that cannot easily be filled. 
These were, somehow, grouped in a Fresh- 
man Class — an awkward squad, I warrant, 
of unequal preparation ; but the professors 
had time to spend on individual cases, so 
that the awkward squad were drilled into 
the uniformity of a Freshman Class. A lit- 
erary society was organized and named in 
honor of the lamented Dr. Hinman. It 
inherited his library as a part of its equip- 
ment, and was assigned a room for its 
sessions in the northeast corner of the third 
story of the college building. Greek, Latin 
and Mathematics, with declamations on 
Saturday, formed the program of instruc- 
tion. Permits must be secured for absence 
from town, and church services must be 
religiously attended on Sunday ; such was 
the routine of that first college year. 
Tuition, when not covered by a scholarship, 
was forty-five dollars per annum, with 
other fees amounting to nine dollars. The 
price of board was from two dollars and a 
half to three dollars and a half per week, in 
homes of the early settlers. The college bell 
tolled out the hours of recitation and de- 
votion, and the beginnings of college life 
in Evanston were laid. 


COXDITIOXS IX 1856-1860 

Trustees Meet in Their Ozvn Building — 
Dr. R. S. Foster Elected the Second Pres- 
ident — The Faculty Enlarged — Absorp- 
tion of Rush Medical College Projected — 
Competitors Enter the Field — Professor 
Jones' "Fern. Sem." — President Foster 
Visits the University, but Obtains a 
Year's Leave of Absence — He Joins the 
Faculty in 1857 — The Assets of the In- 
stitution Increased to Nearly $ji6,ooo — 
Reinforcement of the Faculty — First 
Graduated Class in 1859 — Dr. Foster Re- 
signs the Presidency and Dr. E. 0. Haven 
Becomes His Successor. 

In June of 1856 the Trustees met under 
their own roof in the Httle chapel of the 
University Building. They had made a be- 
ginning. Two professors had been at work 
at salaries of fifteen hundred dollars per 
annum. An agent had been busy in the sale 
of lots and scholarships. Their land was 
assuming the character of a settlement. 
The frogs were still croaking in the low 
places, but drainage had been started by 
"The Drainage Committee," and the frogs 
were given notice to quit or, at least, to go 
as far south as Dempster Street. 

Dr. Foster Elected Second President. — 
The Board of Trustees thought they re- 
quired a President soon, to give direction 
and leadership and help them in acquiring 
the resources needful for their work. Two 

names were especially canvassed : Those of 
Randolph S. Foster and E. Otis Haven, 
both rising men of unusual talent. The 
election resulted in fifteen votes for Dr. 
R. S. Foster and nine for Dr. E. O. Haven. 
The election of Dr. Foster was made unani- 
mous, with but one dissenting vote. He was 
thirty-six years of age and had already 
acquired a brilliant reputation as a pulpit 
orator, and was then serving a prominent 
church in New York. He was to fill the 
chair of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy 
in connection with the Presidency. His 
salary was to be two thousand dollars a 
year. A thousand dollars was appropriated 
for books. The chair of Latin Language 
and Literature was filled by the election of 
Daniel Bonbright, a young man of great 
promise, then a tutor in Yale College. His 
service was not to begin at once, but he was 
to be allowed a year's absence in Europe be- 
fore taking up the work. 

Tentative steps were taken at this meet- 
ing to carry out the university idea, to 
which the Trustees tenaciously held, by 
requesting Rush Medical College, which 
was now in its infancy, and Garrett Biblical 
Institute, to unite with them in a University 
organization for the purpose of conferring 
degrees ; but the doctors and theologians 
preferred their single blessedness, at least 
for the present. They were willing to occupy 
a sisterly relation, but nothing more. There 


was little use for a seal as yet on diplomas, 
but one was desirable in the execution of 
scholarships and real estate instruments of 
the corporation. For this purpose a design 
was chosen, consisting of an open book with 
radiating rays of light encircled by the 
words, "Northwestern University." This 
was to give place, later, to a somewhat 
more ornate design ; but it was destined to 
do duty for many years in the authorization 
of titles to land and scholarships, and upon 
the parchments of the early graduates. 

The minds of the brethren were deeply 
stirred over an incident that was brought to 
their notice at this time. They could not 
easily understand why Iowa Wesleyan 
University should spring up within their 
territory, but the matter was brought very 
close to them when Rev. W. P. Jones se- 
cured a charter for the Northwestern Fe- 
male College and Male Preparatory School, 
and flung out his banners within easy hail 
of the building where they were assembled. 
He had appropriated their name and func- 
tion ; he was aggressive and purposeful. 
They appointed a committee, on which was 
the shrewd attorney. Grant Goodrich, and 
the saintly Hooper Crews, to dissuade him. 
But neither the law nor the gospel were 
effective to divert the professor from his 
chosen name or purpose. Threats of prose- 
cution from the lawyer and persuasion from 
the preacher were alike futile. He even had 
the temerity to appear, later, before the 
Trustees and request the use of their build- 
ing until such time as his quarters should 
be ready for occupancy. It does not require 
historical or other imagination to picture 
the promptness with which Professor Jones 
was shown the door. However, the estab- 
lishment of what was known as the "Fem. 
Sem." was not similarly hailed by the 
students of the college. It was counted a 
boon, and often, I doubt not, when the as- 
siduous attention of college students by day 

and by night made life a burden to the said 
professor, he was led to wonder if, indeed, 
he had not committed an error in invading 
the territory of Northwestern University 
with his Northwestern Female College. 
However, it lived on, doing good work 
until it was merged in the institution whose 
Trustees it at first defied. 

In July, 1856, the President-elect ap- 
peared to look over his heritage and exhort 
the Trustees to larger undertakings. New 
and appropriate buildings he evidently 
thought necessary, for the Board immedi- 
ately resolved to prepare plans for perma- 
nent structures. He asked them to excuse 
him from entering upon his office for the 
period of one year, so that he might con- 
tinue for that time in the service of Trinity 
Methodist Episcopal Church of New York. 
His request was granted and the funds that 
otherwise would have been devoted to his 
salary were appropriated to the enrichment 
of the library. Evidently Dr. Foster came 
again in September to the opening of the 
college year, for the first recorded minutes 
of the faculty bear date, September 16, 
1856. It took place in the study of Pro- 
fessor Noyes. There were present: Ran- 
dolph S. Foster, President ; Henry S. 
Noyes, Professor of Mathematics ; and 
William D. Godman, Professor of Greek. 
It was agreed that, in the absence of the 
President for the ensuing year, the duties 
of the faculty should be divided as follows : 
Professor Noyes should assume the admir>- 
istration of discipline and act as Treasurer ; 
Professor Godman should be Secretary 
and Librarian. One other item of business 
is recorded: "Resolved, That a Bible class 
be formed and taught on the Sabbath day. 
Professor Noyes to teach it." The next 
meeting took place October 13, 1856, and 
its record is as follows: 

"In Faculty assembled. Resolved, That 
a student whose credit in recitations falls 



below the average for the term, shall fall 
out of his class to the next lower ; if a 
Freshman, his recitations are postponed for 
the year. W. D. Godman, Sec'y." 

Thus these two, in faculty assembled, 
carried on the interior legislation of the 
infant University during that year, col- 
lecting fees, attending to the library, doing 
all but the janitor work, which was dis- 
charged by some embryo statesmen who 
lived in the attic, at the munificent compen- 
sation of two dollars a week. 

Dr. Foster appeared on the 5th of June, 
1857, and then there were three. They were 
not so lonesome. They even held two 
faculty meetings in a month, and the records 
lengthen to a page and bristle with sug- 
gestions to the Trustees as to what should 
be done to push the fortunes of the little 
college. There had been twenty-two 
students in attendance during the year — a 
gain of over one hundred per cent. Among 
them I note the familiar names of Henry 
M. Kidder, W. A. Spencer, A. C. Linn, 
Homer A. Plympton, James W. Haney and 
I. McCaskey. There were two classes now. 
The library had grow-n to two thousand 
volumes. The museum had been begun 
under the enthusiastic labors of Robert Ken- 
nicott. They issued a circular in the sum- 
mer of 1857, promising three classes for 
the ensuing year, and a fourth, if students 
with advanced standing should make appli- 
cation; also an academic school, which 
should be a private enterprise where pre- 
paratory branches of study would be taught, 
students, partially prepared for college, be- 
ing permitted to spend a part of their time 
in college, the rest in the academy. They 
hesitated about the establishment of an 
academy under university auspices. They 
had not issued a catalogue as yet.. Professor 
Bonbright was given permission to remain 
abroad another year, and the working force 
cf the college was to be reinforced by the 

arrival of Dr. J. \'. Z. Blaney, Professor 
of Natural Science, and the sum of one 
thousand dollars was appropriated for the 
purchase of philosophical and chemical ap- 

Financial Conditions During 1857. — 
The sessions of the Trustees for 1857 
give out no sign of the embarrassment that 
was prevailing in the business world. They 
took careful account of their assets in va- 
rious schedules, and reported them as 
$315,845.30 in excess of their liabilities. 
The jubilant Financial Agent, in his fourth 
annual report, says: "Seldom, if ever, has 
it been the good fortune of an institution, 
unless endowed by very liberal bequests, to 
present in its infancy such a pecuniary 
basis as is shown by the exhibit herewith 
submitted. Four years since this institution 
was an experiment, and, by many, thought 
to be a visionary one. The entire capital 
consisted in whatever of profit or advantage 
might accrue from the ownership of six- 
teen lots in Chicago, which were held by 
Dr. Evans, and upon which a few in- 
dividuals had made advances of one 
thousand dollars, with the intention of plac- 
ing the investment to the account of the 
University. During that and the ensuing 
year, subscriptions to the amount of 
$22,440, payable in four equal annual in- 
stallments, were obtained. The site of the 
institution and that part of the now flourish- 
ing city of Evanston, constituting the 
original purchase — about three hundred and 
eighty acres — was bought of Dr. John H. 
Foster for $25,000, which sum, less one 
thousand collars, was to remain for ten 
years at six per cent interest. This pur- 
chase, and the sixteen lots in Chicago 
which were subsequently conveyed to the 
Trustees at the original cost of $8,000 and 
expenses, together with two parcels of land 
since purchased and sold at an advance, 
cimstitute the principal sources from which 



the present capital of the University has 
been derived. To the amount thus obtained 
add the proceeds of scholarships sold, and 
you have the assets above indicated." 

It is small wonder that Brother Judson 
was jubilant, and, with the rapid settlement 
of Evanston and sale of lots, could meet 
the hard times with a smile. The schedule 
of expenses shows to some extent the rough 
work that the University was called upon 
to do in order to provide for its educational 
plant. It is largely made up of items, such 
as surveying and platting, grading, clearing 
streets, ditching, chopping, fencing, bridg- 
ing, draining, grubbing, building break- 
waters — indeed, the whole vocabulary of 
the pioneer was taxed to describe their op- 
erations. Meantime, while the Trustees 
were grubbing ^nd chopping their way to 
the material enrichment of their institution, 
students and teachers were grubbing and 
chopping their way, under disadvantages, 
to the accomplishment of their ideals. One 
of the reported schedules of this year gives 
the names of purchasers of homesteads in 
Evanston — some eighty-five in number, all 
well known Methodist names— who were to 
make up the members left of the delightful 
company of old settlers, whose neighborli- 
ness and hospitality, whose simple kindliness 
and approachability, made Evanston a good 
place for a homesick boy to happen into. 
Most of these people purchased in blocks 
contiguous to University Place, usually a 
hundred feet front, and at prices ranging 
from five to ten dollars a foot. The cat- 
alogue of 1859 announced that there were 
twelve hundred inhabitants in Evanston. 
The desert and the solitary place were being 
made glad by habitation. The hard times 
were somewhat reflected in the financial re- 
port of the following year, when a gain of 
only about three thousand dollars was re- 
ported; and, though the purchase money 
on Evanston lands was not due until 1863, 

they passed a resolution setting aside fifty 
thousand dollars in securities, for the pay- 
ment of that debt and for the erection of 
buildings, provided no other resources were 
received for those purposes. 

Professor Bonbright was notified to ap- 
pear in Evanston and take up his work in 
1858. More students were expected that 
year, and arrangements were made to in- 
sure for them board with G. W. Reynolds, 
at $2.50 per week, including washing, light, 
fuel and room, and he was loaned five 
hundred dollars to assist in carrying out 
the difficult project. Surveying and leveling 
instruments were furnished Professor 
Noyes in connection with his work, which 
were to be procured "with the least possible 
outlay of funds." If the Trustees had 
known what good use he would make of 
them, and how much he would save them as 
a practical surveyor, they would not have 
been so niggardly in their grant. 

The year 1857 passed uneventfully in 
the little college. The faculty was reinforced 
by the service of a tutor, S. L. Eastman, 
whose duty it was to assist in preparatory 
classes. The library was increased and the 
foundations of the museum were growing, 
in the Northwestern class-room, under the 
skillful hands of Robert Kennicott. Thus, 
another year rolled round with Dr. Foster 
as President. There were twenty-nine 
students in all, and they were on the eve 
of sending out the first graduating class. 
On recommendation of the faculty, the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred 
upon Thomas E. Annis, Winchester E. 
Clifford, Samuel L. Eastman and Elhanon 
Q. Searles, and the degree of Bachelor of 
Philosophy upon Henry M. Kidder. These 
were to be the advance guard of the army 
of Northwestern graduates. In June of 
1859 the members of this class made their 
graduating orations and departed from the 
scenes of their scholastic training. These 



early graduating exercises were events in 
Evanston, when the men who had developed 
under the eye of the community took their 
leave of scenes that had become familiar. 
The people were interested in them, and 
thronged the little church to hear their 
orations. The farewell of the President was 
touching and personal, for he knew these 
men, had interested himself in them person- 
ally, and regarded their going away as a 
father regards the departure of his sons 
from the old home. The coming years 
might add the dignity of numbers to com- 
mencement occasions, but they would lack 
the sweet flavor of personal acquaintance 
and the inspiration of departure amid the 
regrets and tender farewells of a commu- 
nity who would watch the careers of the 
departing students with solicitude and hope. 

The Financial Agent, Rev. Philo Judson, 
had now resigned and Prof. Henry S. 
Noyes, in addition to his duties as professor, 
was appointed Agent of the University. 
He had previously looked after the financial 
affairs incidental to college expenses, tu- 
ition, etc., and now, in the most painstaking 
way, he was to carry, for a time, the burden 
of property management and business detail 
that was so vital to the institution. Though 
an excellent scholar and thorough mathe- 
matician, he was a man of affairs. He knew 
men and things as well as books, and was 
not niggardly of service of any sort that 
might advance the work that was dear to 

The Trustees were a little alarmed lest 
the expenses of the growing college should 
outstrip the receipts, and their alarm took 
the form of a resolution instructing the 
Executive Committee to bring the expenses 
of the institution within the available in- 
come. The budget showed expenses of 
five thousand dollars a year in excess of the 
income. It was truly alarming. They 
raised a subscription to lessen the deficit and 

arranged to pay teachers in land when other 
resources failed. 

Dr. Haven Succeeds to the Presidency. 
— By June. 1860, Dr. Foster had resigned 
the presidency; his library was added to 
the University library, and he returned to 
what was, to him, the more attractive work 
of the pastorate in New York City, leaving 
behind him memories of his genial and 
helpful presence and his inspiring eloquence 
that graced any occasion when he was the 
orator. Dr. E. O. Haven was elected in 
his place. His name had been turned down 
at the previous election ; this time the 
Trustees were turned down, and that all- 
round, indefatigable, and adaptable pro- 
fessor, Henry S. Noyes, was made Vice- 
President. Dr. Foster's departure was signal- 
ized by a resolution which voiced the deep 
regret over his going: "Resolved, That 
the intercourse of Dr. Foster with the Board 
has been that of the Christian minister and 
the Christian gentleman, and that his con- 
nection with the University has manifested 
his intelligence and earnest devotion to the 
cause of education, and that his influence of 
the members of the University was such as 
endears his memory to all the friends of 
the institution, and that the best wishes of 
the Board attend him to the avocation of the 
Christian ministry." They were still under 
the spell of his charming presence and en- 
gaging speech when they wrote that. And 
what opportunities those Trustees and 
students had in those days, to sit under the 
preaching of such men as Foster and 
Simpson and Dempster! — giants whom the 
moderns have hardly duplicated. But there 
were serviceable men to come. Professor 
Noyes, if not showy, was substantial and 
useful beyond many more brilliant men. 
In matters of discipline he was kind. 
Mischievous fellows used to hyphenate his 
name and called him Professor No-ves. But 


they found to their sorrow that, when oc- 
casion demanded it, in matters of discipline, 
his Yes was Yea. and his No, Nay — and 
there was no appeal. He met the in-coming 
student with a warm greeting that dissi- 
pated his homesickness, and his lovely wife 
supplemented his labors with such graceful 
kindness as made the new-comer feel that 
Evanston was all right as long as these 
people were in town. 

There were thirty students in 1859-60, 
and the ranks of the graduates were in- 
creased by the names of A. C. Linn. W. A. 
Lord, H. A. Plympton, E. Q. Searles, M. 
C. Spaulding, B. A. Springer and H. L. 
Stewart, who received the degree of A. B., 
and W. H. H. Raleigh who received the de- 
gree of Ph. B. The Academy was now duly 
organized, with a principal of its own. War- 
ren Taplin being first called to that office. 



Changes of Faculty — Charter Amendments 
Adopted — Effect of the Civil War on 
Number of Students — Accessions to the 
Faculty — University Land Debt is Liqui- 
dated — Orrington Liint Land Donation 
for Benefit of Library — University Hall 
Projected — Accession of Students and 
Teaching Force Folloiving the War 
Period — Nezu Prises Serve as a Stimulus 
to the Students — First Honorary Degrees 
Conferred — Corporate Name is Changed 
— Professors' Salaries Increased and 
Erection of University Hall Prosecuted 
— A "Gold Brick" Donation — Encourag- 
ing Financial Development — Death of 
Acting President Noyes. 

In 1860-61 there had been forty-three 
students in College and forty-nine in the 
Academy, the library had been increased to 
over three thousand volumes, and the cur- 
riculum had remained the same, with its 
emphasis on Latin, Greek and Mathematics. 
Dr. Godman resigned his chair in Greek in 
i860, thereby reducing the teaching force 
of the college. The presumption is. that the 
burden of his work fell on the broad 
shoulders of Professor Noyes, who was al- 
ready carrying Mathematics and the Acting 
Presidency, besides acting as Secretary of 
the Board of Trustees and Financial Agent ; 
and, in view of his responsibilities, six 
hundred dollars was added to his salary 

over that of the other professors. It was 
an efficient and economical arrangement; 
but how about the not too strong Professor? 
He is weaving his life into his work with- 
out stint. 

A formal transfer of assets was now 
made to J. G. Hamilton, as Trustee, to the 
extent of $37,949, to meet approaching in- 
debtedness, and, as a result, he was ready 
to meet Dr. Foster, the mortgagee of the 
Evanston lands, when he called for pay- 
ment in 1863. Dr. Bonbright now takes his 
place as Secretary of the faculty, to keep 
its records almost continuously till 1873. 

In 1 86 1 amendments were added to the 
charter, regulating the number and work 
of Trustees appointed by the Annual Con- 
ferences, and providing that any chartered 
institution of learning may become a de- 
partment of this University, by agreement 
between the Boards of Trustees of both 
institutions. They are still coquetting with 
Rush Medical College and Garrett Biblical 
Institute, and have serious intentions as to 
a Law School. They had made some in- 
vestment in the property of Rock River 
Seminary at Mt. Morris, Illinois, probably 
in the neighborhood of five thousand dol- 
lars. A creditor had seized upon it and it 
was liable to be alienated. They were will- 
ing to relinquish their claim if it could be 
saved by local friends, but it passed from 
under Methodist control, and the first of 



their ventures in affiliated preparatory 
schools, as provided for by their charter, 
was a failure. 

The Civil War — Financial Conditions. 
— The existence of the War of the Rebel- 
lion was reflected in college life in 1862, 
in the resignation by Dr. J. V. Z. Blaney, 
of the Chair of Natural Science. He was 
parted with sadly, and the best wishes of 
the little college followed him in the patriotic 
service in which he engaged. Many of the 
students followed him in the service, among 
them being Plympton, McCaskey. Spencer 
and Haney, H. A. Pearsons, O. C. Foster, 
Charles F. Smith and M. C. Springer, and 
many others whose names are lost to us; 
and, from time to time, the Recruiting Ser- 
geant, with his fife and drum, found Evan- 
ston and its students a fruitful field for re- 
cruiting operations, seriously thinning the 
ranks and causing the faculty to invoke the 
authority of the distant parents as to 
whether or not their boys should be per- 
mitted to enlist. 

In consequence of the depletion of the 
faculty, Drs. Dempster and Bannister were 
called to assist in the work of instruction. 
Clark Street Methodist Episcopal Church 
ofifered in 1862 to open its church doors in 
Chicago for the commencement exercises — 
a proposition which was declined on the 
ground of the smallness of the class; so 
that, on that occasion, the rafters of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church at Evanston 
resounded with the eloquence of Robert 
Bentley, Isaac McCaskey, William T. Rose, 
David Sterrit and Bennett B. Botsford 
The number of students, all told, that year, 
had dwindled to eighty-nine. The Senior 
class of 1862-63 was reduced by enlistments 
to two persons, and one of these had no 
sooner doffed his scholastic gown than he 
put on the soldier's uniform and marched 
away to his country's service. Still, there 
was a gain of preparatory students that 

year, and the aggregate number on the col- 
lege roll was slightly increased. 

June 18, 1862, Oliver Marcy was elected 
to the Chair of Natural Science and 
Physics, to succeed Dr. Blaney, who was 
made Professor Emeritus. Professor 
Marcy had been teaching at Wilbrahani, 
Mass. He was an enthusiast in his work 
and a most genial and painstaking teacher, 
who was destined to a long and honorable 
service in his new relations. Rev. N. H. 
Axtell, later an honored member of Rock 
River Conference, was likewise added to 
the teaching force during the year as Prin- 
cipal of the Academy, assisted by A. C. 
Linn, a graduate of the class of i860, as 
Tutor in Mathematics and Latin — a sturdy, 
thorough-going teacher who was soon to 
enter the service of his country and lay 
down his life in her cause. 

The income of the University was now 
estimated by a judicious 'committee, con- 
sisting of Bishop Simpson, J. G. Hamilton 
and Prof. H. S. Noyes, at $5,594. and its 
W'hole property was valued at $225,000. 
Evidently there had been a great shrink- 
age from former valuations, or a strong 
desire to stimulate donations by putting an 
exceedingly conservative estimate upon the 
property. At any rate, the pressure was 
upon the Trustees to provide better build- 
ings and better boarding accommodations, 
in order to appeal to new students and to 
hold those already in attendance. From time 
to time the matter was earnestly discussed 
by the Trustees. A building known as the 
Club House, now located on Orrington 
Avenue, near Clark Street, capable of ac- 
commodating about twenty students, was 
the result of this agitation — the first experi- 
ment of the University in the matter of dor- 
mitories. Fifteen thousand dollars worth 
of scholarship notes was likewise set apart 
as a building fund, besides ten thousand 



dollars from prospective sales of University 
lands. The rest must wait upon donations. 

In November, 1863, James G. Hamilton, 
the University Treasurer, announced the 
fulfilment of his trust in the matter of the 
payment of the University debt, for which 
$39,000 of assets had been put in his hands. 
It was a happy consummation. It realized 
the forethought of the fathers and nerved 
them to still larger undertakings. A definite 
plan for locating upon the campus the build- 
ings that were sure to come with tlie prog- 
ress of time was now devised ; and the 
services of the eloquent Dr. Tiflfany were 
secured, as Financial Agent, to see if his 
powers of persuasion could not unlock the 
pursestrings of numerous patrons to the 
extent of providing funds for the projected 
buildings. The cost of the main building 
was to be one hundred thousand dollars, 
and some were sanguine enough to believe 
that, in the space of a few months, that 
silver-tongued orator could coin his speech 
into the needed amount. But the task was 
too difficult ; few contributions were secured 
by the gifted agent, and Rev. S. A. W. 
Jewett took up the task with little better 

Accessions to the Teaching Force. — 
In 1865 the name of Rev. Louis Kistler 
appears as a temporary appointment to the 
Chair of Greek and Principal of the Pre- 
paratory Department. This appointment 
was made permanent the following year. 
He was an animated instructor, full of ac- 
tion, and knew his subject well. His eccen- 
tricities were such as to interest his students 
and give rise to those mischievous pranks 
that students are wont to play where there is 
opportunity. He had his favorite pupils : 
among them a young Scot, fresh from the 
farm in Lake County, appealed to his 
partiality by his conscientious devotion to 
his work and his uniform excellence in his 
classes — Robert Baird, who was destined to 

write after his name, "Professor of Greek 
Language and Literature." Those of us 
who sat under Prof. Kistler will readily con- 
cede to him that, in the class-room, he put 
a spirit and fire into Homer's heroic lines 
that we were unable to acquire in the ordi- 
nary use of our lexicons. 

It was during the year 1865 that Orring- 
ton Lunt, upon whose heart rested heavily 
the educational work of the church, donated 
a tract of one hundred and fifty-seven acres 
of land in George Smith's Sub-division, ad- 
joining Wilmette, which was to be applied 
to library endowment. The conditions of 
this donation involved a few financial obli- 
gations on the part of the University, which 
were gladly met in view of the prospective 
value of this library endowment, and, stimu- 
lated by the gift, the Trustees set themselves 
afresh to the task of college buildings. They 
employed an architect — G. P. Randall, of 
Chicago — who designed the building that is 
now known as University Hall. It was 
a fascinating thing, when drawn on paper 
as it would be when drawn in stone, dom- 
inating the campus and sounding out the 
hours from its watch-tower to the genera- 
tions of coming students. But how to 
build it was the question which still re- 
mained unanswered. 

In 1865 and 1866 we note the name of 
George Strobridge as Principal of the 
Academy. He had returned from the war 
to the peaceful pursuit of pedagogy, and 
John Poucher was his assistant. 

In 1866 a new name was added to the 
corps of instructors — that of David H. 
Wheeler, Professor of History and English 
Literature — a genial and accomplished 
scholar and elegant writer, who had seen 
much of the world and was destined to 
make a marked impression while he re- 
mained in this corner of it. 

The items of Trustee business of these 
years are somewhat dreary reading — made 



up, as they were, of transactions concerning 
the property of the University, of repairs 
and improvements of one sort or anothjr, 
the discussion of the problem of shore pro- 
tection, and of various ways and means for 
the enlargement of property interests and 
the raising of funds. But all this is of 
exceeding importance, in order that the 
professors may be supported in their work 
and the students kept at their tasks with 
the increasing facilities that they require. 
And the work goes on. Evans, Lunt, Bots- 
ford, Hamilton, Cook, Noyes and Hoag — 
as the Executive Committee — did the busi- 
ness that must be done, held things together 
and hoped for improvement and growth. 

The increase of college students was not 
rapid, but the academy numbers had 
reached one hundred and five in 1866. with a 
roll of seven teachers, among them being the 
new names of John Ellis and Edmund \V. 
Burke — the Judge Burke, that is to be, 
though, to be honest, we did not then 
suspect it. The' catalogue of that year blos- 
soms out unexpectedly with the announce- 
ment of the Lunt Prize in Philology, the 
Haskin Prize in Mathematics, the Hurd 
Prize in Physical Science, the Kedzie Prize 
in Declamation and the Hamilton Prize in 
Composition and Reading. These prizes 
gave a marvelous stimulus to things. It all 
came out of the effort of John A. Copeland 
to start a prize declamation contest, a few 
years before, when a petition was presented 
to the faculty, which was duly discussed and 
about which there was much hesitation, 
though the petition was granted that a prize 
declamation contest be permitted. Tom 
Strobridge won the first prize and Will 
Comstock the second. The occasion aroused 
an interest such as the University had rarely 
known. The contestants had raised the 
funds for their prizes, but thereafter, as it 
appeared, kind friends would furnish them. 

One incident of 1866 shows how difficult 

it was for the Trustees to anticipate the 
future requirements of the University. A 
deed was given to the heirs of John Demp- 
ster for what was known as Dempster's 
Sub-division, which cut the campus in twain 
in the region of the deep ditch which runs 
from Sheridan Road to the Lake, north of 
Cook Street. This was the result of a pre- 
vious contract, executed at a time when the 
Trustees might have been forgiven for 
their lack of foresight. The Garrett Bibli- 
cal Institute had been located on the campus 
just south of the property described; and, 
to imagine that the remainder of the cam- 
pus would suffice for the needs of the grow- 
ing institution, was a fallacy that it required 
but little time to prove. In the same year 
the Presbyterians were given a site for a 
church. The Baptists and Congregational- 
ists were similarly treated, and when they 
had no house of worship, they were wel- 
come to the College Chapel. During the 
same year the corporate name of the Uni- 
versity was changed from "Trustees of the 
Northwestern University" to "Northwestern 
University." Other names were suggested, 
but the Trustees clung tenaciously to the 
idea with which they started, of a univer- 
sity for the Northwest. The Treasurer's 
report for that year showed assets to the 
amount of $419,751.50 and subscriptions 
to the University Hall amounting to 

The first honorary degrees given by the 
University were bestowed in 1866, when 
George W. Quereau, George M. Steele, and 
George S. Hare were given the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity, and, upon Randolph S. 
Foster and Joseph Cummings were con- 
ferred the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Professor Bonbright continued to act as 
Secretary of the Faculty till 1869, when 
Professor Marcy relieved him for a number 
of years. During this period the faculty re- 
mained unchanged. 



Increase in Salaries and Assets. — 

A strong desire was manifested in 1867 
to see the erection of University Hall 
pushed to completion. Matters were look- 
ing much more hopeful. The income from 
endowment had been found sufficient to 
warrant increasing the salaries of the pro- 
fessors from $1,500 to $2,000 per annum, 
and within a year the assets had increased 
over $40,000. The building was now under- 
taken in a very cautious manner. It was to 
be constructed of Athens stone, and, with, 
the discreetness that always characterized 
them, the Trustees proposed to stop and 
roof the building over when it reached a 
point beyond which their available funds 
would not enable them to proceed. H. B. 
Hurd proposed in this emergency — and the 
proposition carried — that the building be 
completed to the roof and enclosed before 
halting in the enterprise. Their hearts were 
gladdened by the announcement made 
by Prof. Louis Kistler, that one William 
Walker, of Kankakee, proposed to give the 
munificent sum of thirty thousand dollars 
for the completion of the building. It was a 
cruel disappointment when the discovery 
was made that Lord Walker's specialty was 
subscribing to various benevolent enter- 
prises. His benefactions, however, were of 
the "gold-brick" variety. The Trustees of 
Garrett Biblical Institute were treated to a 
similar experience at the dedication of Heck 
Hall. But there were those who promised 
and performed ; and in an emergency, a 
loan could be safely made, so the Llniversity 
Hall was assured. The building went on, 
giving marvelous stimulus to the work of 
the college, as voiced in the last report of 
Professor Noyes as Secretary and Financial 
Agent, made in June, 1868, in which he 
says : "The work of the new college build- 
ing is progressing with gratifying rapidity. 
Its erection has greatly inspired public con- 
fidence in the permanent growth of Evan- 

ston, and had a marked influence in en- 
hancing the prices of University property. 
It can no longer be doubted that the resolu- 
tion adopted at the last meeting of the 
Board, to proceed at once with the building, 
was a wise and prudent measure. The 
early completion of the edifice will hasten 
the day of its more complete and generous 

He reported the assets of the institution 
at $703,706.08, with a net income of nearly 
seventeen thousand dollars during 1866. 
The Snyder farm had been purchased, 
south of Dempster Street, running from 
Chicago Avenue to the lake, at a cost of 
$26,623.12, and, by June loth, sales and 
leases of that property, were made by Pro- 
fessor Noyes, amounting to $42,445, leav- 
ing a profit above the original investment 
of $15,821.88, to which should be added, as 
a conservative estimate, lots unsold to the 
value of $74,470, and all within the space 
of two years. Verily, if subscriptions to 
the new building were not forthcoming. 
they could turn aside to their old procedure 
of building up the University on the in- 
crease of land values. This transaction 
Professor Noyes carried through; sur- 
veyed and sub-divided the grounds, mar- 
keted the property up to 1868, and it has 
since proved one of the choicest of the 
University's holdings. His work was nearly 
done. His strength, never great, was break- 
ing under the load that he had carried and 
he needed rest and change. The Trustees 
complimented him for his fidelity as he laid 
down his tasks — all but his teaching and 
secretaryship of the Board. Miss Willard 
has well said of him: "No one ever con- 
nected with the institution has placed upon 
it a more skillful hand, or at a time when 
it was more plastic to his touch. To the 
last syllable of recorded time, his name 
should be associated with the Northwestern 


University, and doubtless it will some day 
be permanently connected with some build- 
ing of the growing group upon the College 
campus." He relinquished his work in 1869 
and his secretaryship in 1870, and was ten- 
derly laid to rest, at Rosehill Cemetery, in 
1872. Professor D. H. Wheeler succeeded 
him in the Acting Presidency of the insti- 

tution. T. C. Hoag, the former Treasurer 
of the University, now succeeded to the du- 
ties of Agent, bringing to the task a large 
business experience and orderly habits in the 
conduct of affairs. For more than twenty- 
five years he was to continue in the dis- 
charge of that ofifice or of the treasurership, 
giving good account of his stewardship. 



Chicago Medical College Merged in the 
University — A "Tozvn and Gown" Con- 
test — Dr. Erastus 0. Haven Enters 
Upon the Presidency — Women Admitted 
to College Classes — Addition to the Fac- 
ulty — Greenleaf Library — College Jour- 
nals — Dr. Haven is Succeeded in the 
Presidency by Dr. C. H. Fowler — In- 
crease of Students and Growth of College 
Catalogue — Coeducation Established and 
Miss Frances E. IVillard Joins the Fac- 
ulty — Gymnasium Erected — Financial 
Embarrassment — President Fozvlcr Re- 
tires and Dr. Oliver H. Marcy Becomes 
Acting President — The University Wins 
on the Taxation Issue — Life-Saving Sta- 
tion Established. 

The Chicago Medical College had now 
become an integral part of Northwestern 
University, located on the corner of Prairie 
Avenue and Twenty-sixth Street, Chicago, 
in close conjunction with Mercy Hospital. 
The University aided in the erection of its 
building and felt great pride in the new 
connection, which was largely brought 
about through the agency of Dr. N. S. 
Davis, an early Trustee of the University 
and deeply interested in the cause of medi- 
cal education. The income of the Univer- 
sity had now been enhanced by returns from 
the La Salle Street lots, which had been 

leased to the Grand Pacific Hotel corpora- 
tion, and the future looked brighter. 

In the catalogue of 1868-69 there appears, 
for the first time, the name of Robert M. 
Cumnock, Instructor in Elocution, with 
the modest compensation of three dollars a 
week. His time as an instructor would 
command that much an hour a few years 
later. His services proved so acceptable 
that he was paid three hundred dollars the 
following year for such services as he ren- 
dered in connection with the College 
students. He was a rising man and has 
risen to be one of the fixed stars in the 
firmament of the University. The name of 
Robert Baird now appears, too, as Instruc- 
tor in Greek in the Academy. He, too, was 
a rising man, on his way to become a fixed 
star, so to speak, in the University constel- 
lation, but died deeply regretted during 
the year 1905. 

Town and Gown Contest — New Build- 
ings. — Most colleges have had their town 
and gown experiences and, growing up, as 
the Town of Evanston has done, under the 
shadow of the University, it would almost 
seem that experiences of hostility would be 
avoided; but the student body was con- 
stantly discovering that they were regarded 
as an element that had few rights at the 
hands of the native-born, and more than 
once they had rough treatment at the hands 
of the town boys. Nor is it to be wondered 



at that the owners of melon patches, to the 
south and on the ridge, regarded the student 
community with some suspicion during the 
period when the juicy melon ripens on its 
vine. But the Trustees, too, had their 
troubles in 1869, when the Town vs. Gown 
spirit was manifested by a visitation of vil- 
lagers to the Trustees' Board on the subject 
of taxation. They were respectfully heard 
and were told that the Trustees had troubles 
of their own in maintaining an institution 
that would be a credit to all concerned, even 
with the subsidy given by the State in the 
form of exemption from general taxation; 
and, then, Grant Goodrich took the floor 
and informed the visitors as to what the 
University had done for the town, was do- 
ing and would continue to do, and what 
were its rights under its charter, and how 
the scheme of mutual benefits ought at once 
and forever to quiet the incipient murmur- 
ings on the subject of tax-burdens because 
of University exemption. He did not fully 
lay the ghost. It has since walked abroad 
and, perhaps, will never down, for there 
never yet was a college town but had its 
war 'twixt "town and gown." 

The lease of part of the campus to Gar- 
rett Biblical Institute was put in form, as 
it now exists, after long and tedious con- 
ferences — indeed, after Heck Hall had been 
erected — and the mutual relations were so 
adjusted that they might live ever after 
happily and helpfully, side by side. 

University Hall was now well-nigh com- 
plete and the formal dedication and occupa- 
tion was designed for 1870. It was con- 
sidered desirable that a President should be 
elected to begin service simultaneously with 
the occupation of this Hall, and thought 
turned again to Dr. Erastus O. Haven. He 
was then President of the University of 
Michigan — a man whose coming would give 
new dignity and prominence to the Univer- 

Dr. Haven Assumes the Presidency. — 

The Trustees fixed his salary — iiiirabile 
dictiil — at $4,500 per annum, and elected 
him without a dissenting vote. President 
Haven was then forty-nine years of age. 
He had graduated from Wesleyan Univer- 
sity in 1842 ; had been Principal of Amenia 
Seminary ; had been Professor of Latin in 
Michigan University, and later of English 
Language, Literature and History; had 
been editor of "Zion's Herald" ; a member 
of the Massachusetts State Senate, and 
Overseer of Harvard University ; then 
President of the University of Michigan 
for six years before accepting the Presi- 
dency of Northwestern. He was a clear, 
earnest and logical speaker, and his long 
experience and eminent qualifications 
strongly commended him in his new re- 
lations. His first year was signalized by 
the admission of women to the college 
classes — ahnost a new departure among 
colleges in the United States, but a move- 
ment that he had championed and concern- 
ing which he had assurances before coming 
to Evanston. The working union with the 
Chicago Medical College was consummated 
in his first year, and there were added to 
the roll of University instructors the con- 
spicuous names of Davis, Andrews, John- 
son, Byford, Isham, HoUister, Roler and 
Bevan, with N. S. Davis — then in his prime 
— Dean of the Medical School. The sum- 
mary of names of University students 
counted three hundred and thirty-seven, of 
which two hundred and sixty-two were in 
Evanston. The curriculum had been greatly 
enriched. Julius F. Kellogg had entered 
the College Faculty as Professor of Civil 
Engineering — a splendid mathematician, an 
excellent teacher and well beloved. 

The north end of the third story of 
University Hall had been set apart as a 
library, in which the accumulated treasures 
of twenty years were installed, and to which 

x()RTh\vi:sti:rn" fkmalh 


was added the Greenleaf Library of twenty 
thousand volumes, rich in classics, in phil- 
osophy, in art and education, the private 
library of Dr. John Schulze, Minister of 
Education in Prussia. The funds for this 
rich and timely purchase were the gift of 
Luther L. Greenleaf, one of Evanston's 
large-hearted and well-disposed citizens, a 
friend and a Trustee of the University. 

The Advent of College Journalism. — 
College journalism began during the 
presidency of Dr. Haven, with the issue of 
"The Tripod" — a serious and well edited 
publication, whose columns represented the 
College and the Medical School. A rival 
entered the field in 1878, and, for three 
years, made matters interesting, as only 
rival papers with an inadequate constituency 
can. These papers were combined in 1881 
in the "Northwestern," the present college 
paper, which has held the field alone, ex- 
cept during a single year, when the "Barbs," 
who concluded that they were discrimi- 
nated against in the make-up of the editorial 
staff, entered the field of college journal- 
ism, in which Sidney P. Johnston won his 
newspaper spurs. The "Evanston Press," 
too, was an outgrowth of college journal- 
ism, bringing out the latent talent of Robert 
Vandercook and giving direction to the 
bent of Edwin L. Shuman, afterwards the 
accomplished literary editor of the "Chicago 
Tribune," and still later of the "Record- 
Herald." And what shall we say of the 
numerous reporters who have reported 
Evanston news for the Chicago press? 
Eager for news, they have sometimes 
created it, and very often magnified some 
trivial incident into a harmful sensation. 
Many of them have graduated into jour- 
nalism, however, and given a good account 
of themselves. For many years James W. 
Scott, of the "Chicago Herald," maintained 
the Herald Scholarship and Mr. H. H. 
Kohlsaat has continued it. A publication 

that has reflected much of the spirit of 
college life was the "Pandora," issued in 

1884 and published by the senior class. In 

1885 the name was changed to "Syllabus," 
and its publication was assumed by the 
fraternities. In 1893' the publication was 
undertaken by the junior class and so con- 

"Sketches in Purple" is a most creditable 
exhibit of literary work done in the classes 
of Prof. J. S. Clark, first published in 
1 90 1, with hope of an annual appearing. 

The list of prizes as stimulants to all sorts 
of intellectual activity had been increased by 
the addition of prizes for excellence in liter- 
ary composition, leading up to the Blan- 
chard Prize of one hundred dollars for the 
best English oration, and sundry prizes for 
excellence in debate and elocution. 

The Catalogue of 1869-70 is the most 
attractive issue of that periodical thus far 
published, and it impressed the founders 
that their hopes of Northwestern were 
reaching some fruitage. A cut of the new 
University Hall adorns its pages, giving the 
impression of amplitude of accommodation 
in which to do the college work. The joy 
of teachers and students in the spacious 
quarters, which contrasted so strongly with 
the stuffy quarters on Davis Street, 
amounted almost to intoxication. Then, 
too, the freedom of the splendid campus, 
with its oak-tree shade, its outlook on the 
open lake, were means of intellectual 
growth and culture that could not be over- 
rated. The museum, that was growing to 
splendid proportions under the loving care 
of Professor Marcy, was given spacious 
quarters in the lofty upper story of the 
building. The Preparatory School was 
given the cast-off garment of the College on 
Davis Street ; and it, too, took on new 
dignity and importance, with its little cam- 
pus all its own, where Preps, would no 
longer be over awed by the lordly airs of 



college men. Amos W. Patten, and Charles 
W. Pearson and E. P. Shrader, names that 
will figure more prominently by and by, 
were added to the teaching force of the 
Academy. Through Dr. Haven's efforts, 
the hospitality of the College was extended 
to the Evanston College for Ladies, and an 
opening made for the co-operation of the 
Scandinavians in the work of the College. 
Prof. H. S. Carhart, fresh from Middle- 
town, was added to the faculty in the Chair 
of Civil Engineering, while Professor Kel- 
logg assumed the Chair of Mathematics. 
Professor Carhart likewise took up the du- 
ties of Secretary of the Faculty, which Pro- 
fessor Marcy and Professor Bonbright had 
carried. Few colleges were then better 
equipped with bright, earnest men, or had 
a better share of hope and the stimulus of 
manifest progression. 

Another Change of Administration. — 
The administration of Dr. Haven was 
all too short. His ambitions were, no doubt, 
ecclesiastical. The General Conference 
called him away to the Secretaryship of 
the Board of Education, and he inclined to 
the summons. Gentle, loving persuasion 
was of no avail to divert him from this 
public call. In October, 1872, Dr. C. H. 
Fowler was elected President of the Uni- 
versity for the second time, he having de- 
clined an earlier election. His career, since 
1 86 1, when he graduated from Garrett 
Biblical Institute, had been in the adjacent 
City of Chicago, where he had acquired 
the reputation of a pulpit orator of the 
highest rank. His brilliant parts and large 
influence promised well for a splendid 
career at Evanston. He magnified his work 
and made it honorable and, with the stim- 
ulus of youth, he planned for large things 
in connection with his charge. He planned 
a School of Technology. A School of 
Music was established. The Evanston Col- 
lege for Ladies was merged in the Uni- 

versity, and a Law School was established in 
conjunction with the University of Chicago, 
which was destined to become exclusively 
the Northwestern University Law School. 
The catalogue, never larger than eighty 
pages in any previous issue, now became 
an imposing document of one hundred and 
eighty pages, with broadened curriculum, 
lists of professional schools and affiliated 
preparatory schools, and an enrollment of 
eight hundred and sixty-six students, to- 
gether with a double-page engraving of the 
campus and its buildings and the adjacent 
lake — enough to fire the prospective student 
with an eager desire to be a part of such 
a school. The succeeding catalogue is less 
ambitious, composed of one hundred and 
twelve pages, of lighter paper and smaller 
type. The President had doubtless heard 
from the business office as to the cost of 
printing and the matter of postage ; but the 
roll of students had increased to eight hun- 
dred ninety-one. 

Organization of Teaching Force. — 
Frances E. Willard hatl become asso- 
ciated with the University, as Professor of 
Esthetics, on the merging of the Evanston 
College for Ladies in the University. Her 
students came with her and the roll of the 
graduates of the Northwestern Female Col- 
lege, to which the Evanston College for 
Ladies succeeded, was included among the 
alumni of Northwestern University. That 
brilliant woman did not tarry long in educa- 
tional work. She was calculated for leader- 
ship rather than for service in the ranks. She 
chafed under the restraints of a conservative 
Board of Trustees. Her career was to be 
world-wide. As the President of the Wo- 
man's Christian Temperance Union she 
found her sphere ; she wielded her pen with 
the most polished grace, and she spoke as 
one inspired, when her theme involved the 
welfare of men and women. The College was 
proud of her, of her genius and of the sacri- 



fice and devotion with which she applied it. 
Her successor, as Dean of the Woman's 
College, was Miss Ellen Soule, who be- 
came Mrs. Professor Carhart, and gave 
place, in turn, to Miss Jane M. Bancroft. 
With the merging of the College for Ladies 
a new element was introduced in the Board 
of Government by the election of three lady 
Trustees, one of whom, for a time, served 
on the Executive Committee — Mrs. Emily 
Huntington Miller having the distinction to 
be the first woman to take her place in the 
"Seats of the Mighty." 

A much needed improvement on the cam- 
pus was made in 1876 by the building of 
the Gymnasium by a stock company of 
students, with a bowling alley in the base- 
ment and a large room for exercise above, 
in size about forty feet by eighty. It was 
not adequate to the needs of the institu- 
tion, but it would do as a step towards bet- 
ter things, — a long step, perhaps, ere the 
new Gymnasium is to be erected — but the 
need was so great that students took hold of 
the enterprise, managing it by a Board of 

New names appear in 1876 as donors of 
prizes to stimulate various sorts of effort: 
the Easter Prize displacing the Blanchard, 
the Gage Prizes, the Mann Prize, the Phil- 
lips Prize, and others given by the Uni- 

Prof. Herbert F. Fisk came to the Pre- 
paratory School in 1875, with the rank of 
Professor, and later became Professor of 
Pedagogics in the College. He had grad- 
uated early from Wesleyan University, and 
since his graduation had taught contin- 
uously in academies in the East. He was 
destined now to find a field of continuous 
labor, and to make a record as teacher and 
disciplinarian. The Old College Building 
had been enlarged and moved to the cam- 
pus, to serve, for a long series of years, as 
the scene of his labors where he should 

preside, a terror to evil-doers and a praise 
to them that do well. The discipline of 
that end of the campus was safe while Dr. 
Fisk was in town. 

Financial Situation — New Burdens. — 
It has already been indicated that 
President Fowler had started things at a 
more rapid pace than they had previously 
been going. Such movements require 
money. The absorption of the Ladies' Col- 
lege increased the debt and a dangerous 
deficit was piling up. One large subscription 
of twenty-five thousand dollars proved to 
be of the Walker variety and the Trustees 
were greatly disturbed. Some advocated 
the rapid sale of property and its use to 
diminish the debt and to defray the ex- 
penses upon which they had entered, rather 
than take a backward step. The records of 
1875 fairly reflect the earnestness of the 
controversy over the question of the policy 
to be pursued by the University with refer- 
ence to unproductive property. In the com- 
munications of Governor Evans, of T. C. 
Hoag, of W. H. Lunt and of Rev. Philo 
Judson on this subject, almost the last word 
was spoken on behalf of the respective pol- 
icies of holding for lease or selling out the 
residence property of the University, at go- 
ing prices to actual settlers, and investing 
the resultant funds. When this discussion 
again arises — as arise it will from 
time to time — the minutes of 1875 will 
prove an armory of weapons to the con- 
testants. Governor Evans wrote as one 
deeply interested in the institution, as hav- 
ing given to it with generous liberality and 
having put it under restraint to withhold 
from sale a certain portion of its property. 
Philo Judson wrote as one who met the 
actual situation in his work as Land Agent, 
and reached a height of eloquence and ar- 
gument in his plea for generous and un- 
restricted sales that seems unanswerable. 
If he or Governor Evans had never written 


anything else than these two papers, these 
recorded documents of two of the founders 
of the institution would reveal to us of a 
later generation that they were men of 
keen intellectuality and good fighters. 

So far as the policy with reference to the 
sale of property is concerned, this discus- 
sion was without practical result. The lim- 
itations which Governor Evans placed upon 
the sale of property, by conditional grants 
to the University of sundry pieces of Chi- 
cago property, were revoked by a later in- 
strument. Indeed, the limitations agreed to 
by the Executive Committee in receiving 
gifts from Governor Evans were not ap- 
proved by the Board of Trustees, and the 
whole question of the sale of property, with 
a view to limitations, was referred to a com- 
mittee of three, in 187 1, the report from 
whom has never been called up. Rev. Philo 
Judson's communication on this subject was 
his last word to the University, and it is 
indeed a heritage. He died a few months 
later and a feeling tribute graces the record, 
describing him as "one of the founders of 
the institution" ; as "the first — and, for many 
years — Business Manager and Financial 
Agent, and later Trustee and Executive 
Officer, who has rendered long and efficient 
service to the University. To his intel- 
lectual force, sagacity, wisdom, integrity, 
unselfishness and fidelity, the cause of edu- 
cation is lastingly indebted." And much 
more to the same eflfect, which was inspired 
by a genuine appreciation of a man of most 
sterling and serviceable qualities. 

The Board started out upon the year 
1876 with a discouraging budget, showing 
a probable deficit of nearly sixteen thousand 
dollars ; but the end of the year was reached 
with a somewhat better showing, though, 
on the whole, not entirely satisfactory. A 
judicious Committee on Ways and Means 
was appointed to look matters in the face, 
and see if some remedy could not be devised 

to avoid a crisis. They could only figure 
out a probable deficit of $23,750 per annum. 
They reminded their brethren that, in their 
great desire for rapid development, they had 
forgotten the old adage, "Make haste slow- 
ly," and they recommended a return to the 
old ways of making no appropriations for 
salaries or other expenses in advance of cur- 
rent income. This policy, said they, must 
be adhered to rigidly, in the future, for we 
cannot aflford to mortgage the future use- 
fulness of the institution. 

Dr. Fowler having been elected editor of 
the "Christian Advocate" in New York, in 
May of that year, resigned his position, to 
the great regret of the Board, who passed 
resolutions of warm commendation of his 
work and his influence. The Chairs of 
English Literature and Chemistry were 
likewise vacated and the work distributed. 
Thus the ship was lightened and proceeded 
on its voyage with a better prospect of 
reaching port. Dr. Oliver Marcy was made 
Acting President — a work which, although 
not at all to his taste, he took up and admin- 
istered with the same fidelity and zeal that 
he gave to his own department, winning re- 
spect and confidence at every step and ad- 
ministering government and discipline 
with an even hand. 

A new menace came in 1876 to try the 
patience of the Trustees who were heroically 
struggling with the problem of finance, in 
the listing of their property by the assess- 
ors for taxation. The expense of testing 
the legality of the claim was appalling, and 
the possibly unfavorable outcome of litiga- 
tion was even more discouraging. But 
they stood firmly upon their chartered 
rights. The contest in the lower court of 
the State was adverse, as was expected. 
The decision in the State Supreme Court 
was similarly adverse, but not unanimous, 
there being two dissenting Justices. The 
case then went to Washington, with Grant 



Goodrich, Wirt Dexter and Senator M. H. 
Carpenter as attorneys for the University, 
and their efforts were crowned with the 
happy result of a reversal of the decision of 
the State Courts. The contention of the 
tax-collector was that, though the property 
of the University was exempted from tax- 
ation by the amendment to the charter in 
1855, a subsequent statute of 1872 limited 
this exemption to land and other property 
in immediate use by the school. The 
Supreme Court of the United States con- 
strued the charter in harmony with the 
powers granted to the Legislature under 
the Constitution of 1848, and, therefore, not 
limited by the new Constitution of 1870. 
We cannot say if any bonfires blazed on 
the campus when the decision was made 
known. It is quite certain that a new light 
gleamed from the faces of the surviving 
founders, and especially from the face of 
the surviving attorney. Grant Goodrich, 
who drew the charter amendment that had 
been controverted and which meant so 
much to the institution. 

Life Saving Station is Established. — 
During 1876 the Life Saving Station of 
the United States was established on the 
campus, manned by students and presided 
over by Captain Larson, an "old salt" who 
is the soul of discipline and fidelity, as de- 
vout as he is brave, whose influence upon 
his boys has been the very best. The work 
of life-saving at the station has been a 

source of honest joy and pride to the friends 
of the University. ' The lease of University 
grounds for this purpose was for twenty 
years, and in 1896 was renewed for fifty 
years, so that it has a future in connection 
with the institution. 

Without serious diminution in numbers, 
but on a more even keel, the LIniversity 
kept on its course under the wise admin- 
istration of Dr. Marcy, till 1881. Prof. 
Kistler had retired and his old-time pupil 
was made instructor in Greek. Charles W. 
Pearson, too, had risen to an instructorship 
in English Literature in place of D. H. 
Wheeler. New names were appearing in 
instructorships which will afterwards figure 
in connection with professorships in the in- 
stitution. The financial burden that had 
been much relieved was still oppressing, 
and the heroic method of reduction of sal- 
aries was applied, with the hope that it 
would not be for long. 

George F. Foster, one of the charter 
members of the Board of Trustees, passed 
away in 1878 and was memorialized in the 
records of the Trustees. He was a man of 
zeal and generous liberality ; a shouting 
Methodist, ardent in his temperament, 
earnest and persistent in the discharge of 
what he believed to be his duty. He was a 
warm and devoted friend, an open and hon- 
orable opponent. William Wheeler, too, 
had gone, and the ranks of the early Trus- 
tees were sadly thinning. 



Dr. Joseph Cummings, the Nestor of East- 
ern Educators, Suceeeds to the Presiden- 
cy — Indebtedness Wiped Out and the In- 
stitution Enters Upon a More Prosper- 
ous Era — MunHicent Gifts and Improve- 
ments — Changes in Faculty and Trustees 
— Illinois School of Pharmacy and School 
of Dentistry Added — Celebration of Uni- 
versity Day Inaugurated — President 
Cummings' Successful Career and His 
Taking Away — Dr. Marcy Temporarily 
Assumes the Position of Acting Presi- 
dent — Dr. Henry Wade Rogers Suc- 
ceeds to the Presidency in 1890 — Other 
Changes and Improvements — Depart- 
ment Schools and Colleges — Real Estate 

Dr. Marcy was becoming weary of tasks 
that took him from his class-room and his 
beloved museum, and, in June, 188 1, Joseph 
Cummings, the Nestor of educators in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, long-time 
President of Wesleyan University, an old 
man but full of vigor, was chosen for the 
Presidency. He was coming to his own ; 
for, had not the Northwestern, for years, 
paid tribute to Middletown in the filling of 
its chairs? There were Marcy, and Fisk, 
and Carhart, and Cumnock, and Morse, and 
there were others coming. Surely, the grand 
old man might take up his work with no 
sense of novelty in his new situation. He 

was a man of noble parts, full of dignity 
but full of gentleness, as devoted to his 
work as is the sun to shining. He was an 
ideal College President of the old school; 
great in the recitation room, great as a 
disciplinarian, strong in administration, a 
financier, an economist, a mighty man in 
the pulpit or on the -rostrum, able to do 
great things and small, considerate of his 
colleagues, no tyrant, but a believer in 
faculty government and, witliout coercion 
of their opinion, willing to abide by it. \\'hat 
a mighty man he seemed on commencement 
days, in his square Doctor's cap and silk 
gown, bidding candidates "ascendat," and 
conferring degrees in Latin without a slip, a 
task over which his successors stumbled. 
Before his work was done, two hundred 
thousand dollars of indebtedness from for- 
mer years had been cleared off. Governor 
Evans helped nobly : William Deering bore 
the lion's share : and one and another lifted, 
under the persuasive power of Dr. Cum- 
mings or Dr. Hatfield, till the work of liqui- 
dation of indebtedness was wrought, and 
then, relieved of burden, the college work 
went on more hopefully. New professors 
were secured, development took place in 
the line of true, logical growth under the 
hand of a master. His annual reports were 
and are still the strongest and most helpful 
papers ever submitted to the Board of Trus- 
tees, full of stimulus and suggestions. The 


Fayerweather Hall of Science was secured, 
the gift, for a long time, of an unknown 
donor into whose ear Dr. Hatfield, at a time- 
ly moment, had dropped a word concerning 
Northwestern, and it resulted in this 
anonymous gift — and would result in more 
when his will should be opened — that helped 
mightily in the development of the work in 
Chemistry and Physics. Professor Carhart 
was tempted away to Michigan University 
just as he was about to enter into his 
heritage of the new building, to carry on 
the brilliant career of a physicist, which he 
had so well begun at Northwestern. 

Organization of New Departments. — 
Then, too, on the north campus arose the 
graceful pile of Dearborn Observatory, the 
gift of James B. Hobbs, equipped with the 
splendid instruments that were formerly in 
the old Dearborn Observatory at the rear of 
Chicago University. The gift was made 
without ostentation, after the manner of the 
princely giver that he is, and there was 
installed Prof. George W. Hough as astron- 
omer, to keep up his vigil over Jupiter, 
with whom he is so well acquainted, and to 
increase the list of double stars whose hid- 
ings he has such facility in finding out. 

Then, as a result of Dr. Hatfield's efforts, 
a dormitory was erected on Cook Street to 
house thirty young men, the second experi- 
ment of the University in that direction. 

The death of Robert F. Queal was chron- 
icled in 1883, one of the later most valuable 
Trustees of the institution, a man of grace 
and tact, and loyal to the core. In" 1886 
James S. Kirk, a stalwart, useful member of 
the Board was taken away; and, in 1887, 
Philip R. Shumway, who had given great 
promise of valuable aid in the counsels of 
the Executive Committee. 

In 1884 the Illinois School of Pharmacy 
became the property of the University, 
thereafter to be known as the Northwestern 
School of Pharmacy — this through the 

labors of Dr. D. R. Dyche, one of the most 
self-forgetful, public-spirited Trustees that 
ever helped to carry the burdens of the in- 
stitution. The School of Dentistry was like- 
wise taken on, to become one of the most 
flourishing departments by and by. 

The celebration of University Day was 
begun February 22, 1886, by the assembling 
of all departments in Evanston, who 
marched through the streets to the strains 
of martial music, and were addressed by 
representatives of the University culminat- 
ing in a collation and a reception at Willard 
Hall. This happy custom was continued 
into the administration of President Rogers, 
and fell at last into innocuous desuetude. 

The Passing away of Dr. Cummings. 
— For almost ten years, in the ripeness of 
his wisdom and powers, without dimness of 
vision or abatement of natural vigor, Dr. 
Cummings kept on his way as President of 
the University, with a broadening curricu- 
lum and increasing number of students, 
large graduating classes and a splendid fac- 
ulty that were harmonious and enthusiastic 
and united in honoring their chief and fol- 
lowing his leadership. Though disease was 
preying upon him, he gave out no sign of 
weakness. He called the regular meeting of 
the faculty to assemble in his room when 
the hand of death was upon him, and passed 
away as a soldier in battle, with his armor 
on. His name and character is a heritage 
to those of us who knew him well, stimu- 
lating to duty. Not less useful, on the social 
side of college life, in that eminently suc- 
cessful administration, was the influence of 
the queenly woman who presided in the 
home of the President. She was a woman 
of striking presence, of tact and sprightli- 
ness, with a keen eye to take in difficult 
situations and a skillful hand to relieve all 
embarrassments. These two were a mar- 
velous combination in a college community. 
I do not wonder that Middletown students 



are ready to bow down at the mention of 
their names. Northwestern students, be- 
tween 1880 and 1890, are ready to do Hke- 
wise. Dr. Cummings' last appearance in 
chapel was a scene long to be remembered. 
He would not be relieved of his accustomed 
task of leading the devotions, though his 
breath came quick and his utterance was 
choked. He read the hymn, 
"My Jesus, as thou wilt, 

Tho' seen through many a tear. 
Let not my star of hope 
Grow dim or disappear." 

A solemn stillness pervaded the little 
chapel. The broken voice that led the de- 
votions was speaking for the last time 
among us, and it spoke out in prayer and 
Scripture and hymn, as if conscious that it 
was a farewell, the keynote of a life attuned 
to duty, "My Lord, thy will be done." 
Cheerful and serene, though feeble from 
acute disease, he left the chapel that day 
amid faces sad with fear and eager with 
sympathy, and went home to die as brave- 
ly as he went to work. We carried him to 
his final rest a few days later, and enshrined 
him in our hearts as one of the few great 
men that we had known. He was not a 
writer of dreary pamphlets or a seeker after 
notoriety. He felt called of God to do the 
work of a Christian educator by character, 
example, precept and wise and prayerful 
administration, and he did it well, and 
thereon rests his abiding fame. 

Then Dr. Marcy was called once more 
to take up the task of administration till 
some new man could be found, with youth 
and strength and scope of vision, fit to take 
up the work that had developed somewhat 
after the hope of the founders. 

A new appraisal had taken place of the 
property on La Salle Street that had been 
clung to tenaciously during the vicissitudes 
of forty years, which resulted in an increase 
of income of more than fiftv thousand dol- 

lars per annum. It meant the accomplish- 
ment of much that had been dreamed of, 
and the long hoped for development. 

Dr. Rogers Called to the Presidency. 
— In September. 1890, Dr. Henry ^Vade 
Rogers was called to the Presidency of the 
institution. He had been Dean of the Law 
School of the University of Michigan, and 
entered most auspiciously upon his work at 
the most fortunate moment in the career of 
the University. 

In June, 1892, T. C. Hoag, having de- 
clined to serve longer as Treasurer and 
Business Agent, retired from the arduous 
duties of his office with an enviable record 
for fidelity and skill in the conduct of the 
aflfairs of the University, and Prof. R. D. 
Sheppard was invited to assume the busi- 
ness cares of the institution, in addition to 
his college work. The work of the decade 
was to be one of development on the mate- 
rial side, far in excess of any similar period 
in the history of the University, as the an- 
nual reports of receipts and expenditures 
will show. The spacious buildings on 
Dearborn Street, near Twenty-fourth, were 
erected for the proper housing of the Medi- 
cal School and School of Pharmacy, on 
land that had been purchased largely by 
the gift for that purpose of William Deer- 
ing, and an adjacent lot had been purchased 
for the prospective occupancy of Wesley 
Hospital. The Woman's Medical College 
on Lincoln Street, Chicago, was purchased 
at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars, 
and it became an integral part of the Uni- 
versity, with a goodly list of alumnae and an 
eminent faculty. 

In 1892 the American College of Dental 
Surgery was combined with the North- 
western Dental School, with a student at- 
tendance of over five hundred and an equip- 
ment unsurpassed, over which presided 
Theodore Menges, a phenomenon of energy 
and tact in the organization and manage- 



ment of such an institution, whose untimely 
death, a few years since, left that school 
sadly orphaned but still vigorous and a 
monument to his energy and devotion. 

The Law School was reorganized and 
made one of the best of its kind, with better 
quarters and with an enriched curriculum. 

Orrington Lunt Library Dedicated. — 
On the campus the new Orrington Lunt 
Library was erected and named in honor 
of its principal benefactor, the genial, saint- 
ly Orrington Lunt, who walked among us 
in the evening of his days as the spirit of 
peace and benediction. Justin Winsor came 
on the dedication and spoke a splendid mes- 
sage, but the charming address of the 
founder of the library who, for so long 
had believed in books as a prime requisite 
of a student commimity, and who had 
manifested his faith by his works, was the 
great e\-ent of that dedicatory occasion. 

Then, too, the School of Music was 
housed in its own quarters, with a hall for 
recitals and rooms for instruction and prac- 
tice, presided over by Prof. P. C. Lutkin, 
whose skill and devotion have made it one 
of the important features of the University 

Then, too, in this favored time arose the 
Annie May Swift Hall, devoted to elocu- 
tion and oratory, the gift chiefly of 
Gustavus F, Swift, in honor of his 
daughter, who died during her career in 
college. It was the graceful tribute of the 
bereaved parent to a beautiful girl. Others 
contributed to this building at the solicita- 
tion of Professor Cumnock, but Mr. Swift's 
gift made it possible, and there its enthusi- 
astic Director has made a school unique in 
its character and unsurpassed anywhere. 

At last the Fayerweather bequest of 
one hundred thousand dollars came to hand, 
the result of Dr. Hatfield's timely sugges- 
tion to the generous leather merchant whose 
benefactions to American colleges have been 

one of the phenomenal things in the history 
of those institutions. 

Then Fisk Hall was constructed — the 
dream of Dr. Fisk for twenty years — 
crowning the labors of his devoted life. 
William Deering built it with a capacity to 
care for six or seven hundred students, with 
a chapel that is the best auditorium on the 
campus, and with all the appointments and 
equipment of an academy of the first rank. 

Woman's Hall was enlarged by the same 
generous giver, so that its capacity was 
almost doubled. 

Then the campus was fenced and the 
gateways were built, giving an air of indi- 
viduality and dignity to the college en- 
closure. William Deering did that; and 
one quiet afternoon, on his way to town, he 
left at the business office a package of 
papers that the dazed Business Manager 
found, .on inspection, to consist of over two 
hundred thousand dollars worth of securi- 
ties ; and, a little later, when Wesley Hos- 
pital was needed, not only for the charity 
work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
but also an adjunct to the work of the 
Medical School, he dazed the same easily 
dazable Business Manager by the offer 
of fifty thousand dollars for that purpose, 
and property worth one hundred thousand 
dollars for the future endowment. Yet 
this was not all ; for, when Onarga Semi- 
nary was to be saved from loss and made 
an affiliated academy of Northwestern Uni- 
versity, Mr. Deering gave five thousand 
dollars to help that enterprise to a consum- 
mation : and, again, when the Tremont 
House was under consideration, his gift 
of twenty-five thousand dollars helped to 
acquire that splendid property. The chapter 
of his gracious deeds on behalf of the Uni- 
versity might be prolonged, but the histor- 
ian is not permitted to dwell over-much on 
the deeds of living men. Of the records 
and events of the last ten years — its men 


and its transactions — he feels compelled to 
speak with cautious reserve. But these 
have been years of progress. 

Early in Dr. Rogers' administration, on 
the suggestion of David Swing, the annual 
commencement exercises were taken to Chi- 
cago and held in the Auditorium, where 
an oration was delivered by some orator 
of note before a magnificent assembly. Men 
like Theodore Roosevelt, Ex-Governor 
Chamberlain, Bishops Warren and Gallo- 
way, Drs. Xorthrup, Canfield, Day and 
Buckley have been numbered among the 
orators, and thousands of Northwestern 
graduates have ascended the stage and re- 
ceived their diplomas at the hands of the 
President of the University. Formerly all 
honorary degrees had been given on the 
recommendation of the Faculty of the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts, and now that service 
was rendered by a University Council, con- 
sisting of representatives of the different 
departments, who, in addition to this func- 
tion, might recommend to the Trustees 
action upon such matters as were of general 
University interest. 

On the La Salle Street property of the 
University was erected a building, un- 
rivaled among the bank buildings of the 
world, for the use of one of the strongest 
institutions in the West, and leased for one 
hundred years at a rental that will be one 
of the principal supports of the University 
in beneficent work during that long period. 
It has improved the property on Kinzie 
Street, Chicago, donated by William Deer- 
ing. and leased it for fifty years to a strong 
corporation at a very satisfactory rental. 
It has acquired the Tremont House at a 
cost of five hundred thousand dollars, as 
the future home of the Law School, the 
Dental School and the School of Pharmacy, 
devoting to these schools a space as great as 
that comprised by any three of the buildings 
on the college campus, and has still re- 
served the old parlor floor of the Tremont 
House for general University purposes, of- 
fices, parlors, alumni headquarters, and a 
small assembly hall, while still retaining 
the first floor as a source of revenue. 



Athletics and College Societies — IVo- 
men's Educational Associations — "The 
Settlement" and the University Guild — 
Dr. Rogers Resigns the Presidency in 
i8qp, and is Succeeded by Dr. Bonbright 
as Acting President — A Long List of 
Notable Friends of the University Who 
Have Passed Away — Tribute to Their 
Memory — Dr. E. J. James' Tzvo Years' 
Administration — He is succeeded by Dr. 
Abram W. Harris. 

And what shall we say of College Athlet- 
ics that have flourished during these ten 
years, in spite of the fact that the expected 
donor of a great gymnasium has not come 
to view? The old "Gym." has done a noble 
work, but it is confessedly a back number. 
Still, the students have made good use of 
it and the Athletic Field on the north cam- 
pus has been the scene of vigorous sport 
and rare athletic performances. It is largely 
within the last ten years that athletic sports 
have formed a prominent feature in the life 
of Western colleges, and during that period. 
Northwestern has often ranked with the 
best, and, even when defeated, has been 
undiscouraged ; and, in the trials of forensic 
and dialectic skill with the great institu- 
tions of the West, she has proved herself a 
foeman not to be desoised. 

Y. M. and Y. W- C. A.— Other Societies. 
— In the religious work of the college, its 

general conduct in these later years has been 
in the hands of the Young Men's and the 
Young Woman's Christian Associations. 
The responsibility has been largely on the 
students, with the sympathetic aid of mem- 
bers of the faculty. A house has been occu- 
pied by the young men as an Association 
headquarters ; secretaries have been em- 
ployed, with University aid, by both Asso- 
ciations : and the evangelistic spirit with 
marked results has attended both these 

Greek Letter Societies have taken deep 
root in the University and detracted some- 
what from the vigor of the old debating 
societies that were of such educational 
value in the early history of the University. 
"Phi Kappa Psi" was founded in 1864, and 
the "Alpha Phi" in 1881. Now there are 
numerous other organizations, with their 
cliques and politics, and other redeeming 
features of good fellowship, that are among 
the pleasant recollections of college life. 

For a few years, beginning in 1893, the 
"University Record" was published, with a 
compendium of information of interest to 
the alumni and the public. Professor Cald- 
well and Professor Gray were editors, and 
performed their task well. The last issue 
was of June, 1895. The scheme will bear 
resurrection when some fit man with ade- 
quate support can give it attention. 

Collateral with the work of the Univer- 



sity, and springing out of it, has been the 
work of the Woman's Educational Aid 
Association, of which, for many years, Mrs. 
J. A. Pearsons has been President, and with 
whom have been associated such elect ladies 
as Mrs. Cummings, Mrs. Morse, Mrs. Gage, 
Mrs. Townsend, Mrs. CliflFord and others, 
in an efifort to furnish a home for young 
women during their college life, where they 
can board cheaply, assisting in the work, 
and yet be provided with the comforts and 
elegances that are so desirable from an 
educational point of view. With the aid of 
Dr. Pearsons they have sustained the Col- 
lege Cottage for many years, which has been 
once enlarged ; and now, by the timely gift 
of thirty thousand dollars from the same 
philanthropic source, they have under their 
charge the new Chapin Hall, which was 
dedicated in the fall of 1901 by its generous 
donor, and where sixty young women are 
housed as a happy fapiily in elegance and 

Another collateral institution has been 
that of "The Settlement," started and pre- 
sided over during her presence in Evanston 
by Mrs. Henry Wade Rogers, to minister, 
as such institutions do, to the life of the 
neglected poor in the Northwestern section 
of Chicago. There University graduates 
are in residence and University students 
help to carry on the various forms of life 
and service peculiar to the settlement. To 
carry on this work and erect their com- 
modious building, Mr. Milton Wilson gave 
the munificent sum of twenty-five thousand 
dollars, and the finished structure — with 
its perfect appointments, the property of 
Northwestern University — stands as a mon- 
ument of his interest in the welfare of his 

Another collateral institution founded by 
Mrs. Rogers was the University Guild, an 
association of women whose pursuit has 
been culture, and who, in a few years, have 

gathered together a beautiful collection of 
art treasures which are deposited in Lunt 
Library. These are now the property of the 
University, and may serve as the nucleus 
of an Art Museum, when these treasures, 
and those which Dr. Marcy gathered dur- 
ing his long career, are fitly housed. 

Resignation of President Rogers. — 
In 1899 Dr. Rogers resigned the Presi- 
dency of the University and returned to a 
law professorship at Yale University, and 
Dr. Bonbright was persuaded to take up the 
Acting Presidency during a brief inter- 
regnum, while the quest for a new presi- 
dent went on. The period ended in January, 
1902. It is not often in American life that 
a man is planted in a community to grow 
as a tree grows, from the sapling period 
to the period of advanced maturity, be- 
coming a landmark and a source of benefit 
to all passers-by. But all this is true of the 
Professor of Latin, Acting President of 
Northwestern University. Seized upon as 
a stripling tutor, rounded out in culture and 
methods by foreign study and observation, 
he has spent an ordinary lifetime in his 
chair ; devoted as a lover to a single love ; 
doing his part with a wisdom, thoroughness 
and grace that has left nothing to be desired 
as a teacher, gentleman, friend and inspirer 
of youth. 

From the very first date of graduations at 
Evanston he has seen the stream of students 
go by ; has known them all and taken a 
place in their memories as an integral part 
of their culture, their character and ideals. 
He has noted every step of progress, every 
movement of whatever sort that hds gone to 
make up the traditions of Northwestern 
University, so that his were safe hands in 
which to entrust for any length of time 
the discipline, the growth, the care of the 
institution, with the assurance that the ad- 
ministration would be without caprice or 
doubtful experiment. Eager to escape pub- 




licity and diffident under public gaze, he 
took up his public cares with the easy grace 
of one born to the purple ; and, when pub- 
lic utterance was needed, he spoke with the 
charm of one accustomed to public address, 
with a play of fancy and with such aptness 
of illustration and vigorous marshalling of 
ideas, that we were made to wonder that 
these talents had been so long concealed. 
With all the honors that Northwestern 
could confer upon him, after the term of his 
Acting Presidency, he quietly returned to 
his class-room to preside with the same sim- 
ple dignity as of old, as if nothing unusual 
had happened in his career. 

Passing Away of University Founders. 
— The past ten years has been a time of 
harvesting of the ripened grain among the 
surviving toilers in the early years of Uni- 
versity history. John Evans, the first Presi- 
dent of the Board, at a ripe old age passed 
away in the distant State of Colorado, of 
which he had been Governor, and where he 
displayed the same enterprise and leader- 
ship in affairs that characterized him in 
Chicago and Evanston. He had been one 
of the University's chief benefactors, and at 
a time when gifts were most acceptable. 
Two principal professorships were named in 
his honor; and while he was in Evanston, 
the weight of his judgment was well-nigh 
preponderating in University counsels. He 
aided in founding another university in 
Denver, but the University at Evanston was 
the child of his youth and the pride of his 
old age. 

J. K. Botsford, too, passed away in this 
decade — the quiet hardware merchant on 
Lake Street, over whose store the meeting 
was held that launched the infant Univer- 
sity. -An unobtrusive man who built up a 
good competence in honorable trade ; who 
loved the Church and all her enterprises ; 
who talked little and thought much ; who 
sat quietly in Trustee meetings, made no 

long speeches, and always voted right. He 
was the soul of honor, a good man for 
Treasurer and serviceable in any situation 
that required prompt action, integrity and 

J. G. Hamilton was another of the old- 
time Trustees whose name was added to the 
death roll : Treasurer, Agent, Secretary of 
the Board, a prosperous and useful man in 
his time — so useful that, when misfortune 
and feebleness seized upon him, and he was 
left alone in the world and without re- 
sources, his fellow Trustees pensioned him, 
and gave him the honorable consideration 
that was due to the valuable and unselfish 
service he had rendered to the cause of 

Richard Haney was another who came to 
the councils of the Trustees with each re- 
curring year, till he could come no longer. 
A giant in stature, with the heart of a child 
— under his eye the institution had grown 
for nearly fifty years. Children whom he had 
baptized in infancy were filling important 
chairs in the University and, like a fond 
father, he smiled with joyful benignity upon 
the large heritage that had come to him and 
his comrades, most of whom had gone be- 
fore him to their reward. It was one of 
the features of the Trustee meetings of 
later years to listen to his opening prayer — 
for that was his assigned part — and, when 
the meeting closed, it was with his benedic- 
tion and with a farewell word that spoke of 
the joy of his heart over what God had 
wrought at the hands of his servants, and 
the assurance to his brethren that he could 
not expect to meet with them often in the 
future, perhaps never. He was waiting daily 
for his summons to ascend. Such incidents 
pertain to a distinctly Christian institution. 
They lift the business side of education out 
of the region of ordinary business, and in- 
spire those who toil therein with the thought 
that they are doing a God-like work in the 



world that will beget sweet memories, such 
as kindled in the heart of the old founder 
when he looked back on his own labors and 
saw the work still going on, larger in vol- 
ume and with a far-reaching influence such 
as he had never dreamed it would attain. 
Then, too, Orrington Lunt, who suc- 
ceeded to John Evans as President of the 
Board, was another of the surviving group 
of founders that passed away, than whom 
no single man connected with the institution 
had given to the University more of his 
thought and attention, or sacrificed more for 
it. The library was his darling project, 
and to it, as already noted, he gave an 
endowment and a building. Without Or- 
rington Lunt, we cannot say what would 
have been done; but true it is, that the 
Trustees took no step in which he did not 
actively participate. No important com- 
mittee was complete without him. No dif- 
ficult negotiation could be carried on with- 
out his help. Wise, forceful, gentle, de- 
voted as he was, his colleagues caught his 
spirit and were braced by his example to a 
like fidelity and devotion. When disease 
prevented his meeting with them, they took 
their meetings to his home; and when the 
end came he summoned them, one by one, 
to a sunny farewell. He loved them in the 
bonds of a common labor of love. Verily, 
when wo speak of the endowment of the 
University, though the things that might 
seem most important may be lands and 
buildings and securities, wi must not over- 
look, among its chief assets, the undying in- 
vestment of the prayers, and love and labor 
of such choice spirits as are reckoned among 
the men whose names adorn our history, 
among whom there was no whiter soul than 
Orrington Lunt. 

Then there was another Trustee, who 
does not rank with the founders, but who 
took his place naturally among the later 
Trustees who efficiently labored in the up- 

building of the institution — Robert M. Hat- 
field. In his time, a peerless pulpit orator, 
with a diction unsurpassed, an intensity and 
fervor that enthralled and possessed men, 
and a mastery of scorn and invective that 
was a terror to all shams, injustice and de- 
ceit, his forceful speech and influence meant 
much for the University endowment. 

And there was David R. Dyche, who 
could drop his business cares any time to 
talk and plan for the University's good; 
who carried the burden of the four-mile 
limit on his heart ; who gave generously of 
his substance, as of his time and influence, 
and by his wisdom and his gentleness helped 
on the march of progress. 

And in March, 1899, Oliver Marcy, the 
grand old man who had been connected 
with the University for nearly forty years, 
finished his work. He had been twice Act- 
ing President ; had taught an immense 
range of subjects, and had become the most 
striking figure in connection with the in- 
stitution. He did not grow old. His body 
failed, but his keen intellect retained its 
edge; his love for the things of nature 
never failed ; he wrought to the last in his 
dear museum, fondling his specimens as of 
old. They spoke to him of the mighty 
universe of which they were a part. They 
disclosed chapters of flood and fire that 
ordinary vision could not see in them, and 
which he delighted to reveal to any in- 
terested listener. His daily walk made us 
love him and the things he loved. It spoke 
to us of duty and devotion and joy in learn- 
ing. He was called of God to be an educa- 
tor, and he fulfilled his calling. His career 
is a part of the LTniversity's richest endow- 

Julius F. Kellogg, too, long time Profes- 
sor of Mathematics, faded away in this de- 
cade, and was borne to rest by the loving 
hands of his old comrades, who knew him 
as a thorough mathematician, an excellent 



teacher and a simple hearted Christian. 
But I have played the role of Old Mortality 
long enough. These, and others of similar 
spirit, have served the University well, have 
gone to their reward and others have taken 
up their work. 

It would be difficult to reach an exact 
statement of the number of young men and 
women who have shared the educational 
opportunities furnished by the University 
since its organization. Like a stream rising 
in the mountains — a rivulet at first, then a 
river, with increasing tributaries and en- 
larging volume — so the stream of students 
has enlarged, from ten in number in 1855, 
to nearly three thousand in igoi. Very 
many, of course, have attended the insti- 
tution for a longer or a shorter course with- 
out graduating. Of those who have grad- 
uated, fifteen hundred have been from the 
College of Liberal Arts; eighteen hundred 
and forty-four from the Medical School; 
five hundred and fifty-nine from the 
Woman's Medical School ; eleven hundred 
and eighty-six from the School of Phar- 
macy ; sixteen hundred and five from the 
Law School ; and fifteen hundred and thirty- 
one from the Dental School — in all, eight 
thousand, two hundred and twenty-five men 
and women, who have given a good account 
of themselves in the varied walks in life, 
and some of whom have attained to conspic- 
uous positions and shed luster on their Alma 

College Administration of Today. — 
Little has been said of the labors of living 
men in connection with the history of the 
University, either in the faculty or the board 
of government. This much ought to be 
stated, however: that the body of teachers 
in the College of Liberal Arts are a de- 
voted, harmonious body of men and women, 
devoted chiefly to under-graduate work, and 
are hence confined largely to the work of 
instruction, though they do find time, now 

and then, to publish a volume in connection 
with their various specialties. 

In the large faculty of the College nearly 
every study that would be selected as a 
culture study is represented by a specialist 
who knows his work ; and, when they meet 
"in faculty assembled," according to the 
phrase adopted from Professor Godman of 
an early date, they are a distinguished body 
of men and women, keen in debate, deferen- 
tial to each other, and with a single eye to 
the interests of the youth committed to their 

And it is with unusual restraint that I 
refrain from writing of the labors of the 
men who have cared for the material in- 
terests of the institution, and who still carry 
on that work ; men as conspicuous, able and 
devoted as any who have toiled in former 
generations, and who have finished their 
work and gone to their reward. When Or- 
rington Lunt ascended, William Deering 
took his place as primus inter pares, ad- 
ministering his office with a dignity and dis- 
creetness that commends him to the con- 
fidence and affection of his colleagues, and 
with such a knowledge of the situation, such 
solicitude for progress, and such generous 
liberality as to constitute him easily the 
chief patron in our history. Beside him 
are eminent men who take up his work when 
absence or illness interferes. 

And the able Secretary and Auditor, 
Frank P. Crandon, who has carried for- 
ward the work of the secretaryship since 
J. G. Hamilton laid down his pen, has put 
the University under a debt of obligation 
for service which it can never adequately 
reward. The volume of University busi- 
ness has become so great and its tran- 
sactions so important — all of which pass 
through a central office and must be scru- 
tinized from week to week — that it makes 
demands upon this officer that few appre- 
ciate as do those nearest his work, but to 


which he addresses himself with a constancy 
and painstaking fidelity that are beyond 
praise. I have referred to endowments that 
are not expressed in lands and buildings or 
notes of hand ; such labors as his enter into 
this list, and swell the wealth of the favored 
institution that has commanded such ser- 
vices as his without fee or reward. 

The Executive Committee are busy men 
of large private interests, but they are al- 
ways about the Trustees' table when called ; 
and they are regularly and irregularly 
called, and, without haste and after full 
discussion, they give all the time that is 
needful, in committee and out of committee, 
to carrying on their trust, with generous 
gifts of valuable time and other resources 
as they are able. 

Dr. James Two Years' Administration. 
— From small beginnings, by careful man- 
agement and timely benefactions, the Uni- 
versity has acquired a property conserva- 
tively valued at six million dollars, and has 
done its work for fifty years with increasing 
vigor and enlargement as the years have 
advanced. In the summer of 1902, Dr. 
Edmund J. James was selected to fill the 
vacant Presidency, and for two years car- 
ried on the work with great vigor and 
promise, infusing fresh life into all depart- 
ments of the institution. But in 1904, the 
claims of the Illinois State University upon 
him were too strong for him to resist, and 
he resigned to be succeeded by Prof. 
Thomas F. Holgate, as Acting President. 

The service of Professor Holgate as Dean 
of the College of Liberal Arts has fitted him 
well for the duties that have been thrust 
upon him, while his familiarity with the 
history and traditions of the University 
justify the belief that, under his guiding 
hand, the institution will maintain its steady 
and healthy progress, growing as the tree 
grows, nourished by the kindly care of the 
men and women who stand forth as its rep- 
resentatives — its Trustees, its Professors, 
its Alumni, and the great Church in whose 
name it was founded, and whose zeal for 
Christian culture it expresses. 

The University Finds a New President 
—On February 1, 1906, the Trustees of 
Northwestern University closed their 
long quest for a successor to President 
James, by the election of Abram W. 
Harris, LL.D., of Tome Institute, Mary- 
land, to the Presidency. Dr. Harris was 
born in Philadelphia, November 7, 1858, 
graduated from the ^Vesleyan University, 
at Middletown, Conn., in 1880, and has 
followed an educational career since that 
time, except for a few years when he was 
in government service. His experience 
in University work and the secondary 
schools gives promise of great usefulness 
in his new field. His term of service was 
designated to commence July 1, 1906, un- 
til which time the interests of the Univer- 
sity are presided over by x^cting President 
Holgate. who has borne well the burdens 
and responsibilities of his office for near- 
ly two years past. 



(By N. S. DAVIS, JR.. A. M., M. D.) 

Object of its Organization — Early Condi- 
tions and Methods of Medical Education 
— Dr. N. S. Davis BeginstheAgitationfor 
Graded Instruction and Longer Courses 
— Lind University Established in i8^g — 
Institution affiliated luith N orthzvestern 
University in 1869 — Changes of Name 
and Location — Growth, Present Condi- 
tions and Methods of Instruction — South 
Side Free Dispensary — Hospitals: Mercy, 
Wesley, St. Luke's and Provident — 
Clinical and other Advantages — Influence 
of the Founders of the School Shown in 
its Growth and Character of its Grad- 
uates — Positions Won by its Alumni. 

Northwestern L'niversity Medical School 
was founded to demonstrate the practica- 
bility of what were admitted to be good 
methods of teaching the art and science of 
medicine. So long as this country was 
sparsely settled and means of rapid transit 
were wanting, it was difficult for physicians 
educated abroad to find communities of suf- 
ficient size or of such character as to tempt 
them to settle here. It was equally difficult 
for those of our own people inclined to study 
medicine to obtain suitable opportunities. 
For many years most practitioners of med- 
icine received their training from others 
to whom they were apprenticed. For half 
a century after the Revolutionary War the 
medical colleges, which were established. 

were regarded as not essential to the mak- 
ing of physicians and surgeons, but as use- 
ful places for the review of studies pursued 
under a preceptor and for the prosecution 
of practical studies in anatomy. The annual 
course in these schools was from four to 
five months in duration. During this time 
all the students attended all the lectures. 
These courses they repeated a second year, 
when they were granted a diploma. It is 
evident that such schools in no sense sup- 
planted the work of preceptors or general 
practitioners who received apprentices, but 
supplemented it. The colleges contained no 
laboratories, and few were connected with 
hospitals or attempted clinical teaching. 
During the next twenty-five years a gradual 
evolution took place ; clinics were estab- 
lished in most schools and a better quality 
of teaching was done. By both practition- 
ers and laymen colleges were regarded as 
of more importance for the acquisition of 
the knowledge which medical men must 

In the second decade of the last century 
Dr. N. S. Davis began to agitate the need 
of graded instruction in medical schools 
and of longer courses. This he did in med- 
ical societies and by writing a small treatise 
upon medical education. Later, in order to 
further this end, he induced the leading 
teachers and practitioners of various States 
to assemble to form a National Medical So- 


ciety. He hoped that, by agitating the sub- 
ject in such a body, reforms might be in- 
augurated simultaneously in all the States. 
Although medical societies by numerous 
resolutions urged such reforms upon the 
colleges, they were not made. In 1859 a 
group of men, most of whom had been 
teachers in Rush College, Chicago, estab- 
lished a new school in that city, which was 
to demonstrate the feasibility of some of 
these long-needed reforms. Minimum re- 
quirements for entrance to the school were 
made; three years of study, at least two of 
which must have been in a medical college, 
were demanded for graduation, and the 
studies were graded so that the most ele- 
mentary were taught first and the others 
followed in logical order. Clinical teaching 
was made a prominent feature of the in- 
struction from the beginning. Surprising 
as it seems, considering the evident need of 
these changes, it was nearly ten years before 
any other college in the country followed its 
example, and many more before it was 
followed by all. 

Originally this college was not a depart- 
ment of Northwestern University. In 1859 
Lind University was established and Doc- 
tors Hosmer A. Johnson, David Rutter, 
Edmund Andrews, and Ralph Isham or- 
ganized a medical department of it. N. S. 
Davis, William H. Byford and numerous 
other leading physicians of this small city 
were invited to form its faculty. Lind Uni- 
versity soon went out of existence for want 
of sufficient financial support, but the med- 
ical school was re-organized under a charter 
of its own and was called Chicago Medical 
College. Under this name it made a per- 
manent reputation. In 1869 it was affiliated 
with Northwestern University, because it 
was thought that a university connection 
would enable it to stimulate students to pre- 
pare better for college and to maintain a 
higher grade of instruction itself. From 

this time until i8go the institution was 
known as "Chicago Medical College" — the 
Medical Department of Northwestern Uni- 
versity. In the latter year a close union 
with the University was effected, and the 
name was again changed, this time to 
Northwestern University Medical School. 

With each of these changes of title a 
change of location was made. Originally 
the college was housed in the Lind Block 
in the heart of the city ; later it moved into 
a building of its own on State Street near 
Twenty-second. In 1870 it was compelled 
to move, as its home was destroyed in the 
process of widening State Street. It then 
built anew at the corner of Twenty-sixth 
and Prairie Avenue, immediately adjoin- 
ing Mercy Hospital. Here it remained 
twenty years ; but the growth of the hos- 
pital in time necessitated abandonment of 
this site. New and entirely modern build- 
ings were constructed for its accommoda- 
tion in 1890 on Dearborn Street, between 
Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Streets ; 
and, in 1901, Wesley Hospital was built 
beside it. 

While in material possessions the insti- 
tution has grown, it has also steadily ad- 
vanced, and even led, in most of the re- 
forms in teaching which have taken place. 
In 1868 it demanded attendance upon three 
annual courses of instruction in the college 
for graduation, and lengthened each course 
to six months. By 1870 the number of de- 
partments of instruction had been increased 
from eleven to thirteen, and, during the 
next twenty years, to eighteen. In 1890 
the annual term was lengthened to seven 
months, and four years of study in college 
were required for graduation. For several 
years before these changes were made a 
fourth year was oflfered but not required. 
In 1894 the annual term was made eight 
months. In 1892 Latin and physics were 
added to the entrance requirements and. 



three years later, algebra, and in 1896 sev- 
eral other branches of a high school course. 
A year later the requirements for entrance 
to the medical school were made the same as 
those of the College of Liberal Arts. 

Laboratory and clinical teaching were 
conspicuous elements of instruction from 
the inception of this college. When it was 
established, the only laboratory teaching 
done in medical schools was in chemistry 
and anatomy. Some years later a labora- 
tory of histology was opened. In 1886 lab- 
oratory instruction was given to all students 
in pathology. Bacteriology was taught for 
several years as an optional study, but work 
was required of all students in the bacterio- 
logical laboratory in 1891. In 1894 lab- 
oratories of experimental physiology and 
pharmacology were opened, although for 
several years prior to this, instruction had 
been given in physiological chemistry ; still 
more recently those of clinical pathology 
were established. This kind of practical 
teaching has so grown that it now consti- 
tutes the largest part of the work done by 
students in their first two years of medical 
study. The development of this kind of 
teaching, which is largely individual, has 
necessitated the employment of numerous 
teachers who devote their entire time to the 
school. In the earlier history of this insti- 
tution, these branches were taught by prac- 
titioners of medicine who devoted only a 
few hours per week to the work, a practice 
which is still continued by many colleges. 

Clinical teaching bears to the studies of 
the last two years the same relationship that 
laboratory teaching does to the first. It 
practically illustrates all instruction in the 
various departments of medicine, surgery 
and the specialties, and brings students in 
personal contact with patients and teacher. 
As laboratories have multiplied so have 
clinics, and in each the amount of teaching 
has been increased and improved. A few 

clinics are introduced into the second year 
course to illustrate methods of examina- 
tion, a subject taught at that time in order 
to prepare students for the study of disease 
which completely occupies their attention 
during the junior and senior years. The 
senior year is given up almost exclusively 
to clinical teaching. Northwestern L'niver- 
sity oflJ'ers its students much more clinical 
instruction than most other schools do, and 
especially a large amount of bedside instruc- 
tion to small groups of them. The clinical 
laboratory enables students to applv all 
kinds of scientific methods of research to 
the examination of patients. In it they 
make blood examinations, sputa examina- 
tions and analyze the other secretions and 
excretions of the body. The aim of this 
school is not simply to afford students an 
opportunity to learn what is known of dis- 
ease, but to become intimately acquainted 
with it by contact with patients, to obtain 
experience by watching the course of dis- 
ease and the efifect of remedial procedures. 
The unusual clinical facilities of this col- 
lege are made possible by the South Side 
Free Dispensary— which is in Davis Hall, 
one of the University buildings — bv Mercy 
Hospital, St. Luke's Hospital, and by Wes- 
ley and Provident Hospitals. These hospi- 
tals together accommodate from eight hun- 
dred to one thousand patients. In the South 
Side Free Dispensary twenty-five thousand 
patients are prescribed for annually, and are 
treated, in many cases, by the best physi- 
cians, surgeons and specialists of the city. 
Rooms are arranged for the proper ex- 
amination and care of eye and ear, nose and 
throat, gynecological, skin, nervous, surgi- 
cal and medical cases, as well as of children. 
Trained nurses assist in several of these de- 
partments. This dispensary is not only an 
important educational institution, but one 
of the best philanthropies in Chicago. 
Davis Hall, in which the dispensary is 


housed, was constructed for its accommo- 
dation. The building is a well planned and 
commodious out-patient hospital. 

Mercy Hospital, which is the oldest and 
one of the largest public hospitals in the 
city, has been intimately associated with 
this school ever since its founding. The 
hospital consists of a series of buildings, 
with a total length of six hundred feet. 
It is located on the corner of Twenty-sixth 
Street and Calumet Avenue, and covers 
nearly half a block of land. It owns prop- 
erty adjoining its present buildings, which 
will enable it to grow and ultimately to 
cover nearly a square of land. A part of 
this vacant property is an attractive garden, 
which is much frequented by convalescent 
patients during the summer. 

There has recently been completed an ad- 
dition to the hospital devoted to a large oper- 
ating and clinic hall, which will accommo- 
date four hundred students. This is one of 
the most attractive and perfect operating 
rooms in the city. In connection with this 
are num.erous small rooms for private opera- 
tions, for the care of instruments and sur- 
gical supplies, for preparing patients and 
for preparing operators and their assistants. 
These rooms are of the most modern and 
approved construction and contain f-he 
best equipment known. 

Alercy Hospital has also one of the best 
training schools for nurses in the city. In- 
struction and training is given them in the 
hospital by the staff, as well as by regular 
teachers devoting their time to the school. 

The attending stafT of physicians and 
surgeons is selected from the Faculty of 
Northwestern University Medical School. 
Eight resident physicians and surgeons are 
chosen annually from the graduating class 
of the college, and serve for eighteen 
months in the hospital. During the college 
year from one to four clinics are given 
daily in this institution. 

The most notable recent addition to the 
equipment of the ]\Iedical School is Wesley 
Hospital. It is located beside the college 
building, and is connected with Davis Hall 
by an enclosed bridge. Neither expense nor 
time has been spared to make this one of the 
best equipped hospitals in the world. It is 
the last built in Chicago and contains all of 
the newest improvements in hospital con- 

With its laboratories for sterilizing and 
preparing dressings and instruments, its 
amphitheatre, its clinical and pathological 
laboratories, drug-room and morgue ; with 
its sun-baths and suites of private rooms, 
and with its commodious, light and well 
ventilated wards, this institution would seem 
to have reached the highest mark in hospital 
construction and equipment. The staff of 
this hospital is also selected from the faculty 
of the college. Four resident physicians 
and surgeons are chosen annually from the 
graduating class. It also has an excellent 
training school for nurses. 

The instruction given to the students 
in Wesley Hospital makes a very important 
portion of their clinical course. This is 
naturally consequent upon the close relation 
of the two institutions — the hospital stand- 
ing beside the College Building and con- 
nected with it by corridors. 

St. Luke's Hospital is situated on Indiana 
Avenue, near Fourteenth street. Owing to 
its central location, it receives a large num- 
ber of accident cases, and its surgical clinic 
is, consequently, an extensive one. Clinics 
are given regularly in Medicine, Nervous 
Diseases, Surgery, Gynecology, and Diseases 
of the Eye and Ear. The clinics and autop- 
sies of St. Luke's Hospital are attended 
principally by the third year students. 

Provident Hospital, located at the corner 
of Thirty-sixth and Dearborn streets, has 
recently been much enlarged. Besides its 
lOO beds, which can accommodate 800 to 



1. 000 patients annually, there is a large dis- 
pensary in which about 6,000 ambulatory 
patients receive treatment each year. 

The students of the Northwestern Uni- 
versity Medical School have an opportunity 
to attend clinics by the Medical Staff and 
operations by the Surgical Staff, and are 
assigned, in small classes, to ward visits in 
Surgery and Gynecology. 

The college possesses, in addition to the 
equipment of its laboratories and clinics, 
a fine collection of pathological and anatom- 
ical specimens. Its present museum is 
crowded and more space is needed. It also 
has an excellent reference library, which 
is in constant use by the students. This is 
in charge of a librarian who devotes her en- 
tire time to it. 

The inspiration which its founders gave 
thii school, to maintain in it the most thor- 
ough and complete instruction possible, has 
never been lost. Its success is shown by its 
growth and, best of all, by the character of 
its graduates. For a number of years past 
from one-third to one-half of each grad- 
uating class has received hospital appoint- 
ments, in which they obtain from a year to 
eighteen months of practical post-graduate 
training. Many of its alumni are filling im- 
portant professorships in colleges from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific coasts. They are 
found leaders in the communities in which 
they live and in the societies of their pro- 




Historical Sketch — Laiv School Founded in 
1859 — Hon. Thomas Hoyne Leads in 
Endowment of First Chair — Only Three 
Lazv Schools then West of the Alleghen- 
ies — First Faculty — Notable Members of 
Facidty of Later Date — Union College of 
Law Result of Combination of North- 
zvestern and University of Chicago — 
First Board of Managers and First 
Facidty Under Neiv Arrangement — Uni- 
versity of Chicago Suspended in 1866 
and Northwestern Assumed Entire Con- 
trol of Lazv School in i8gi — Subsequent 
History — Changes in Requirements of 
Supreme Court as to Law Course — 
Present Home and Conditions — Acquisi- 
tion of Gary Collection — Present Out- 

The present Northwestern University 
Law School was founded in 1859 through 
the generosity of the Hon. Thomas Hoyne, 
who contributed five thousand dollars to the 
original University of Chicago to endow 
a "chair of International and Constitutional 
Law" which contribution enabled the LTni- 
versity to establish a Law Department. 

At that time there were but three other 
law schools west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains, and the need of an institution that 
could offer a better legal training than could 
be obtained in a law office, was becoming 

more and more apparent with the growth 
of the city. 

The School was first opened for instruc- 
tion in i860, with Honorable Henry Booth 
and Judges John M. Wilson and Grant 
Goodrich as professors. Dr. Booth was 
the first to be called as a professor and to 
serve as Dean, and continued in that joint 
capacity for thirty-two years, retiring as 
Dean Emeritus in 1892. The inauguration 
ceremonies of the School took place in Met- 
ropolitan Hall, the chief address being made 
by the Hon. David Dudley Field, of New 
York; the Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois, Sidney Breese, and sev- 
eral other Judges of prominence being 
present and assisting. 

The School was conducted continuously 
by the University of Chicago until 1873, 
becoming better known throughout the 
United States each year for the thorough 
character of its instruction and the high 
standard of scholarship set for its grad- 
uates ; and though the dominating control 
of the School has changed several times 
from the date of its organization, the policy 
outlined by Dean Booth and his co-work- 
ers has been followed, and at no time has 
the School lost in influence or prestige 
through any attempt by the different in- 
terests to lower the quality of its instruction 
or the standard of its scholarship. The 



faith of these different interests in the pol- 
icy of its first Dean and his fellow-labor- 
ers is illustrated by the long tenure of 
office and the service on the Faculty of 
one of Evanston's best known citizens, the 
Hon. Harvey B. Hurd, who became a Pro- 
fessor in the Law School in 1862, and re- 
mained in active service until May 23. 1902, 
when he retired as Emeritus Professor of 

In 1873, for the purpose of strengthening 
the School and adding a department of law. 
Northwestern University entered into an 
agreement with the University of Chicago 
whereby the Law School came under the 
joint control of the two Universities. By 
the terms of this agreement the School was 
placed under the direct management of a 
"Joint Board," "comprising an equal num- 
ber of persons from the Board of Trustees 
of each University," the announcement of 
the change setting forth that "it should not 
be overlooked by any of the graduates of 
the Law School of the University of Chi- 
cago, that this School is a legitimate off- 
spring and successor to its claims, and, as 
such, is entitled to receive all the honors 
and support of the large number of those, 
fast rising into professional eminence, who 
acquired the rudiments of their legal learn- 
ing within the walls of this School." The 
joint agreement provided that the School 
should be known as the Law Department of 
both Universities, "with full right to each to 
publish the same in all catalogues and cir- 
culars, as its law department ; that diplo- 
mas should be signed by the President and 
Secretary of both Universities, under the 
seal of each, and that, "as far as practicable, 
the graduating exercises of the law classes 
shall be held in the name of, and attended 
by, the Trustees, officers and Faculties of 
both Universities"; that, "for the purpose 
of placing said Law School upon a sure and 

substantial financial basis," each University 
should pay annually towards its support not 
less than two thousand dollars and, in case 
of default for six months, the party in de- 
fault should forfeit its interest and control 
in the School. 

Northwestern University was represented 
on the first Board of Management, as 
above provided for, by Hon. Grant Good- 
rich, Wirt Dexter, Esq., Robert F. Queal, 
and Rev. Charles H. Fowler, President of 
the University. 

The first Faculty under joint control of 
the two Universities was composed as fol- 
lows: Hon. Henry Booth, Dean and Pro- 
fessor of the law of Property and of Plead- 
ing ; Hon. Lyiiian Trumbull, Professor of 
Constitutional Law, Statute Law, and Prac- 
tice in the United States Courts ; Hon, James 
R. Doolittle, Professor of Equity Jurispru- 
dence, Pleading and Evidence; Van Buren 
Denslow, Esq., Professor of Contracts and 
Civil and Criminal Practice; Philip Myers, 
Esq., Professor of Commercial Law ; Hon. 
James B. Bradwell, Lecturer on Wills and 
Probate : Dr. Nathan S. Davis, Lecturer on 
Medical Jurisprudence. 

The School was now known as the Union 
College of Law, and was located at this 
time (1873) in the Superior Block, fronting 
the Court-House. Sixty regular students 
were registered during the year 1872-73 — 
and, after three years of joint management, 
one hundred and thirty students were en- 
rolled in one year. The requirements for ad- 
mission at this time were low in all law 
schools, this School requiring merely a com- 
mon school education, but recommending a 
college training, and during the year 1876 — 
or three years after Northwestern Univer- 
sity assumed partial control — almost one- 
third of the students in the Law School pos- 
sessed academic degrees. The course, as in 
nearly all the better schools, covered a pe- 



riod of two years and the diploma of the 
School admitted to the bar of Ilhnois. 

The joint management was continued 
until 1886, when the original University of 
Chicago ceased to exist actively, and later 
surrendered its charter. For a period of 
about five years (1886 to 1891) the control 
of the Law School was still exercised by a 
"Joint Board," but in 1891 Northwestern 
University assumed entire control and the 
School received its present name. The 
agreement under which the Northwestern 
University assumed exclusive control of the 
Law School was made July i, 1891, with 
the Union College of Law represented by 
Hon. Oliver H. Horton and William A'. 
Farwell ; Northwestern L^niversity being 
represented by Orrington Lunt. its \'ice- 
President. This agreement, among other 
provisions, set forth that the School should 
thereafter be known as Northwestern Uni- 
versity Law School, with the privilege to 
continue the name "L^nion College of Law" 
in brackets, and that "all persons who are 
alumni of L^nion College of Law are hereby 
made alumni of Northwestern L'niversity 
Law School." 

Since Northwestern L'niversity obtained 
sole control of the Law School, its position 
among the foremost in the country has been 
maintained and the School has led in all 
attempts to raise the standard of legal edu- 
cation and of the legal profession in the 
West. An academic training equivalent to 
that of a graduate of a high school was soon 
made a requirement for admission, and, in 
1897, the required period of study in the 
School of all candidates for a degree was 
extended to three years, although at that 
time the Supreme Court of Illinois required 
but two years' study for admission to prac- 
tice within its jurisdiction. This change in 
the requirements for graduation was soon 
followed by a new rule of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois, governing admission to 

the bar and requiring an academic training 
equivalent to that of a high school graduate, 
and three years' study of law of all appli- 
cants for admission to practice. A change 
was also made in the Law School in the 
method of instruction by the adoption of 
the case system instead of the text, the 
curriculum was greatly enlarged and the 
Faculty increased. 

The policy of the University toward the 
Law School has been, at all times since its 
assumption of executive control, one of 
commendable liberality, and because of it 
the School has been able to keep up its 
progress and maintain its prestige. To do 
this, because of the large gifts of money 
contributed in recent years to Universities 
throughout the country other than North- 
western, and the consequent increase in 
efficiency and equipment of their various 
departments, the University found it neces- 
sary, in 1902, to increase very largely its 
annual financial contribution to the Law 
School, and this was done by adding there- 
to the income from a quarter of a million 
dollars and, in addition, an appropriation 
of ten thousand dollars for the im- 
mediate increase of the library ; so 
that, when the School ceased its mi- 
gratory career and moved into its 
present permanent home in Northwest- 
ern University Building, purchased and 
equipped at a cost of nearly one million 
dollars by the University, as a home for its 
professional Schools other than Medical, it 
possessed a Faculty of six professors giving 
the whole or the substance of their time to 
the School, besides an excellent staff of in- 
structors and lecturers, and a library of over 
12,000 volumes. The present home of 
the School, in what was widely known for 
more than half a century as the "Tremont 
House," is well adapted to its needs. It 
occupies the entire third floor of North- 
western University Building, in the heart of 



the business section of Chicago. The 
twenty-three thousand square feet of floor 
space is divided into well equipped library, 
lecture, study and court rooms, and offices. 
The library reading room will accommodate 
450 students at its tables. The students' 
assembly room provides pleasant quarters 
for rest and conversation. The walls of the 
School are hung with an interesting collec- 
tion of portraits of prominent Judges, and 
legal writers, teachers, and lawyers of all 
countries — a collection that is probably not 
equaled in the United States. The equip- 
ment throughout, aside from the library, 
was made possible by generous money 
contributions from alumni. Trustees and 
other friends of the School upon its removal 
to its permanent home. 

Through the generosity of Hon. Elbert 
H. Gary, '67, the School in 1903 acquired 
the Gary Collection of Continental Juris- 
prudence. This Collection, the most com- 
plete of its kind this side the Atlantic, 
comprises an extensive collection of the laws 
and jurisprudence of all the countries of 

Continental Europe. It is of incalculable 
practical value to Chicago and the North- 
west, and to students of the law in this coun- 
try interested in the study of comparative 
laws. Judge Gary has also made it possible 
for the School to greatly increase its collec- 
tion of English and American laws and 
treatises, and placed it (1905) in a position 
for the first time to compare favorably in 
this respect with the best law school 
libraries in the country. 

After forty-six years of existence the 
Law School stands for the best in legal 
training. During the past it has occupied 
constantly a high place as one of the best 
law schools, although greatly handicapped 
by lack of proper equipment and insuffi- 
cient financial support. Today, with its 
large body of alumni, many of whom are 
of State and National reputation, scattered 
over thirty-five States and Territories, with 
its excellent equipment and its increased 
financial support, the future of this depart- 
ment seems almost assured. 



(By G. V. BLACK, M. D., D. D. S.. LL. D.) 

Dental Education as a Distinct Branch of 
Professional Training — First Dental 
School Established in i8^p — Development 
Due to State Legislation — Dental Schools 
in Eastern Cities — Chicago College of 
Dental Surgery Graduates its First Class 
in i88j — Dr. Thomas L. Gilmer Leads 
Movement for Establishment of North- 
7\.'estcrn University Dental School — Con- 
solidation with American College of 
Dental Surgery — Dr. Theodore Menges 
Chief Promoter — ■ First Faeulty of the 
Consolidated School — Present Condi- 
tion — It Finds a Permanent Home in 
Historic Trcmont House Building. 

In order to understand the conditions in- 
fluencing the growth of the Northwestern 
University Dental School, it seems necessary 
to intermingle with the more direct account 
of it, a brief explanation of some of the gen- 
eral conditions peculiar to dental education 
which have had so large an influence on its 

Dental education, as a distinct branch of 
activity in the development of science and 
art, began in 1839, when Dr. Chapin Harris 
and his colleagues, who had been teaching 
oral surgery in a medical school in Balti- 
more, withdrew and founded an independent 
school of dentistry, establishing the degree 
of Doctor of Dental Surgery as earned by a 
definite course of studv. The effort was so 

successful that since that time dental edu- 
cation in America has been on a separate 
basis from general medical education. Yet 
it has always been regarded as a branch of 
the healing art, having much in common 
with general medicine, and especially as 
requiring similar preparation in the funda- 
mental branches, viz: anatomy, physiology, 
histology, pathology and chemistry. Dental 
schools made slow progress, however, in the 
earlier years of their existence. It had 
been the custom that one desiring to engage 
in the practice of dentistry became a student 
in the office of a practitioner, and, when 
considered sufficiently proficient, entered 
upon the practice independently without 
question. So firmly fixed was this practice 
that, for a time, few students entered the 
dental schools ; though from year to year 
they increased in numbers and new schools 
were organized and operated successfully in 
several of the larger cities. 

About 1870 there was a general move- 
ment for the better education of dentists. 
The need for the better education of phy- 
sicians was being urged, and laws for the 
regulation of the practice of medicine, and 
incidentally requiring improvement in edu- 
cational qualification, were being enacted 
by the different State Legislatures. Den- 
tistry followed, and laws were also rapidly 
adopted regulating the practice of den- 
tistry. These laws have been sustained by 


the sentimeilt of the people for whose bene- 
fit they were drawn, by the profession and 
by the courts of law. Those entering upon 
the practice of dentistry then found that 
the easier way to obtain an education that 
would satisfy the State Boards of Dental 
Examiners, was by attending the dental 
schools. This brought about a very rapid 
increase in the number of students, and also 
a similar increase in the number of dental 
schools. In 1870 there were eight dental 
schools in operation, from which were 
graduated 140 students. This, with the con- 
ditions of graduation then prevailing, would 
indicate a total attendance of but little over 
200 students. In 1901 there v/ere fifty-four 
dental schools and from these about 2.300 
students were graduated. This would indi- 
cate a total attendance of about 7,000 stu- 

This seemingly extreme educational activ- 
ity in dentistry was also accompanied by a 
similar activity in the development of den- 
tal science and practice. Many active men 
were coming forward with new facts and 
with new thought for the betterment of the 
treatment of dental diseases. The people 
were gaining confidence in dental opera- 
tions and making larger demands on the 
dental profession, and increased numbers of 
dentists were required to satisfy these de- 
mands, thus giving substantial support to 
the educational impulse. Baltimore and 
Philadelphia were the earlier seats of dental 
educational work, though successful dental 
schools were being developed in other cities. 
In Chicago the first dental school in actual 
operation (some charters for dental schools 
were obtained earlier) was Chicago College 
of Dental Surgery, which graduated its 
first class in 1885. In the activity of the 
time many efforts failed, or were imperfect- 
ly organized and continued but a short 

Dr. Thomas L. Gilmer inaugurated, and 

was principally instrumental in carrying 
through, the initial movement which result- 
ed in the organization of the present North- 
western University Dental School. In 1890 
there were a number of men in Chicago 
who had obtained some prominence as 
teachers in dentistry who were not then en- 
gaged in teaching. Having noted this, and 
having carefully studied the conditions. Dr. 
Gilmer gave a dinner at the Leland Hotel, 
to which Drs. George H. Gushing, Edgar D. 
Swain, Edmund Noyes and W. V-B. Ames 
were invited, and to whom he opened the 
subject of the organization of a new dental 
school. There were at the time several den- 
tal schools in the city that were not doing 
well, and the question of the reorganization 
of some one of these was discussed, with 
the result that Dr. Gilmer was authorized 
to investigate the advisability of the pur- 
chase of the American College of Dental 
Surgery, then under the control of Dr. 
Clendenen. At a subsequent meeting Dr. 
Gilmer reported adversely to the purchase 
of that school. Chicago University was 
then in process of organization, and an in- 
terview was had with President Harper 
with reference to the organization of a 
dental school as a department of that uni- 
versity, but at the time they were not ready 
for such an undertaking. The discussion 
of various schemes continued from time to 
time until the resignation of the faculty of 
the University Dental College seemed to 
create an opening in that direction. 

The University Dental College was 
finally organized under a charter grant- 
ed from the State of Illinois in 1887. 
The first session was held in the win- 
ter of 1887-88, with a class of six students, 
the dental faculty consisting of W. W. All- 
port (Emeritus), L. P. Haskell, R. F. Lud- 
wig, John S. Marshall (Dean), A. E. Bald- 
win, Charles P. Pruyn, R. C. Baker and 
Arthur B. Freeman. An agreement was 


effected between President Cummings of 
Northwestern University, Nathan S. Davis, 
Dean of Chicago Medical College, and the 
faculty of the new Dental College, by 
which the students should take lectures in 
anatomy, physiology, histology, materia 
medica, pathology and surgery with the 
medical classes ; but this agreement in- 
volved no further connection with the Med- 
ical College. Also the connection with 
Northwestern University was nominal and 
prospective only, the University assuming 
no responsibility for the Dental College. 

The new college was located on Twenty- 
sixth Street, Chicago, near the Medical Col- 
lege. The students were required to take a 
course of three years, of seven months 
each, before graduation. This was the first 
dental college to make this requirement, and 
this fact operated very much against its suc- 
cess in obtaining students ; so that its 
classes remained very small. There were 
only eleven students at the end of the sec- 
ond year. At the beginning of the third 
year the three-year course was made op- 
tional, and the students were allowed to 
elect to take a two years' course. At the 
end of the fourth year the class numbered 
nineteen. The college could not continue to 
meet its expenses on the income derived 
from this number of students and, at the 
end of the year, the Faculty resigned, as has 
been noted above. 

At that time Dr. Henry Wade Rogers 
had recently become President of North- 
western University, and was actively en- 
gaged in bringing the professional schools, 
which had previously but a nominal connec- 
tion with the University at Evanston, into a 
closer relationship. He was seen by Dr. 
Gilmer with regard to the reorganization of 
this college, and he actively favored it. 
After a number of conferences between the 
parties interested, which included especially 
Drs. Chas. P. Pruvn, I. A. Freeman, A. B. 

Freeman and A. E. Matteson, of the old 
faculty, the officers of Chicago Medical Col- 
lege, and Drs. T. L. Gilmer, E. D. Swain, 
Geo. H. Gushing, Edmund Noyes, W. V-B. 
Ames and others, an organization was ef- 
fected under the charter of Northwestern 
University, and the charter of the Univer- 
sity Dental College from the State allowed 
to lapse. In making this change the word 
college was dropped and the word school 
substituted, in accord with a policy of the 
University, in which the teaching organiza- 
tions under its jurisdiction are called 
"schools"' rather than colleges. The new 
school took the name Northwestern Univer- 
sity Dental School. The Chicago Medical 
College also came into closer relationship 
with the University and took the name 
Northwestern University Medical School. 
The new dental faculty was composed of 
Edgar D. Swain, Dean ; Edmund Noyes, 
Secretary ; G. V. Black, George H. Cush- 
ing, J. S. Marshall, Charles P. Pruyn, Isaac 
A. Freeman! Thomas L. Gilmer, Arthur B. 
Freeman, B. S. Palmer, W. V-B. Ames, 
Arthur E. Matteson, E. L. Clifford, G. W. 
Haskins, D. M. Cattell and H. P. Smith. 
Arrangements were made with the medical 
school by which the dental students took 
lectures on the fundamental subjects with 
the medical classes. The school was re- 
moved to more commodious quarters on 
Twenty-second Street, but near enough to 
be convenient to the Medical School, which 
was also moved to new quarters on Dear- 
born Street, near Twenty-fourth. In the 
summer of 1891 the National Association of 
Dental Faculties passed an order which re- 
quired all schools affiliated with it to ex- 
tend the course of study to three terms of 
not less than six months each, in separate 
years before graduation. This order was 
complied with at once, and the new organi- 
zation began its first 'session with a class of 
fifty-three students, only six of whom came 
from the old school. 


The National Association of Dental Fac- 
ulties was formed in 1884, having as its ob- 
ject the improvement of the methods of den- 
tal education and harmony of action among 
the separate schools. The National Associa- 
tion of Dental Examiners had been formed 
a year earlier, having for its object the pro- 
motion of harmony of action among the 
separate Examining Boards of the different 
States. These associations, while remain- 
ing distinct, have, for the most part, 
worked in unison, both having for their 
prime object the better education and pro- 
fessional qualification of young men for the 
practice of dentistry, and their influence has 
been too important to be passed without 
some consideration. It must be understood 
that, before this time, dental schools were 
without law or rule other than such as each 
might adopt at will, and there was little 
harmony of action among them. Some were 
graduating students on a single course of 
six months. There was no standard of edu- 
cational requirement for matriculation, etc. 
The object of the Faculties Association was 
to bring about harmony and establish rules 
regarding all such matters. 

Perhaps the best definition of the objects 
and purposes of this organization will be 
expressed in its first official acts. It was 
agreed by the association at its first meeting 
that, after the close of the sessions of 1884- 
85, each college belonging to the Associa- 
tion would refuse to allow a candidate to 
come up for final examination who had not 
attended two full courses of lectures, the 
last of which should have been spent in the 
college where the candidate for graduation 
proposed to take the degree. A preliminary 
examination of all students not possessing 
an academic or high school education was 
also ordered to go into effect at the same 
time. It was ordered that an examination of 
junior students should take place at the end 
of their first course, and that certificates 

should be issued showing their fitness to en- 
ter the senior class of any one of the chain 
of colleges, and that no college belonging to 
the Association would allow a student to 
enter the senior class who did not exhibit 
such a certificate of qualification, and this 
class of legislation has since been continued. 
This organization quickly gathered into its 
membership all of the dental schools re- 
garded as reputable ; and, although a purely 
voluntary organization, it has attained such 
power through the general support of the 
dental profession that its edicts have the 
force of law. 

It was under these general conditions that 
the new school began its work. After two 
years in its location on Twenty-second 
Street, the school was moved into new build- 
ings erected on Dearborn Street, between 
Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Streets, 
and was housed with the Medical School ; 
each, however, having its own rooms, clinic- 
al outfits and laboratories. In this location, 
and with these arrangements, the school 
was fairly prosperous and the number of 
students increased so that, in the fall of 
1895, the whole number was one hundred 
and twenty-eight. With this number in the 
Dental School and the continued increase 
in the Medical School, the space was over- 
crowded, so that it became necessary to 
procure additional buildings outside for a 
portion of the laboratories of the Dental 
School. This arrangement proved very un- 
satisfactory, as it required much running to 
and fro, and it became clear that something 
else must be done in order to accommodate 
the increasing demands. The extension of 
the course to three years instead of two, as 
had been the former custom, had not served 
materially to diminish the number of appli- 
cants for matriculation. 

In the meantime the American College of 
Dental Surgery, previously mentioned, had 
been purchased bv Dr. Theodore Menges 


and others, its equipment had been im- 
proved, it was being put in better condition 
for giving instruction and its classes were 
rapidly increasing in numbers. Dr. Menges, 
who was showing much energy and tact, 
especially in gaining students, proposed in 
the winter of 1895-96 the consolidation of 
these two schools. After numerous confer- 
ences usual in such proceedings, this was 
effected during the following spring on 
terms which, for the time, left the principal 
management of the school in the hands of 
Dr. Menges, but provided for the ultimate 
complete ownership by the University. The 
faculty was again reorganized, a part of 
each of the old faculties being retained. 
The new faculty at the beginning of 1896- 
97 was composed of Edgar D. Swain 
(Dean), G. \'. Black, George H. Gushing, 
Thomas L. Gilmer, J. S. Marshall (Emer- 
itus), B. J. Cigrand, A. H. Peck, E. H. 
Angle, Edmund Noyes, I. B. Crissman, W. 
E. Harper, G. W. Haskins, James H. Proth- 
ero, G. W. Swartz, William Stearns, 
Charles B. Reed, F. B. Noyes, T. B. Wig- 
gin, W. T. Eckley, L. B. Haymen, George 
Leininger, C. E. Sayre, V. J. Hall, with 
Theodore Menges as Secretary and Busi- 
ness Manager. The Dental School was re- 
moved to the building that had been occu- 
pied by the American College of Dental 
Surgery, on the corner of Franklin and 
Madison Streets, where it has since re- 
mained. In this 'building additional space 
could be had from time to time for indefi- 
nite expansion. In this arrangement the 
American College of Dental Surgery went 
out of existence, and, as its graduates would 
have no alma mater, it was agreed that those 
students who had graduated in l8gi and 
since should be made alumni of the North- 
western University Dental School. 

Northwestern University Dental School 
now undertook to teach all of the depart- 
ments, including the fundamental branches. 

by its own professors and instructors, thus 
separating it entirely from the Medical 
School. The work was now with much 
larger classes than had before been as- 
sembled in dental schools, and, as the year 
passed, it was seen that, while the general 
methods of instruction in vogue were well 
adapted, much improvement in the system- 
atization of the work of the teaching force 
was desirable. At the end of the year the 
Dean, Dr. Edgar D. Swain, resigned. Dr. 
G. V. Black was then appointed Dean, and 
was charged especially with the systemati- 
zation of the methods of instruction. Each 
of the departments of instruction was grad- 
ually brought under the control of a single 
responsible professor, who controlled the 
methods of presentation of the subjects in 
his field of work by those associated with 
him, and the courses of study were so 
graded that the classes of each year re- 
mained separate in the class room. Per- 
sonal teaching was provided for by the sep- 
aration of classes into sections and the ar- 
rangement of quiz-masters and demonstrat- 
ors for special duties, so that the individual 
student could, at any time, obtain a person- 
al answer to his question or the demonstra- 
tion of a technical procedure. 

In following out these arrangements, sub- 
jects that had been divided among different 
members of the faculty were grouped under 
one head and managed by a single profes- 
sor with the aid of assistants, so that the 
faculty was reduced in number and the as- 
sistant teachers, demonstrators and quiz- 
masters increased. In 1899-1900 the faculty 
was composed of Greene V. Black (Dean), 
Thomas L. Gilmer, John S. Marshall (Em- 
eritus), Adelbert H. Peck, Edmund Noyes, 
William E. Harper, James H. Prothero, 
Frederick B. Noyes, Twing B. Wiggin, 
William T. Eckley, Vernon J. Hall, George 
.■\. Dorsey. Theodore Menges (Secretary 
of the Faculty) and James N. McDowell. 


This faculty was assisted by about thirty 
assistants, teachers, demonstrators and quiz- 

Northwestern Dental College, a small 
school also located in Chicago, had given 
much annoyance on account of the similari- 
ty of name, especially in the confusion it 
caused in the delivery of mail. In 1898 this 
was purchased, the college closed, and its 
plant added to the Northwestern University 
Dental School. This arrangement included 
the recognition of the recent graduates of 
the Northwestern Dental College as alumni 
of Northwestern University Dental School. 
The school as thus organized prospered, 
and the classes steadily increased until, in 
1809-1900, they numbered six hundred stu- 
dents—the largest number ever collected in 
one dental school. Additional space in the 
building was obtained from time to time 
for new laboratories and class rooms. In 
1899 an entire floor was added to gain addi- 
tional space for necessary class rooms, lec- 
ture rooms and laboratories, and also to pro- 
vide space for a library, museum and read- 
ing room. It has been found particularly de- 
sirable that students should be provided with 
well-arranged space in the school building, to 
which they could go during any leisure hour 
for the purpose of reading and study, or 
which they could occupy at regular hours 
and where they could find books upon any 
topic in dentistry. The work of assembling 
a library and museum of comparative den- 
tal anatomy and dental pathology was act- 
ivelv undertaken, and the material has been 
rapidly brought together, so that, at the 
present time, these may be justly regarded 
as excellent and as quite fully supplying the 
needs of a dental school. To these members 
of the profession have contributed books, 
journals and specimens liberally, and have 
in this way very materially aided in the 
gathering of the collection. This work is 
still in progress. ]\Iembers of the profes- 

sion are also permitted to make use of this 
library and museum. 

On the first of June, 1900, Dr. Theodore 
Menges, Secretary and Business Manager 
of Northwestern University Dental School, 
died of appendicitis, after an illness of a lit- 
tle less than one week. He was thus cut off, 
seemingly before his time, in the midst of a 
robust manhood and mental vigor, while in 
the active prosecution of the work that 
seemed to have been allotted him to do. 
His sudden death threw a wave of grief 
over all connected with the school, upon its 
alumni, the dental profession and all who 
knew him and the work he was doing. He 
was an active, energetic and persistent 
worker, devoting his life to the upbuilding 
of the dental profession. 

With the death of Dr. Menges the dentai 
school became completely the property of 
Northwestern University. Dr. W. E. Har- 
per was appointed Secretary and the school 
went regularly forward with its work with- 
out other change in its faculty. Its a'umni 
now number about fourteen hundred. 

In 1901 the University purchased a new 
buildmg at a cost of half a million dollars, 
which two years since became the perma- 
nent home of the Dental School, as also of 
the schools of Law and Pharmacy. This 
building — formerly the "Tremont House," 
for more than fifty years one of the most 
widely known hostelries in the city of Chi- 
cago — IS located at the corner of Lake and 
Dearborn Streets, within the downtown loop 
of the elevated roads, is convenient of ac- 
cess from all lines of travel, both general 
and suburban, and furnishes especially com- 
modious quarters for the uses of the school. 
It has a frontage of 180 feet on Dearborn 
Street and 160 feet on Lake Street, and 
since it came into the possession of the Uni- 
versity, has undergone thorough reconstruc- 
tion, fitting it for the several departments 
there located. 




The several schools in this building are 
entirely separate and distinct from each 
other in their respective rooms, equipment 
and special work — as much so as if in sepa- 
rate buildings — so situated as to have a 
much closer community of interest and of 
helpfulness with reference to each other 
than had previously existed. The annual 
sessions of the Dental School are held in 
this new building, and there is every reason 
to believe that in its new and permanent 
home the Dental department has entered 
upon a new period of increasmg prosperity 
and usefulness. 


Since the above was written Northwest- 
ern University Dental School has gone reg- 
ularly forward with its educational work. 
Dr. Elgin MaWhinney has been appointed 
to fill the place made vacant by the resigna- 
tion af Dr. A. H. Peck. A vacancy occur- 
ing through the resignation of Dr. E. H. 
Angle is filled by Dr. Ira B. Sellery. Sec- 

retary Dr. W. E. Harper resigned and his 
place was filled by the appointment of Dr. 
C R. E. Koch. Also three of the younger 
men who had been serving the school as 
Demonstrators and Lecturers, have been 
appointed Asistant Professors to the chair 
of Operative Dentistry and Bacteriology. 
These are Dr. E. S. Willard, in charge of 
Bacteriology ; Dr. F. W. Gethro, in charge 
of Dental Anatomy and Operative Tech- 
nics ; and Dr. A. D. Black, in charge of the 
Junior work in Operative Dentistry. 

The annual session has been lengthened 
to include thirty-two weeks e.xclusive of 
holidays, teaching six days per week, mak- 
ing the actual work of instruction equal to 
the full nine-months' academic course. The 
educational requirements for registration 
have also been advanced to graduation 
from a recognized high school or an equiv- 
alent preliminary education. 

The school continues in a prosperous 



(By PBOF. OSCAK OLDBERO, Pharm. D.,Dean) 

Founding of the School of Pharmacy in 
Connection with Northwestern Universi- 
ty — Promoters of the Movement — School 
Opened in 1886 — Its Extensive Equip- 
ment — Instruction Rooms and Labora- 
tories — Number of Students in Eighteen 
Years — They are Drazcn from Practically 
All the States and Territories — Present 
Location of the Institution — Library and 
Value of Equipment — Annual Expendi- 
tures — Faculty of 1905. 

The Executive Committee of the Board 
of Trustees of Northwestern University, 
upon the motion of Dr. David R. Dyche. at 
its regular meeting April 10, 1886, adopted 
a resolution favoring the establishment of a 
School of Pharmacy and invited the co-op- 
eration of friends of sound pharmaceutical 
education in the project. Associated with 
Dr. Dyche in this movement were Messrs. 
Ezekiel H. Sargent, Theodore H. Patterson, 
Wilhelm Bodemann, Henry S. Maynard, 
Oscar Oldberg and John H. Long. The or- 
ganization of the school was completed and 
the addition of this department of the Uni- 
versity was formally approved by vote of 
the Board of Trustees in June. The new 
school was opened to students on the first 
day of October, i886, with a more extensive 
equipment than that of any other American 
pharmaceutical school existing at that time. 
In addition to its other instruction rooms 

the School of Pharmacy of Northwestern 
University provided four laboratories. One 
of these — and the first of its kind in the 
history of pharmaceutical education — was 
a special laboratory for systematic practical 
training in the work of preparing and dis- 
pensing medicines in accordance with phy- 
sicians' prescriptions. This "dispensing 
laboratory"' proved to be one of the most 
important and useful features of the new in- 
stitution. The other laboratories were a 
chemical, a microscopical, and a manufac- 
turing laboratory. 

During the first eighteen years of its ca- 
reer, from 1886 to 1904, the School of Phar- 
macy of Northwestern University has had 
an annual attendance averaging 215 stu- 
dents. These students have come from all 
the States and Territories of the United 
States except Nevada and Delaware. De- 
grees have been conferred by this school 
upon 1,516 graduates up to the end of the 
academic year 1903-1904. The number of 
students in attendance in 1903- 1904 was 

The School of Pharmacy is now housed 
in Northwestern University Building, cor- 
ner of Lake and Dearborn streets, Chicago, 
where it occupies all of the fourth and part 
of the fifth floor, the twenty-six rooms used 
exclusively by this school having a total 
floor space of about 27,000 square feet. It 
has now seven laboratories, with an aggre- 


gate floor space of 10,780 square feet and 
provided with over 300 individual work 
tables, enabling that number of students to 
be concurrently at work. There are two lec- 
ture rooms, one capable of seating 184 pu- 
pils and the other 96. 

The library of this school contains about 
1.000 bound volumes, of an estimated value 
of not less than $3,400 (March, 1905). The 
museum contains over 2,000 selected speci- 
mens of drugs, pharmaceutical and chemical 
products, industrial materials, etc. 

The value of the furniture, fixtures, ap- 
paratus, instruments, books, museum speci- 
mens and other educational equipment and 
materials is not less than $26,500 ( Alarch, 

The annual expenditures, including sal- 
aries, furniture, apparatus, materials and 
other necessary current school expenses, 
amount to about $29,000. It should be re- 
membered that this sum does not include 
any rent. 

The teaching staff of the School of Phar- 
macy in 1905 embraced the following 
names : 

Thomas Franklin Holgate. Ph. D.. -Acting President of 
the University. 

Oscar Oldberg. Pharm. D.. Dean. Professor of Phar- 
macy and Director of the Pharmaceutical Laboratories. 

William Edward Quine, M. D., Emeritus Professor 
Physiology. Therapeutics and To.iicology. 

Harry Mann Gordin. Ph. D., (University of Berne. 
Switzerland). Professor of Organic Chemistry and Di- 
rector of the Organic Chemical Laboratory. 

Theodore Whittelsey, Ph. D. (University of Goettingen, 
Germany), Professor of Inorganic and Analytical Chem- 
istry, and Director of the Inorganic Chemical Labora- 

Raymond H. Pond, Ph. D. (University of Michigan), 
Professor of Botany, Microscopy, Pharmacognosy and 
Bacteriology, and Director of the Microscopical and 
Bacteriological Laboratories. 

Maurice .\shbel Miner, Pharm. M. (University of Mich- 
igan), Assistant Professor of Pharmacy, in charge of the 
Manufacturing Laboratory. Curator. 

Charles Waggener Paterson, Sc. B., Ph. C. (North- 
western University), Assistant Professor of Organic Ana- 
lytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, in charge of the Or- 
ganic Chemical Laboratory. Registrar. 

Harry Kahn, Pharm. M. (University of Michigan). 
M. D. (Northwestern), Assistant Professor of Phys- 
iology and Materia Medica. 

David Charles Eccles. Sc. B., A. M. (Columbia Uni- 
versity), Instructor in Pharmacy, in Charge of the Dis- 
pensing Laboratory. Secretary of the Faculty. 

Gustave E. F. Lundell, Sc. B.' (Cornell University), In- 
structor in the Inorganic Chemical Laboratories. 

Gerhard H. Jensen, Sc. B. (Cornell University), In- 
structor in Botany and Pharmacognosy. 

John Ferd. Fischnar, Ph. C. (Northwestern), Assistant 
in the Pharmaceutical Laboratory. 

William Henry Harrison. Ph. C. (Northwestern), As- 
sistant in the Chemical Laboratories. 

Ernest Woollett, College Clerk, Instn 
keeping and Business Methods. 

Lee R. Girton. Ph. G.. Lecture Ass 


All these teachers devote their time to 
the School of Pharmacy exclusively, with 
the exception of the Professor of Physiolo- 
gy and Materia Medica, who has no labora- 
tory courses under his charge. 

The professors are provided with private 
ofHces and laboratories for the effective per- 
formance of their duties under the most 
favorable conditions and for research work. 



(By ELIZA H. ROOT, M. D.) 

Demand for Higher Education for Women 
— First Steps in Founding IVoman's Med- 
ical College — Promoters of Movement in 
Chicago — "IVoman's Hospital Medical 
College" Founded in 1870 — First Faculty 
— Story of "The Little Barn" — Career of 
Dr. Mary H. Thompson, Drs. Byford, 
Dyas and Others — Some Notable Gradu- 
ates — A Period of Struggle — Institution 
Reorganized in i8jj as Woman's Medical 
College — President Byford Dies in i8po 
— Institution Affiliated with Northivest- 
ern University — Is Discontinued in 1002 
— Graduates in Foreign Missionary and 
Other Fields — Alumnae Organization. 

About the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury there was a great awakening along 
lines of intellectual freedom. It spread like 
a tidal wave over the country, and it trav- 
eled into the frontier West in "the prairie 
schooner." The slave question became a 
burning one, and one that required courage 
to attack openly. Women caught the spirit 
of the times and began to enter their own 
claims for greater freedom. Equal suf- 
frage came to the front, enlistin,? men as its 
champions, and brought women before the 
public with a most unprecedented frequency 
and prominence. The question of a more 
liberal education for women became a ques- 
tion of fervent heat, permeating every walk 
of life. Women began to teach in our pub- 

lic schools and to plead for better prepara- 
tion for their work. 

No question, perhaps, has enlisted the 
championship of noble, free-minded men 
and women more than did the question of 
admitting women to our colleges and uni- 
versities on the same terms as men. Among 
the innovations of that time was the urgent 
appeal made to the medical colleges by wo- 
men seeking a medical training. There 
was no use in trying to evade the question : 
it was up and sides must be taken, and were 
taken. Men of noble stamp took the affirma- 
tive and advocated the right of women to a 
medical education. Men of equally noble 
stamp, but less liberal in their views, took 
the negative, and would lock all doors of 
learning against the importuning woman. 
In the eastern part of our country medical 
schools were approached, but no entrance 
was obtained until Dr. Elizabeth Black- 
well succeeded in gaining entrance to the 
Geneva Medical School in New York, from 
which she graduated in 1849. In Philadel- 
phia the movement met with an opposition 
that led to the founding, in 1850, of the 
Woman's Medical College of Pennsylva- 
nia, which is still a prosperous school of 
medicine. In the Middle West women were 
repeatedly asking for admission to the Med- 
ical Colleges of Chicago and elsewhere. 

In 1852 Emily Blackwell attended a 
course of lectures in Rush Medical College. 


She was denied admission the second year 
and went to Cleveland, Ohio. 

There are very incomplete records of this 
case, but referring to this period of inqu'ry 
that led to the founding of the Alcdical Col- 
lege for Women in Chicago, the late Pro- 
fessor Charles Warrington Earle says: 
"This much, however, is known ; the Illinois 
Medical Society, saturated with the then 
prevailing prejudices against female medi- 
cal education, censured the college for ad- 
mitting women to its institution." 

Six or eight years after this Dr. Mary H. 
Thompson came to Chicago and entered 
upon practice. The city had poor hospital 
facilities at this time, and when the Civil 
War broke out between the North and the 
South, many women — soldiers' wives — were 
left with children helpless and nearly desti- 
tute. To meet the demands for medical care 
made by these women and their children 
and the poor generally, the Chicago Hospi- 
tal for Women and Children was founded 
in 1865. This hospital, founded on the basis 
of a charitable institution, soon won a cli- 
entele among the poor, its dispensary and 
wards being well patronized. The clinical 
advantages afforded by the hospital conse- 
quently provided the nearest approach to 
an institution for medical instruction that 
was open to women in the West seeking a 
medical education. Applications were made 
to the hospital for clinical instruction ; but 
while the hospital could furnish excellent 
clinical advantages, there was no place pro- 
vided for giving didactic instruction, and no 
properly organized body to bestow a medi- 
cal diploma when the course was finished. 

Dr. Mary H. Thompson, who took an 
active part in founding the hospital, asked 
at two different times for the admission of 
women into Rush Medical College and was 
refused. In the meantime she became ac- 
quainted with Dr. William Heath Byford, 
of the Chicago ^Medical College, which was 

then, as now, the Medical Department of 
the Northwestern University. Dr. Byford 
espoused the cause of the women who were 
asking for admission to medical lectures. 
He laid the matter before his Faculty, giv- 
ing the measure his hearty support. This 
college consented to admit women, but only 
four entered. The remainder of the appli- 
cants, pending the discussion and aware of 
the uncertainty of what the decision might 
be, had gone East to the Woman's Medical 
College in Philadelphia, to New York, or 
had given up the idea of studying medicine. 
The four women who entered the Chicago 
Medical College— one of the number being 
Dr. Thompson herself — attended lectures in 
that institution for one year. Dr. Thomp- 
son, already a graduate in medicine, re- 
ceived the diploma of the institution, which 
was granted, after some hesitancy and warm 
discussion upon the propriety of granting 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine to a wo- 
man. Dr. Thompson was thus the first and 
only woman, for years, to hold a diploma of 
the Northwestern University Medical Col- 
lege of Chicago. 

The following year "mixed classes" were 
found to be objectionable, and women were 
refused further admission. This refusal, to- 
gether with the increasing number of appli- 
cations, determined the founding of the 
Woman's Hospital Medical College in 1870. 

Once decided upon, the despatch with 
which this college started, notwithstanding 
the lack of money for the enterprise, is re- 
markable, and is characteristic of the ener- 
gy and push that existed among the citizens 
of a young and growing city. 

Dr. Byford was the instigator, by sugges- 
tion and generous aid, of the establishment 
of the new college. He was, in fact, its 

"The first meeting," according to the rec- 
ords, "was held at Dr. Byford's office, at 
No. 60 State Street, Chicago, August 2, 


1870." This meeting was held "for the pur- 
pose of considering the expediency of the 
organization of a Woman's Medical College 
in Chicago." There were eight physicians 
present at that first meeting: Drs. William 
H. Byford, Mary H. Thompson, Eugene 
Marguerat, R. G. Bogue, Norman Bridge, 
Charles Warrington Earle, Addison H. Fos- 
ter and T. D. Fitch. A Faculty was formed, 
in part, that night, and was composed of 
those present at the meeting, with Dr. Wil- 
liam Godfrey Dyas added to the list. Of 
this original number, only three are now liv- 
ing (March, 1905), Drs. Marguerat and 
Foster, both now weighted with years, and 
men who have followed an active pioneer 
practice that has been crowned with achieve- 
ments that have contributed to the making 
of modern methods in medical education 
and practice possible, and Dr. Norm3n 
Bridge, now of Pasadena, Cal., who has 
won an honorable and honored place in 
the medical profession and who is widely 
known as an authority on tuberculosis and 

At this same meeting — a most important 
one in its relation to the medical training 
of women in the West — committees were 
appointed for the purpose of procuring a 
place m which college work could be com- 

A little band of nine physicians, without 
means and without professional sympathy 
or approval, was now a college without a 
home. But this difficulty was soon over- 
come. By October i, 1870, the faculty was 
completed and a home secured. 

The records are very meager in regard to 
this important event. But it is evident that 
some ceremony was observed, for Dr. By- 
ford was chosen on September 12, 1870, 
"for the opening address to be given in a 
public hall." At this same meeting a "time 
table" was adopted, and a committee on an- 
nouncement was appointed. 

The college was founded under the name 
of "The Woman's Hospital Medical Col- 
lege of Chicago," with Dr. Byford as its 
President. Drs. Byford, Thompson and 
Dyas (with his noble and high-minded 
wife, Miranda B. Sherwood Dyas) were 
active promoters of the new college and 
the hospital ; in fact, the hospital was more 
than once saved from rum by the energy, 
influence and faith in the cause by Mrs. 

In an address delivered February 2.^, 
1879, Dr. Dyas said of the school's origm: 
"Whatever merit attaches to the project — 
whether in its inception, in its further- 
ance, or in its subsequent progress — can be 
claimed by no one to the same extent as by 
Professor Byford." Just and true as this 
tribute is, to one who gave so much of his 
life to this institution, it must not be for- 
gotten that Dr. Dyas himself, and his wife, 
took no small part in promoting the college, 
especially in its early history and its strug- 
gles against adversity, prejudice and hre. 

The first regular course of lectures began 
with seventeen students, and was given in 
the building occupied by the hospital re- 
ferred to above, then situated at 402 North 
Clark Street, Chicago. The session was a 
greater success than the most sanguine 
friends of the movement had dared to hope. 
The year closed with the first graduating 
exercises (1871). A class of three were 
given diplomas by the college. All three of 
these ladies had had a first year's course in 
some other college — two of the number — 
Mrs. Kent and Julia Cole-Blackman — hav- 
ing taken theirs in the Chicago Medical Col- 
lege the year before. 

A spring course, from April i to July 
I. 1 87 1, was held, and was attended by fif- 
teen students. The second session began 
October 3, 1871, in rooms fitted up at Nos. 
I and 3 North Clark Street, near the bridge, 
with the following named Faculty, which 


was practically the same as that for the first 
year: William H. Byford, M. D., Presi- 
dent of the Faculty and Professor of Clin- 
ical Surgery of Women ; William G. Dyas, 
M. D., F. R. C. S. I., Professor of Theory 
and Practice of Medicine; A. Fisher, M. D., 
Professor Emeritus of Surgery ; R. G. 
Bogue, M. D., Treasurer of the Faculty and 
Professor of Surgery; T. D. Fitch, M. D., 
Secretary of the Faculty and Professor of 
Diseases of Women ; Eugent Marguerat, 
M. D., Professor of Obstetrics ; Charles G. 
Smith. M. D., Professor of Diseases of 
Children ; Mary H. Thompson, M. D., Pro- 
fessor of Hygiene and Clinical Obstetrics 
and Diseases of Women ; Samuel C. Blake, 
M. D., Professor of Diseases of the Mind 
and Nervous System; G. C. Paoli, M. D., 
Professor of Materia Medica and Thera- 
peutics : S. A. McWilliams, M. D., Profes- 
sor of Anatomy ; Charles W. Earle, M. D., 
Professor of Physiology; Norman Bridge, 
M. D., Professor of Pathology; A. H. Fos- 
ter, M. D., Professor of Surgical Anatomy 
and Operations in Surgery; M. Delafon- 
taine. Ph. D., Professor of Chemistry ; 
Samuel Cole, M. D., Professor of Ophthal- 
mology and Otology ; P. S. MacDonald, M. 
D.. Demonstrator of Anatomy. Six of this 
Faculty were clinical instructors at the Chi- 
cago Hospital for Women and Children 
and at the Cook County Hospital. The 
Board of Trustees was chosen fiom the 
Faculty and from the Hospital Board (see 
second annual announcement 1871-72), 
which united the two institutions, ostensibly 
in oneness of purpose, if not in harmony. 

The work of the young College was 
scarcely well begun when the Great Fire 
of October 9, 1871, swept away the college 
and hospital, with all their material belong- 
ings. The fire swept away the larger part 
of the city, including its entire business por- 
tion. Desolation and ruin were complete 
throughout the city. Although three- 

fourths of the Faculty had lost their homes, 
their offices and libraries, the members con- 
vened on the loth of October, amid the 
smoking ruins of a destroyed city, and de- 
cided that the College should be continued. 
The scattered students were notified and 
lectures were resumed on the West Side — ■ 
the only considerable portion of the city that 
had escaped the fire. A residence at .^41 
West Adams Street afforded shelter to the 
College, while the hospital was re-established 
at another residence, 600 West Adams 
Street, which is still standing. To this loca- 
tion the College was soon again moved. In 
1872 the College was moved again, this time 
to a home of its own, the first in its hither- 
to checkered existence. This home is known 
in the history of the institution as "The Lit- 
tle Barn." This barn was of mean propor- 
tions, situated in the rear of the lot occu- 
pied by the hospital — and on which the hos- 
pital now stands — on the corner of Adams 
and Paulina Streets. The barn, as it stood, 
was offered gratuitously by the hospital au- 
thorities to the Faculty for a college build- 
ing. Enough money was expended upon 
this shabby old barn, built of wood, to make 
a fairly comfortable and moderately con- 
venient Woman's Medical College. On the 
first floor was a small lecture room, which 
served as a library, faculty room and mu- 
seum. The second floor was used for prac- 
tical anatomy. 

There were five classes graduated from 
"the little barn," the members of which 
have attained to honor and able distinction 
in the medical profession. Among those 
most successful may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing : 

Dr. Julia Cole-Blackman, of Geneva, III, 
whose life has been devoted to matters per- 
taining to medicine, as the wife of one of 
the leading surgeons of Kane county. 111., 
and the only surviving member of her class. 
She was the first woman to become a mem- 




ber of the Fox River Valley Medical So- 
ciety, and has been an active and honored 
member for years. 

Dr. Rosa Engert. of the class of 1873 
(there was no class graduated in 1872), 
was of German birth and practiced medicine 
in Chicago for many years, when she re- 
tired to private life. She came to Chicago 
after receiving a training in a German 
school of midwifery. She was not satisfied 
with the limits to which this training con- 
fined her. so she entered the College and 
became one of its honored graduates. She 
was at one time attending surgeon at the 
Chicago Hospital for Women and Children, 
and connected with the College as instructor. 
She also established the Engert Prize for 
the best work with the microscope and 
maintained it for several years. Dr. Mar- 
garet E. Holland, of the same class, served 
the Chicago Hospital for Women and Chil- 
dren, as interne, for one year after gradua- 
tion, and then went to Houston, Texas, 
where she still is in practice. She has done 
praiseworthy pioneer work for the medical 
woman, winning the respect and confidence 
of the medical profession of a conservative 
Southern city and a practice that has 
brought her a fitting competency. She has 
served in various positions in which her 
work has promoted the public health and 

Of the class of 1874 Dr. Lucinda Corr, of 
Carlinville, 111., has won distinction as a 
physician of skill and as an active philan- 
thropist. She has always been an active 
member of the Illinois State Medical So- 
ciety, taking active part in its proceedings, 
and has won an honorable place in the 
ranks of the profession in Illinois, where 
she stood shoulder to shoulder with her 
husband, a broad-minded man of ability 
and endowed with an enterprising public 
spirit. Dr. Lettie Mason Quine, of the same 
class, was the first medical missionary sent 

to China from this College and the third 
medical woman sent to China by the Wo- 
man's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. After her re- 
turn to America she became the wife of Dr. 
William E. Quine, of Chicago, and contin- 
ued active in missionary society work and 
never lost her interest in the medical mis- 
sionary. She died an honored and valuable 
member of the Northwest Branch of the M. 
E. Woman's Foreign Mission Board. 

Last, but not least of this class, may be 
mentioned Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson, 
who is widely known and who has won 
place and position in college, hospital and 
society excelled by none and equaled by few. 
After graduation in medicine with honors, 
she was appointed to the chair of Physiolo- 
gy in her Alma Mater, which slie filled un- 
til 1 88 1, when she resigned this chair to 
take that of Obstetrics, which she filled un- 
til 1894, when she resigned from the Fac- 
ulty. While a member of the Faculty she 
was, for a time, its Secretary. Fler vote 
on questions of standards is found record- 
ed in favor of the highest, even when ex- 
pediency demanded a medium policy. She 
founded the Chicago Maternity Hospital, 
an unique institution, in that it has con- 
nected with, it a training school for nursery 
maids. She was the first woman to secure 
membership in the /Vmerican Medical Asso- 

Of the class of 1875 Dr. Edith A. Root, 
of Denver, Colo., may be mentioned as the 
most prominent figure. She has practiced in 
Denver, where she first located over thirty 
years ago, and has done her share of pio- 
neer work in winning confidence for the 
medical woman. Of the class of 1876 Drs. 
Margaret Caldwell of Waukesha, \\' is., and 
Harriet E. Garrison of Dixon, 111., are 
both conspicuous examples of successful 
achievements attained by medical women. 
Leaving the alumnse of "the little barn" 



and returning to the history of the College 
proper, we approach a new epoch in the 
history of the institution. As early as 1873 
there began a growing dissatisfaction 
among students and Faculty regarding "the 
little barn" as a properly equipped college 
building. Many means of escape from the 
increasing dilemma were thought of, chief 
among which was a new building. Union 
with the Northwestern University was also 
discussed, and a committee was appointed 
as early as 1875 to confer with the Universi- 
ty regarding the matter. Nothing more than 
a report "of progress" ever came of this 
committee's eflforts. There was no money 
for University affiliation nor for the new 
building; still the idea of a new college 
building was not lost sight of by the more 
interested and progressive members of the 
Faculty who were anxious to put the Col- 
lege upon a more substantial footing. Dur- 
ing this same year several resignations from 
the Faculty took place; the office of Corre- 
sponding Secretary was created and Dr. 
Mary H. Thompson was elected to fill the 
position ; some amendments to the constitu- 
tion and by-laws were enacted for the pur- 
pose of improving the existing standard for 
entrance upon the study of medicine and 
for graduation, and Dr. Sarah Hackett 
Stevenson was appointed to the chair of 
Physiology. The new building remained a 
matter of prime importance in the minds of 
those who strongly favored the movement, 
while others as strongly opposed it, believ- 
ing it to be "an unwarranted venture." The 
prospects for further progress were cer- 
tainly not very encouraging ; finances were 
low, and some of the most desirable mem- 
bers of the Faculty were threatening to re- 
sign if the building was undertaken. As an 
indication of the financial standing we find 
these figures for the year 1874: "Receipts, 
$758; expenditures, $958, with but few as- 
sets and a debt on the present building." 

Notwithstanding these gloomy and discour- 
aging conditions, there were those on the 
Faculty who firmly believed that the means 
for a new building were within reach, if a 
proper plan could be agreed upon. While 
desirable progress must remain at a stand- 
still, for awhile at least, the college course 
must be provided for. Vacancies, caused 
by resignations, were filled ; the course 
(1874) was made to consist of twenty-one 
weeks ; holiday vacations were provided 
for and the summer courses were continued. 

During this period of the College history, 
Dr. William Godfrey Dyas was President 
of the Faculty ; he was elected in April, 
1873, and served until the year 1877, Dr. 
Byford meanwhile remaining President of 
the Board of Trustees and on the list of 
teachers. In 1876 finances were a little 
easier. The total receipts for that year 
were $1,105; expenditures, $893.93, with 
assets $533.57; liabilities, $555.50. This 
year the munificent sum of $25 was appro- 
priated for the Department of Chemistry, 
to which Dr. Plymon S. Hayes had been 
appointed to succeed Dr. Delafontauie, re- 
signed. The facilities for teaching were 
seriously affected by the financial stringen- 
cy, and students naturally complained. 
"The little barn" was uncomfortably small 
and wholly inadequate for proper class 

In May, 1876, a committee was appointed 
on a new building, progress was slow and 
conditions began to be desperate. At a 
meeting held early in 1877, we find it re- 
corded that, "Professor Earle delivered the 
same old speech on a New College." This 
year proved a revolutionary year in the 
history of the College. In February and 
March of this year of 1877, it became im- 
perative that something be done. The num- 
ber of students was falling off ; the restrain- 
ing conservatism of a large number of the 
Faculty, together with the half-hearted in- 



terest they took in the worK of "teaching 
women," blocked all progress. A commit- 
tee was appointed, composed of Professors 
Byford, Dyas and Bartlett, to investigate 
the institution in all its bearings upon 
medical instruction. This committee re- 
ported that, for the future life and progress 
of the school, it was indispensable to secure 
a better building and apparatus for teach- 
ing purposes, and that the poor attendance 
and half-hearted interest on the part of 
the Faculty was working great harm to 
the institution. To build or rent a building 
was now the question. The latter would 
involve a large expenditure of money and 
add little or nothing to the property hold- 
ings of the College. This step was advo- 
cated by some and opposed by others. The 
new building idea was strongly held to by 
a few devoted and progressive members of 
the Faculty, and it was strongly opposed 
by those who held illiberal and pessimistic 
views on the cause they had practically 
espoused. It was impossible to arrive at 
any agreement. Affiliation with the North- 
western University was again considered, 
but there were financial reasons on both 
sides that made affiliation impracticable. 

At a meeting held March 27, 1877, Dr. 
Byford spoke warmly of the lack of ap- 
paratus, and means of illustrating lectures, 
the tardiness and want of interest shown 
by the Faculty, and the extreme poverty 
of the College. Something must be done 
or close the College. At this meeting a 
committee of three was appointed with Dr. 
William H. Byford, Chairman, for the 
purpose of suggesting a name for a new 
College, to be reorganized "on some basis 
which would insure better facilities for 
teaching and a better place to teach in." 
A motion prevailed at this meeting that 
every member of the Faculty, except the 
committee on reorganization, resign. Res- 
ignations were handed in and Dr. Dyas 

vacated the chair, which was now occupied 
by the Chairman of the Reorganization 

The Faculty as reorganized consisted of 
William Heath Byford, A. M., M. D., Pres- 
ident and Professor of Obstetrics ; T. Davis 
Fitch, M. D., Secretary of the Faculty and 
Professor of Gynecology ; Charles War- 
rington Earle, A. M., M. D., Treasurer 
and Professor of Diseases of Children; 
Isaac Newton Danforth, A. M., M. D., 
Professor of Pathology; John E. Owens, 
M. D., Professor of Surgery; Henry M. 
Lyman, A. M., M. D., Professor of Theory 
and Practice of Medicine; Daniel Roberts 
Brewer, A. M., M. D., Professor of Ma- 
teria Medica, Therapeutics and Nervous 
Diseases ; Sarah Hackett Stevenson, M. D., 
Corresponding Secretary and Professor of 
Physiology; David Wilson Graham, A. M., 
M. D., Professor of Anatomy; Plymon S. 
Hays, M. D., Professor of Chemistry. Dr. 
Mary H. Thompson was invited to the chair 
of Clinical Medicine, but refused to accept. 
This was certainly a missed opportunity, 
for the doctor had absolute control of the 
clinical material at the Chicago Hospital for 
women and children, the one institution 
where women could or should have been 
able to receive bedside instruction — a priv- 
ilege decidedly limited in the men's colleges 
at that time. The new Faculty organized, 
it now became necessary to form a plan 
that would secure the means needed for 

This new organization began business 
with the sum of ten dollars in its treasury. 
Nothing daunted, it organized a stock com- 
pany, in June, 1877. under the name of the 
Woman's Medical College of Chicago, sev- 
ering all organized connection with the Chi- 
cago Hospital for Women and Children. 
A fair-sized modern residence, at ^^y and 
339 South Lincoln Street, was bought and 
remodeled into a very complete College 



building. This building contained two 
amphitheaters, a comfortable anatomical 
laboratory, and a fairly well equipped chem- 
ical laboratory. It was a vast improvement 
on the previous accommodations. Indeed, 
it placed the Woman's Medical College of 
Chicago among the recognized Colleges 
of Medicine. Classes doubled in size. The 
increase in requirements and demands for 
better opportunities soon made it necessary 
to erect a new and larger building, which 
was completed in 1890. The old building 
was remodeled for laboratory and dispen- 
sary purposes, and was connected directly 
with the new one. 

The new building had two amphitheaters 
with a seating capacity each of one hundred 
and fifty, new laboratories and other ad- 
ditional conveniences. From a poor, pen- 
niless and despised institution, the Woman's 
Medical College had grown to a well 
equipped institution with valuable property 
holdings, and its earnings allowed all run- 
ning expenses and a fair dividend rate on 
the money invested. The year that marked 
the completion of the second and entirely 
new building also marks the death of Dr. 
Bvford, which was a great shock to the 
College and to the profession at large. He 
died on May 21, 1890, after his life-work 
and hope had been realized. A noble, 
strong and practical friend had been called 
home, but another who had been equally 
devoted, and who had worked hard for 
the accomplishment of these results, re- 
mained to us, namely, Charles Warrington 
Earle, who was elected President by the 
Faculty, to succeed his life-long friend and 

With the change that had taken place 
in public sentiment concerning the admis- 
sion of women to higher educational insti- 
tutions, and the high standing which the 
College itself had attained, it now seemed 
practicable, on the part of the Northwest- 

ern University and on the part of the Col- 
lege, that the two institutions should be- 
come allied. This question of alliance 
had been considered before, but was never 
taken up with the same seriousness of pur- 
pose as now. In 1892, the College was 
made a department of the University, and 
assumed the name "Northwestern Univer- 
sity Woman's Medical School." The for- 
mer graduates of the College, "by the ac- 
tion of the Universities Authorities, were 
made Alumnre of the University." The 
University made additions to the College 
building, at considerable expense, which 
were equipped as a chemical laboratory and 
commodious and convenient dispensary 

The school continued prosperous for a 
few years, when the number of students 
began to fall off in consequence of co-edu- 
cation being adopted in many of the lead- 
ing medical colleges of the country. As 
a financial investment it began to fall be- 
hind — there being a small deficit each year 
— and the University sold the property and 
closed the school in June, 1902. 

Dr. Byford served the College, except 
for an interval of about four years, from 
its organization in 1870 until his death in 
1890. He was succeeded by Dr. Charles 
Warrington Earle, first as President of the 
Faculty and later as Dean, serving until his 
death in November, 1894. Dr. I. N. Dan- 
forth was then appointed Dean by the Uni- 
versity authorities, and continued in office 
until 1899, when he resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Marie J. Mergler, a graduate 
of the class of '79, who held the office until 
her death in May, 1901. Dr. Eliza H. Root, 
also a graduate of the school (class 1882), 
was appointed Dean by the University 
Trustees, and went out of office with the 
closing of the school. Dr. John Ridlon 
succeeded Dr. Mergler as Secretary of the 
Faculty and its Executive Committee, in 



1899, and continued in office until the school 
was closed. 

The school was built up, maintained and 
its welfare promoted at the expense of 
much energy, faithfulness and self-sacrifice 
on the part of its most interested friends. 
For many years it was necessary for the 
Faculty to assume large financial respon- 
sibility, which was, in fact, assumed chief- 
ly by Drs. Byford and Earle. The work 
accomplished by the school has not been 
a small or an insignificant work. 

Early in its history, missionary societies 
began to inquire for terms for the education 
of their students designed for the medical 
mission field in foreign countries. Fees 
were reduced one-half for these students 
when the institution needed money, and each 
member of the Faculty was doing the work 
assigned him or her without pay or price. 
The training which these students received 
made it a desirable and profitable measure 
for the missionary societies to establish 
scholarships for the education of their med- 
ical missionaries. 

In 1884 a scholarship — "The Grace 
Chandler Scholarship" — was created by 
Mrs. Chandler, of Detroit, Michigan, for 
the Woman's Presbyterian Board of Mis- 
sions of the Northwest. This scholarship 
was secured through the influence of Dr. 
Sarah Cummings-Porter, a graduate of the 
School and. for many years, medical mis- 
sionary in Japan, and Dr. D. W. Graham, 
a loyal friend of the institution from the 
time that he came onto the Faculty in 1877. 
Other scholarships were founded from time 
to time as follows : 

Xos. 2-3. "The Emily W. N. Scofield 
Scholarship." by Mrs. Scofield, of Elgin, 
111., for the Northwest Branch of the Wo- 
man's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
M. E. Church. 

No. 4. "The Woman's Board of Mis- 
sions of the Interior" (of the Congrega- 
tional church). 

No. 5. "The Woman's Presbyterian 
Board of Missions of the Southwest." 

No. 6. "The Elizabeth Skelton-Danforth 
Memorial Scholarship." 

This scholarship was founded by Pro- 
fessor I. N. Danforth, in memory of his late 
wife, and in recognition of her long and 
active interest in all that related to the edu- 
cation of women. 

The "Lucy S. Ingals Prize Scholarship" 
was founded by Professor E. Fletcher In- 
gals, long a member of the Faculty, and 
who served the institution as Treasurer 
for several years. This scholarship was 
founded for the purpose of encouraging or- 
iginal work in Medical Science and to 
promote higher medical education. It was 
conferred as a prize for excellent original 
work done in some branch pertaining to 
the Science of Medicine. 

Five of these scholarships were purely 
missionary, while another was at the dis- 
posal of other students when a missionary 
student was not offered as a beneficiary. 
Consequently, the Alumnae of this school 
have furnished some fifty women medi- 
cal missionaries who are working, or who 
have worked, in India, China, Japan, Ko- 
rea, Persia, Africa, Mexico and Alaska. 
China alone has been supplied with twenty- 
two women medical missionaries from this 
school. Dr. Lettie Mason-Quine, previous- 
ly mentioned, was the first one sent out 
from this school ; Dr. Anna D. Gloss, of 
Pekin, China, class of 1885, has been in 
the mission field since her graduation, and 
is still there doing heavy medical work. 
Dr. Gloss was sent out to aid Dr. Estelle 
Akers-Perkins, of the class of 1881, who 
is still in Pekin. Boxer uprisings, plague 
or famine have in no way deterred these 
women from the work in which they have 
engaged heart and soul. Of the number 
sent out, so far as we know to date, only 
two have died in the field: Dr. Anna Lar- 
son, in China, and Dr. Yasu Hishekawa, 



in Japan. The latter was a native Japanese 
woman who was sent to America by one 
of the school's alumnae, a medical mission- 
ary to Japan, for the purpose of receiving 
a medical education in this school. Two 
have died since their return home. These 
medical missionaries are all in charge of 
hospitals where they practice general sur- 
gery and medicine and are training na- 
tive women as "helpers" in their work, 
caring for the sick and afflicted natives. 

Drs. Ellen M. Lyons, in Foochow, China, 
and Izilla Ernsberger, in India, are ex- 
amples of the faithful and persevering 
work that is being carried on by medical 
missionaries sent our from the Woman's 
Medical School by Methodist, Presbyterian, 
Baptist and other Foreign Missionary So- 

Turning from the foreign field to the 
home-workers, we find that a large per- 
centage of the graduates have filled, or 
are filling, hospital and college positions 
that involve responsibility and skill. 

The graduates of this school have been 
the first and only women, so far (1905), to 
secure, by competitive examinations, the po- 
sition of interne in Cook County Hospital. 
Dr. Mary E. Bates, now of Denver, Colo., 
was the first, receiving her appointment 
in 1881. She has been followed by seven 
others, all of whom filled their terms of 
service with credit. 

Positions in State and other institutions 
and in other States of the Union, have been 
won by these earnest women. Colorado, 
Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Texas, and Mas- 
sachusetts are among the States, outside 
of Illinois, where they are filling responsible 
positions in State institutions. One has 
been a member of the Colorado Legisla- 
ture and one was at one time Railroad Sur- 
geon for a road in the West, and the first 
woman to fill such a position. Others 
have been and are members of Boards of 

Health. The first woman to pass the exam- 
ination for the position of interne in the 
public institutions at Dunning, Cook Coun- 
ty, Illinois, was Marie J. Mergler, of the 
class of 1879. She passed with high credit, 
was recommended for appointment, but was 
never indorsed by the County Commission- 
ers because she was a woman. 

"We believe that nothing in the entire 
history of the College was so conducive to 
the high rank which it attained, as the 
persistent efforts on the part of the students 
to be given an opportunity to fairly test 
their ability by entering into the competitive 
examinations, and by insisting on equal 
privileges with the men in holding positions 
in their public institutions." (Dr. Mergler.) 

A total of 575 women were graduated 
from the school. The large majority have 
been and are successful members of the 
medical profession. Death has claimed a 
considerable number. Chief among these, 
we find the name of our lamented friend, 
Dr. Marie Josepha Mergler, who by means 
of persistent, hard and faithful work, won 
a place "among the foremost surgeons of 
the West, and who enjoyed the confidence 
of the medical profession. She stood high 
with her colleagues, and was an active 
member of local and State Medical Socie- 
ties. She began teaching in her Alma Ma- 
ter after she graduated, in the Spring 
Course. The following year she studied 
abroad, and further prepared herself to fill 
the chairs of Histology and Materia Medi- 
ca. Later she succeeded Dr. William H. 
Byford, at the time of his death in 1890, to 
the chair of Gynecology, which she held 
at the time of her death. She was Secretary 
of the Faculty from 1885 to 1899, when 
she was appointed Dean of the Northwest- 
ern University Woman's Medical School 
(her Alma Mater) by the Trustees of the 
University, on the nomination to the posi- 
tion by the Faculty of the School. She 



won a lucrative practice and left at her 
death a competent estate. Slie was prompt 
and faithful to duty and never betrayed a 
trust or confidence. During her lifetime 
she held several important hospital posi- 
tions, retaining them until her death. 

The writer, Eliza H. Root, matriculated 
in 1879, graduated in 1882, doing her first 
teaching in the school in the Spring Course 
of the same year. From the day of matric- 
ulation to the closing of the school, her 
connection with it was never severed. She 
served her Alma Mater as Assistant, Pro- 
fessor (State Medicine and Medical Juris- 
prudence, later on Obstetrics and Clinical 
Obstetrics) and as Dean. 

There is an organization of the Alumnae 
known as the Alumnae of the Woman's 
Medical School (nee College). This 
Association placed a portrait bust of 
Dr. Byford in the College building, 
founded a Charles W. Earle Memorial Li- 
brary that had accumulated over 600 vol- 
umes at the time of the school's closing. 
In 1896 it issued a history of the "Alumnae 
of the Woman's Medical College of Chi- 
cago — 1870 to 1896." The organization 
still exists and is the only organized body 
representing what was once one of the lead- 
ing and prosperous institutions of the City 
of Chicago and the Middle West. 



(By PROF. P. C. LUTKIN, Mus. D.) 

Sphere of Music in Higher Institutions- 
Its Influence on Character and as the 
Hand-Maid of Religion — Higher Aspects 
of the Art — Its Grozvth in the Universi- 
ties — History of its Connection zuith Ez'- 
anston Educational Institutions — North- 
western Female College Merged into 
Evanston College for Ladies in 18/I — 
Tzijo Years Later the Latter becomes a 
Part of the N orthzvestern University — 
Struggles, Changes and Grozvth of Later 
Years — Some Notable Teachers — In- 
crease in Roll of Pupils — Need of Ampler 
Buildings — Music Festivals. 

Universities and colleges have been 
rather tardy in recognizing the proper 
sphere and scope of music in the economy 
of intellectual and psychical development. 
It has been looked upon as a graceful ac- 
complishment and a more or less fascinat- 
ing and attractive art, but its far-reaching 
influence on character. i.ts importance to 
many of the practical relations of life, its 
complexity as an art, its discipline as a 
study, its manifold demands upon the intel- 
lectual, physical and spiritual faculties, and 
its vital relation to the emotions, religious 
and otherwise, are all matters that have 
been but little appreciated or understood. 

That music has a definite influence in 
molding and developing character there can 
be no doubt. Beginning with the cradle. 

the mother's lullaby soothes the restless 
babe, and the songs of childhood have a 
direct bearing on the ethics of the young. 
In the school-room, music lessens the te- 
dium of study and can be made the vehicle 
for inculcating good morals and awaken- 
ing a love for the beautiful, both in verse 
and music. An appreciation of the emo- 
tional qualities of music tends to keep alive 
the gentler states of feeling, and the finer 
intuitions of youth, which are only too 
often blunted, if not entirely destroyed, by 
contact with the selfishness and sordidness 
of social and commercial amenities in later 
life. Song is the core and essence of col- 
lege spirit, and the only concrete and ade- 
quate expression of that spirit. It is the 
only means by which unity of sentiment or 
feeling can be jointly and satisfactorily 
manifested. It heightens our joys and 
pleasures, lessens our griefs and sorrows, 
increases our afifections and incites to wor- 
thy endeavor. 

But it is principally as the hand-maid 
of religion that music has its greatest value. 
From the street-corner rally of the Salva- 
tion Army to an oratorio performance in 
cathedral walls, music voices and intensi- 
fies every shade of religious emotion. Here 
again it forms the one medium of expres- 
sion in which rich and poor, saint and 
sinner, join in common utterance of praise 
or supplication. It is hard to conceive of 



the services of the church without the aid 
of music. It is equally indispensable at 
the revival meeting or the most elaborate 
ceremonial, at the wedding, or at the fun- 
eral service, for the joy of Christmas or 
Easter, or for the sorrow of penitential sea- 
sons. Sermons can be preached with migh- 
ty eloquence in the musical settings of the 
Crucifixion, the Nativity or the Resurrec- 
tion, but no spoken sermon can replace the 
hymns of the church. 

In its higher aspects as an art, music 
is a world of unceasing delight to the ini- 
tiated, a world devoid of cares and anxie- 
ties and free from evil associations or sug- 
gestions. Far beyond the power of words 
it depicts the finest gradations of feeling 
and the subtlest shades of expression. It 
has logic, proportion, order and symmetry, 
in the highest degree. To infinitely more 
rhythmic possibilities than exist in poetry, 
it adds the warm color of painting, the 
beauty of outline and dignity of sculpture, 
and the structural principles of architec- 
ture. No other study combines, to the 
same degree, the esthetic and the mechani- 
cal, the spiritual and the physical. The 
science of music is an extremely complex 
and intricate matter. It has to do with 
elements that are inexhaustible in their 
rhythmic, melodic and harmonic combina- 
tions, even when confined to a single instru- 
ment, such as the piano or organ. When 
they are applied to works for chorus and 
full orchestra, the element of tone color is 
added with its infinite possibilities, and the 
command of all this material only comes 
after years of study involving harmony, 
counterpoint, form and instrumentation. 
Even if these are mastered, they count for 
little without the saving grace of artistic 
intuition and a keen sense of esthetic 

In the study of music as an applied art, 
totally different factors come to light. Phys- 

ical dexterity is a prerequisite and, to this 
foundation, a long and arduous schooling 
is necessary before the demands of a mod- 
ern technique are approximated. This rigid 
disciplining of brains and fingers in mus- 
cular and nerve control, often means the 
deliberate sacrifice of much that is attractive 
in the social or intellectual life, and gives 
rise to perplexing problems in the process 
of elimination. Be this as it may, the fact 
remains that the study of music alone, in 
any wide sense, is a liberal education in it- 
self, calling upon a fine perception of math- 
ematical niceties, logical development, ar- 
tistic symmetry and emotional expression. 

The study of music, theoretically, is rap- 
idly finding its way into all of our leading 
universities. For a number of years, 
courses in harmony, counterpoint, fugue, 
musical form and musical history have ex- 
isted at Harvard in charge of Professor 
John Knowles Paine. The result has been 
that Boston comes nearer giving us a dis- 
tinctive school of American composition 
than any other city in the country. Yale 
followed the example of Harvard by install- 
ing Horatio W. Parker in a chair of music, 
a few years ago. Professor Parker is un- 
questionably the greatest American com- 
poser of large choral works with orchestral 
accompaniment. His oratorios are given 
at the prominent English musical festivals, 
where they are most highly esteemed and 
considered quite on a par with similar pro- 
ductions from any living composer. Not 
only is credit allowed at Yale for theoreti- 
cal studies as at Harvard, but also for pro- 
ficiency in performing ability as well. An- 
other gifted American composer, Edward 
A. MacDowell, was appointed to the re- 
cently endowed chair of Music at Colum- 
bia College. Professor MacDowell has 
written some important orchestral composi- 
tions, but his fame lies principally in his 
works for the piano. In this regard he is 



a conspicuous figure among modern com- 
posers. His works possess a rare and dis- 
tinct personality, and his workmanship is 
characterized by extreme finish and deh- 

This tendency to make room for our most 
gifted tone-poets in our leading universi- 
ties is most commendable and is full of 
promise for the future. It is only through 
freedom from the harassing cares of the 
ordinary professional connection that a man 
can give himself up to the creation of the 
larger and more pretentious works of art. 
A generously endowed chair, with a limited 
amount of routine duties, gives opportunity 
for the necessary abstraction and concentra- 
tion, and the university environment will 
be an additional incentive to scholarly work. 

Under its cultured Professor of Music, 
Hugh A. Clarke, the University of Pennsyl- 
vania has won an enviable reputation with 
its theoretical courses in the higher mathe- 
matics of music. Professor Clarke has per- 
fected a system of instruction by mail that 
has largely extended his sphere of influ- 
ence. Cornell and Princeton have not as 
yet made official recognition of music, but 
Syracuse University has a finely developed 
School of Fine Arts, which not only em- 
braces music, but painting, sculpture and 
architecture as well. It ranks next to the 
College of Liberal Arts in numbers and im- 
portance, and each department has its own 

The University of Michigan maintains 
a chair of theoretical music, ably filled by 
Professor Albert A. Stanley, who is also 
Director of an affiliated "University School 
of Music," which supplies excellent instruc- 
tion in all branches of music. Professor 
Stanley has evolved and developed a series 
of May Festivals, which are the event of the 
college year at Ann Arbor, and which bring 
the masterpieces of musical art before 
large and enthusiastic audiences. His ex- 

ample is followed on a smaller scale by a 
number of Western State Universities, 
where provision for the study of music is 
made, both theoretically and practically. 

A school that has had a notable influence 
for good is the Conservatory of Music at 
Oberlin, Ohio. It is the largest and most 
widely known of the departments of Ober- 
lin College. It is finely housed in a hun- 
dred-thousand-dollar building, the gift of 
an Oberlin graduate who has since come 
to fame and fortune. Its success and pros- 
perity are almost entirely due to the fore- 
sight, good judgment and abiding faith of 
its late director, Professor Fenelon B. Rice. 

These facts are very encouraging, and 
all this artistic activity must have a direct 
and important bearing on our national de- 
velopment. We sadly need the counter- 
balancing influence of art in these days of 
intellectual and commercial expansion. It 
is the best antidote for materialism, realism 
and anaichy. The appreciation of the beau- 
tiful !S not a question of birth, of wealth, 
of social position or even of intellect or edu- 
cation. It is the common ground on which 
all innately refined and sensitive souls meet 
in a brotherhood of mutual love and kindly 

The first definite record of musical in- 
struction in connection with Evanslon edu- 
cational institutions is found in the cata- 
logue of the Northwestern Female College 
in the year 1865. Instruction in music had 
doubtless been given previously to this date, 
and in all probability from the founding 
of the College in 1855 ; but printed informa- 
tion to that effect is missing. In 1865 Nich- 
olas Cawthorne is mentioned in the annual 
catalogue as teacher of the piano, organ and 
voice. He was organist of the First Pres- 
byterian church in Chicago. He had an 
assistant instructor. James A. Doane. The 
following quotation from the catalogue will 
give an idea of the advantages offered : 



"The course of study in the Department 
is intended to furnish a solid musical edu- 
cation, both in practice and theory. In- 
struction will be given in the following 
branches: System of Notation, Harmony, 
Composition with reference to Musical 
Forms, and Instrumentation, Practice in 
Chorus singing, Pianoforte and Organ. A 
complete course of study will extend 
through four years, a new class openmg 
each term. Diplomas certifying proficiency 
and qualifications as artists or teachers will 
be given to those finishing the entire course. 
Each student receives two hours' instruction 
per week and has the use of a piano for 
private practice one and one-half hours 
daily. The rudiments of music are taught 
and chorus singing practised in classes. 


"First Year. — Richardson's Methods and 
piece> by Baumbach, Grove, etc. 

''Second Year. — Studies by Dnvernov 
and Czerny, and pieces like 'Monastery 
Bells,' Wely ; 'Carnival of \'enice,' Bel- 
lak. etc. 

"Third Year. — Czerny studies, Dr. Call- 
cott's Musical Grammar, Zundel's Har- 
mony, Overtures to Stradella and Der 

"Fourth Year. — Cramer studies, .Sonatas 
of Beethoven and Clementi, ]\Iarx ^Insical 

Mr. Cawthorne remained in charge for 
another year when he was succeeded by 
Oscar Mayo, who came highly recommend- 
ed from the Ohio Wesleyan Female Col- 
lege. With the advent of Mr. Mayo the 
following announcement was made: "The 
Music Department of the College offers ex- 
traordinary facilities to students of the Pi- 
ano, Organ or Vocal Music. The Depart- 
ment is under the supervision of Professor 
O. A. Mayo, an educated and scientific 
musician, a thorough teacher and a brilliant 

performer of classic as well as modern 
Piano and Organ music." Mr. Mayo was 
to appoint his own assistants and the fol- 
lowing courses were announced : 

Organ Course.— Zundel and Rink. 

Piano Course. — Rudiments, practice of 
easy exercises, Mason's Technics, Heller 
studies. Etudes of Chopin, Mendelssohn, 

As assistant. Professor Mayo had Count 
Laurent de Fosso, who also taught French, 
Spanish, and Italian. Piano, organ, me- 
lodeon and guitar were the branches taught, 
and from sixty to seventy students took 

In 1871 the Northwestern Female Col- 
lege was merged into the Evanston College 
for Ladies, with Miss Frances Willard as 
President. Professor Mayo continued in 
charge of the Music Department, and there 
are evidences of an attempt to improve and 
enlarge the musical advantages. Only ten 
names appear as music students on the cata- 
logue this year, but these obviously studied 
music to the exclusion of other studies, 
while previous student lists included those 
who had taken music as a supplementary 
study as well. 

In 1873 the absorption ot the Evanston 
College for Ladies by the Northwestern 
University was announced, together with 
plans for the formation of a Conservatory 
of Music on the European plan. This went 
into effect with the completion of the present 
Willard Hall, and the top story was devot- 
ed to the study of art and music. An at- 
tempt was evidently made to secure a good 
faculty, as arrangements were made with 
some of the best known musicians of that 
date in Chicago. Professor Mayo remained 
at the head. Mr. Silas G. Pratt, a pianist 
and composer of attainments, who had re- 
cently returned from his studies in Berlin, 
appears to have been head instructor of the 
piano. Mr. Pratt organized the present 




Apollo Club in the city, and was later chief- 
ly instrumental in promoting the movement 
which resulted in the Auditorium Building 
and the Orchestral Association. James 
Gill, who was for many years the most 
prominent baritone in Chicago, was en- 
gaged as instructor in voice culture, and 
Hans Balatka, the veteran chorus and or- 
chestral conductor, had charge of chorus 
and quartette classes. The following year 
Mr. Pratt's name disappeared from the cat- 
alogue and later Mr. Balatka's, their places 
being filled by musicians of less celebrity. 
Eighty-eight students appeared on the list 
after the installation of the Conservatory 
of Music, but catalogues of the succeeding 
three years are missing. In 1876 Professor 
Mayo was succeeded by Oren E. Locke and 
the Conservatory of Music appears for the 
first time in the University Catalogue. Pro- 
fessor Locke had been a student in both 
the Leipzig and Boston Conservatories, and 
introduced the so-called "Conservatory Sys- 
tem" into the school. The characteristic 
feature of this system was the teaching of 
piano, voice and orchestral instruments in 
classes instead of private individual instruc- 
tion. The University catalogue gives but 
thirty-three students in the Conservatory at 
the end of Professor Locke's first year, and 
the attendance increased but slowly for the 
three succeeding years. In 1880-81 mat- 
ters improved materially, one hundred and 
sixteen students being enrolled, and the 
number steadily increased until the maxi- 
mum of two hundred and thirty-one was 
reached in 1886-87. James Gill was the 
only faculty member left over from the 
previous regime. From time to time Pro- 
fessor Locke had associated with him E. S. 
Metcalf, voice instructor; Joseph Singer, 
instructor of violin ; Professor R. L. Cum- 
nock, instructor of elocution; Professor A. 
S. Carhart, lecturer on the laws of sound ; 
Warren Graves, instructor of piano and or- 

gan, and C. M. Hutchins, instructor of band 
instruments. In 1880 and 1881 the present 
Dean of the School of Music was instructor 
of piano and organ, prior to his departure 
for Europe for a three years' course of 
study in Berlin, Vienna and Paris. In 
June, 1884, Professor Locke, in a printed 
report to the Board of Trustees, makes 
mention of nine thousand lessons having 
been given during the year, of fifteen pianos 
being in use, and calls attention to the 
growth and future possibilities of the 
school. Three students were graduated this 
year and the following courses were in 
operation : 

Course i. Piano. 

Course 2. Voice. 

Course 3. Organ. 

Course 4. Orchestral Instruments. 

In the year 1887-1888 the numerical 
prosperity of the school declined and con- 
tinued to do so until 1890-91, when Pro- 
fessor Locke resigned, leaving the aflfairs of 
the school in a somewhat chaotic condition. 
There was a strong sentiment in favor of 
discontinuing the Conservatory of Music, 
but yielding to the wishes of Miss Nina 
Gray Lunt, an effort was made to continue 
the study of music in the University. At 
her suggestion Peter C. Lutkin, of Chicago, 
was put in charge, and gave a portion of his 
time to the reconstruction of the music de- 
partment. A faculty was hastily organ- 
ized, of which the principal members were : 
J. Harry Wheeler, a widely known vocal 
instructor, formerly a prominent member 
of the New England Conservatory of Mu- 
sic, Boston ; Allen Hervey Spencer, a well- 
known concert pianist and teacher of Chi- 
cago; Joseph Vilim, violin instructor, and 
William Smedley, choir-master of St. James' 
Church, Chicago, as instructor of choral 
singing and sight-reading. A Glee Club 
was organized for the first time in the 
LTniversitv, and also a Cecilian Choir for 


the young women. Eighty-nine students 
attended during the year, and a creditable 
concert was given at its close in the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in which the 
advanced piano and voice students, the 
Glee Club, and the Cecilian Choir took part. 
Three students were graduated. 

This first year's work was looked upon 
as tentative and, at its completion, a formal 
proposition was made by the Director, 
which included a professorship in the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts, and the severing of 
his city connections in order to devote his 
entire time and energies to the up-building 
of the music school. Largely upon the 
recommendation of Mr. James H. Raymond, 
the then chairman of the committee on the 
Conservatory of Music, the Executive Com- 
mittee accepted the proposition of Profes- 
sor Lutkin. The official appellation of the 
school was changed from "Conservatory 
of Music" to "Department of Music," and 
the courses were rearranged so as to mark 
a distinction between those studying as 
amateurs and those studying professionally. 
Diplomas were not issued at all and cer- 
tificates only to those completing the Pro- 
fessional Course. One hundred and twenty- 
eight students attended this second year and 
the income of the school increased about 
seventy-five per cent. 

The financial stringency of the year 1893- 
94 was felt to the extent that the attendance 
and income were practically at a standstill. 
Several changes were made in the faculty. 
Harold E. Knapp, who had recently re- 
turned from two years of study at the re- 
nowned Leipzig Conservatory of Music, 
succeeded Joseph Vilim as instructor of the 
violin. William H. Knapp, as instructor 
of voice and 'cello; William H. Cutler, as 
instructor of piano; and William Hubbard 
Harris, as instructor of piano and harmony, 
were added. A choral society, confined to 
students of the Universitv, had been organ- 

ized and gave two concerts at the Congre- 
gational Church. The works performed 
were Gaul's cantata of "Israel in the Wil- 
derness" and Haydn's "Creation." In both 
cases the solo parts were nearly all taken 
by members of the University. An impor- 
tant event was the formation of a String 
Quartette, of which the personnel was as 
follows : 

First Violin, Harold E. Knapp. 

Second \'iolin, Joseph Bichl. 

A'iola, Caspar Grilnberger. 

Violoncello, William H. Knapp. 

This orgaiiization permitted us to give 
five recitals of Chamber Music, which add- 
ed greatly to the interest of the school year. 
Sixteen recitals were given by the students 
and four were graduated from the Profes- 
sional Course. 

The year 1894-95 saw a large increase 
in the attendance and prosperity of the 
school. The number increased from one 
hundred and twenty-nine to two hundred 
and three, and the graduates from four to 
eight. Mrs. George A. Coe, who had re- 
cently returned from extended studies in 
Berlin under Heinrich Earth and Moritz 
Moskowsky, was added to the faculty as 
instructor of the piano, and instruction in 
wind instruments was provided for. Eigh- 
teen recitals were given by the students, and 
at the eight faculty recitals, many important 
works by Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Dvorak, 
Schubert, Chopin, Goldmark and Weber 
were given with the assistance of the Uni- 
versity String Quartette. The Director 
gave a number of lectures analyzing the 
thematic structure of important works 
given by the Thomas Orchestra. 

As the attempt to establish a good choral 
society within the University had not been 
altogether successful, owing to the constant 
shifting of membership, Professor Lutkin 
assumed the conductorship of the Evanston 
Musical Club, in the hope that the larger 



field would give more favorable results. In 
this he was not disappointed, and the history 
of that organization will be found elsewhere 
in these pages. Alembership in the Club 
has always been open to students of the 
University, and the privilege has been taken 
advantage of, more particularly by the 
members of the Department of Music. The 
theoretical courses were greatly extend- 
ed this year, and arranged on a four-year 
plan to conform to the courses in the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts. The student recitals 
presented, in an e.xcellent manner, a higher 
grade of compositions than had ever been 
given before, notably piano concertos by 
Beethoven, Mozart and Mendelssohn. .\ 
small pipe organ was added to the equip- 
ment of the school, which greatly increased 
the study of that instrument. The Depart- 
ment had now reached a point where its 
self-maintenance was fully assured, ami it 
was sadly in need of larger and better quar- 

In the following year (1895-96) the of- 
ficial title of the school was changed from 
"Department of Music" to "School of Mu- 
sic," thus putting it upon the same basis 
as the other professional schools of the 
University. Mr. J. Harry Wheeler was 
succeeded by Karleton Hackett as Director 
of the Vocal Department. Mr. Hackett had 
recently come to Chicago after three years' 
study with Vincenso Vannini, the famous 
voice instructor of Florence. He had for- 
merly studied singing with Cornelius Chen- 
ery of Boston, and theory under Professor 
Paine while a student at Harvard. Miss 
Carlotta M. Glazier was added as instructor 
of piano. The various courses were con- 
siderably strengthened, and the theoretical 
study of music was made the kernel of all 
graduating requirements. The theoretical 
studies embraced harmony, musical history, 
counterpoint, and musical form. The 
ground was taken that mere technical facil- 
ity, even when allied to distinct musical 

talent, was not sufficient to complete a 
course in a University school, but rather a 
comprehensive understanding of the na- 
ture and material of music, and the funda- 
mental principles of good art. The scholar- 
ly aspects of music are thus emphasized, 
and the endeavor is to graduate well- 
equipped musicians rather than superficial 
and showy performers. The same theoreti- 
cal studies are required of all candidates for 
graduation, be he pianist, organist, singer 
or violinist. 

Professor Lutkin was appointed Dean 
of the reconstructed school, the other 
members of the faculty ranking as Instruc- 
tors. As the Dean was also Professor of 
Music in the College of Liberal Arts, the 
theoretical classes in the School of Music 
were open to the College students as elec- 
tives in their various courses. Owing to 
the prevailing financial stringency there 
was but a slight increase in the attendance 
this year. The number of graduates re- 
mained the same. Fifteen student recitals, 
two student concerts with orchestra, eight 
chamber music recitals and four faculty 
concerts were given. A student or- 
chestra of twenty-five had been or- 
ganized, which gave very creditable per- 
formances. One of the chamber music re- 
citals was devoted exclusively to serious 
works by various members of the faculty, 
including a String Quartette by Harold 
Knapp, part of a Trio for Piano, Violin 
and 'Cello, by P. C. Lutkin, and songs by 
Hubbard W. Harris. Among important 
works brought out were the Brahm's Quin- 
tette for Piano and Strings, Op. 67, in 
which Mrs. Coe assisted the University 
String Quartette, the Dvorak Quintette, Op. 
81, and Quartettes by Schumann and Bee- 
thoven. Under i\Ir. Harold Knapp the 
violin department greatly increased in num- 
bers, and furnished an excellent nucleus for 
the school orchestra. 

In his annual report to the Board of 



Trustees, President Rogers called attention 
to the urgent need of providing a suitable 
building for the School of Music, adding 
that after the Academy — which had been 
provided for — it was the next most desir- 
able acquisition. The recommendations of 
President Rogers bore fruit more promptly 
than was expected. The lack of accommo- 
dations for the school in Woman's Hall, 
the poorly adapted rooms for instruction 
and practice, not to mention the unavoidable 
annoyance to college students by the inces- 
sant playing and singing, rendered it all but 
imperative that other quarters should be 
supplied. Although the finances of the Uni- 
versity were in a somewhat crippled condi- 
tion owing to the temporary loss of income 
from the Grand Pacific property, it was 
decided to erect a building for the special 
and exclusive use of the School of Music. 
A site was decided upon immediately to the 
north of Woman's Hall, and ground was 
broken during the summer of 1896. The 
building was completed during the following 
fall and winter, and taken possession of at 
the beginning of the spring term, in 1897. 
In Woman's Hall fourteen rooms had been 
in use by the school. Music Hall, as the 
new structure was named, provided us with 
nineteen rooms and a small recital hall, 
seating about three hundred. Seventeen of 
these rooms were at once put into service, 
and the year's records showed an increase 
from 207 to 218 students. The dedication 
of the new building was marked by two 
faculty concerts and a students' recital. At 
the first of them a chorus from the Evan- 
ston Musical Club and the School of Music 
Orchestra assisted in the following program, 
given on the evening of April 26, 1897 : 

Chorus, "The Heavens Are Telling" Haydn 

Prayer by President Henry Wade Rogers. 

Aria. "Rejoice Greatly" Handel 

Miss Helen Buckley. 
Address by Professor P. C. Lutkin. 

Overture, "The Marriage of Figaro" Mozart 


Andante for Violin and Orchestra P. C. Lutkin 

Mr. Harold E. Knapp. 
Songs. "The Broken Lyre," "Shepherd of 
Israel," "From the Bosom of Ocean 

I Seek Thee" Hubbard W. Harris 

Miss Buckley. 

Quartette for Strings, C major Harold E. Knapp 

The University String Quartette. 

Sanctus, from Messe Solonelle Gounod 

Mr. W. F. Hypes, Chorus and Orchestra. 

After the concert a reception was held 
and the building was thrown open for in- 
spection. On the following evening a 
Chamber Music Recital was given, in which 
Mrs. George A. Coe, pianist. Miss Mabel 
Goodwin, soprano, and the University 
String Quartette took part. The program 
was as follows : 

Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 97 Beethoven 

Songs, La Serenata Tosti 

Ecstasy Beach 

May Morning Denza 

Quartette for Strings, G Minor Grieg 

Nine students were graduated this year 
in the Normal Course, and one from the 
advanced, or Artist's Course. Twenty-four 
recitals and five concerts, with orchestra, 
were given by the students, and six chamber 
music recitals and four concerts by the fac- 
ulty. The student orchestra assisted the 
Evanston Musical Club in their perform- 
ances of Handel's Messiah and Haydn's 
Creation. In all directions the year showed 
substantial progress. 

The first complete year in the new build- 
ing (1897-98) found its capacity tested to 
the utmost. The attendance increased from 
218 to 293. The theoretical courses were 
extended by the addition of classes in 
Analysis and Sight-reading. The recita- 
tions in Musical History under the charge 
of Mrs. Coe were doubled. The classes in 
Sight-reading were thrown open to students 
of the Garrett Biblical Institute, and the 
latter part of the year was devoted to hymn 
music with the object of demonstrating the 
fundamental principles of good church 
music. A good pipe-organ, with two man- 
uals and pedals, and blown by a water- 



motor, was erected in the recital hall. Miss 
Carlotta M. Glazier was succeeded by Miss 
Una Howell, a graduate of the advanced 
course of the school, and Mr. Franz Wag- 
ner of the Thomas Orchestra, succeeded 
Mr. W. H. Knapp in the University String 
Quartette, and was added to the faculty as 
Instructor of Violoncello. Mr. Walter 
Keller was also added as Instructor of 
Piano. The usual student and faculty con- 
certs were given and the commencement 
concerts presented a distinct advance on 
previous efforts, both in the selections and 
in the performance of the same. Twelve 
students were graduated from the Normal 
Course. Doubtless the added dignity and 
importance given to the school by being 
housed in its own building had much to 
do with the general prosperity. 

The succeeding year was a repetition of 
the previous experience, that a very decided 
gain in one year was followed by a slight 
reaction in the following. The scholastic 
year 1898-99 showed a decrease of nine stu- 
dents, but a gain of ten per cent in the in- 
come. The discrepancy between the loss in 
attendance and the gain in income meant 
that a larger percentage of students re- 
mained through the year, and that there was 
a corresponding decrease in the unsatisfac- 
tory patronage, composed, for the most 
part, of triflers who enter and remain but 
a term or two. 

The basement of Music Hall had been 
originally designed for a gymnasium for 
women, and the prospect of soon having a 
properly equipped plant was hailed w-ith 
much delight and enthusiasm by those in- 
terested. It was a keen disappointment to 
many when it was decided to sub-divide the 
ground floor to make space for the im- 
perative demands of the music school. The 
results of this change added ten practice 
rooms and a much-needed class room, seat- 
ing seventy-five, to the equipment of the 

school, and temporarily relieved the pres- 
sure for more space. 

The student recitals averaged one per 
week and evidenced a very good standard 
of attainment. Nine students were grad- 
uated from the Normal Course, and three 
from the Advanced Course. The usual 
series of chamber music concerts was in- 
terrupted by the loss of the viola player 
in the University String Quartette, owing 
to his departure from the city. 

The year 1899- 1900 exhibited an in- 
crease of about five per cent in the attend- 
ance (the total number being 297) and of 
fifteen per cent in the income of the school. 
The largest class in the history of the 
school was graduated, ten in the Normal 
Course and three in the Advanced Course. 
The most important event of the year was 
the rearrangement of courses, requiring 
four years for graduation. The theoretical 
requirements consist of ten terms of har- 
mony, four terms of musical history, four 
terms of sight-reading and musical dicta- 
tion, eight terms of counterpoint, two terms 
of musical form, eight terms of analysis 
and four terms of ensemble playing. In 
addition the candidate is required to show 
distinct talent as a performer in the Prac- 
tical School, or as a composer in the The- 
oretical School. In the former case, two 
programs are required of standard classical 
compositions. Students creditably finishing 
two years of this course are entitled to a 
certificate, but a diploma is given only for 
the longer course. These requirements are 
equaled by but few schools in the country. 

Mr. Arne Oldberg, who had recently re- 
turned from extended studies in Europe, 
was added to the faculty as Instructor of 
Piano. Mr. Oldberg studied piano in 
Vienna with Leschetitzky and, later, com- 
position in Munich with Rheinberger. His 
abilities, both as a pianist and composer, 
have attracted the favorable attention of 



the profession in Chicago. Mr. Day Wil- 
Hams, one of the most gifted of local 'cel- 
lists, succeeded Mr. Franz Wagner both in 
the String Quartette and as instructor of the 
violoncello. Mr. Walter George Logan suc- 
ceeded Mr. Caspar Grilnberger as assistant 
in the violin department, and Mr. Frank 
Lee Robertshaw was put in charge of the 
sight-reading classes. The regular faculty 
of the school now consisted of fifteen mem- 
bers, of whom six taught piano, two violin, 
two voice culture, two organ, two theory, 
and one each, musical history, composition, 
violoncello, flute, clarionet, oboe, bassoon, 
cornet, French horn and trombone. 

The first decade of the music school 
under its present head was completed with 
the year 1900-01, and the event was 
marked by several matters of interest in the 
development of the school. A decided in- 
crease in attendance crowded the capacity 
of the building to the utmost, and forced 
many students to make arrangements for 
their practice at private houses. The total 
number of students for the year was 348 — a 
gain of fifty-one over the previous year. 
For the first time a fixed sum per term was 
charged for the regular courses, instead of a 
graduated scale depending upon the indi- 
vidual instructor. This charge was thirty- 
five dollars per term, and included private 
instruction from the principal instructors 
in instrumental or vocal music, and the 
privilege of attendance at the required 
classes. Considering the advantages of- 
fered and the quality of instruction given, 
the charge was put at a very reasonable 
figure. In fact, the results at the end of 
the year proved that the sum was hardly 
svifficient to cover the expenses of the 
course, and a recommendation to increase it 
to forty dollars per term was put into effect 
the following year. 

The record for the ten years showed an 
increase in attendance from eighty-nine to 

348, and, in income, of over 400 per 
cent. Six members of the faculty give 
their entire time to the school as 
against none in 1890-91. Extended and 
comprehensive courses have been developed 
and the reputation of the school is such as 
to bring a better class of students each year. 
Graduate students from the smaller music 
schools come to us and expect, as a matter 
of course, that much of their work is not up 
to our requirements. In fact, there are 
very few who are able to enter the second 
year's work. 

The following changes took place in the 
faculty: Walter G. Logan was succeeded 
by Lewis Randolph Blackman, a young 
violinist of excellent reputation in Chicago. 
Mr. John Harlan Cozine, an experienced 
and well known voice specialist and choral 
conductor, and Mr. Anthony Stankowitch, 
an instructor of the Clavier method, were 
added to the list of instructors. During the 
year an interesting series of historical reci- 
tals was given by various members of the 
faculty, beginning with a lecture on Primi- 
tive Music, with illustrations, by Mrs. Coe. 
This was followed by Bach, Mozart, Bee- 
thoven, Schubert, Schumann and Chopin 
programs, in which various members of the 
faculty assisted. The University Strmg 
Quartette had a number of outside engage- 
ments which brought forth a number of 
flattering press notices of their excellent en- 
semble work. This was notably the case at 
Cleveland, where Mr. Oldberg assisted in 
the performance of a new Trio of his own 
composition for piano, violin and 'cello. 
During the year the Dean of the school was 
honored with the degree of Doctor of Music 
by the Syracuse University. 

Some five years ago a Preparatory De- 
partment was formed for giving tho'-cugh 
and systematic instruction to beginners in 
music. The instructors are drawn from the 
more talented graduates of the school, the 

(Dx^^t^^ ^. (o 



present list including Mr. Louis Norton 
Dodge, Director; Mrs. Nina Shumway 
Knapp, Miss Elizabeth Raymond, Miss 
Mabel Dunn, Miss Edna Eversz, Miss Kath- 
erine Hebbard, Miss Laura Case Whitlock 
and Mr. Curtis A. Barry. This department 
has been very prosperous. It has its own 
solo classes and recitals which stimulate 
ambition and emulation, and it produces far 
better results than the usual private home- 
training of young children. It also prepares 
the more gifted ones for the regular courses 
and accustoms them to public appearances. 

The year 1901-02 was signalized by ad- 
vancing to professorships Mrs. Coe, Mr. 
Oldberg and Mr. Harold E. Knapp, in their 
respective specialties of piano and musical 
history, piano and composition, and violin 
and ensemble playing. In other regards the 
faculty remained the same, with the excep- 
tion of Miss Una Howell, who resigned at 
the middle of the previous year, and was 
replaced by Miss Margaret Cameron, a pupil 
of Leschetitsky, who has won an enviable 
position as pianist and teacher in the city. 
The registrations numbered 366 for the 
year, and the income exceeded that of 
the previous year by about 20 per cent. 
Some ten students completed the Certificate 
Course, while three were graduated from 
the Diploma Course. Of the thirty-five or 
more student recitals, thirteen were indi- 
vidual recitals, giving many important musi- 
cal compositions and, for the most part, the 
programs were memorized. Advanced 
students played the following concertos : 
For piano, the Beethoven C minor, Men- 
delssohn G minor, Rubinstein D minor, 
Grieg A minor and St. Saens G minor ; for 
violin, the Beethoven D major (first move- 
ment). Mendelssohn E minor and Vieux- 
temps A minor. 

Advanced classes have done very credit- 
able work in eight-part counterpoint, as well 
as in double and triple counterpoint, fig- 

ured chorals and fugue up to four parts. 
Many typical works by Bach and Beethoven 
have been analytically dissected and also 
concertos, chamber music and symphonies 
from full score. Capable students have as- 
sisted at the meetings of the musical section 
of the Woman's Club, the Thomas Orches- 
tral Class, local concerts, and have given bi- 
monthly Sunday afternoon entertainments 
at the University Settlement. Two impor- 
tant compositions of Professor Oldberg's 
have received their first performance at the 
faculty concerts, a Trio for piano, violin and 
'cello, and a String Quartette. This latter 
work was repeated at a concert of the Chi- 
cago Manuscript Society, of which Profes- 
sor Oldberg is President. Other numbers 
on the same occasion were the Finale from 
a String Quartette by Professor Knapp, and 
a sacred solo for contralto with violin obli- 
gato by Professor Lutkin. 

A matter of congratulation has been the 
steady increase in the interest and appre- 
ciation of the Chamber Music Recitals by 
our faculty. Works of this character are the 
most difficult to comprehend in all musical 
literature, and many of the greatest com- 
posers have confided their loftiest inspira- 
tions to this most refined form of composi- 
tion, calling, as it does, upon a company of 
individual artists for its proper representa- 
tion. The patience, devotion and zeal neces- 
sary to produce a good ensemble of con- 
certed instruments is something enormous, 
and the school and the community are very 
fortunate in having professional musicians 
of such high ideals and ambitions. For the 
sake of those interested, a list is appended of 
the works given during the past seven sea- 
sons, a number of which are but rarely per- 
formed : 

Bach. Concerto for two Violins. 

Bargiel, String Quartette No. 3, Op. 15. 

Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 6, No. 1 
Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 6, No. 3. 



Beethoven, String Quartette, Op. 15, No. 1. 
String Quartette, Op. 18, No. 2. 
String Quartette, Op. 18, No. 6 
String Quartette, Op. 59, No. 1. 
String Quartette, Op. 59, No. 3. 
String Quartette, Op. 18, No. 2. 
String Quartette, Op. 18, No. 4. 
String Quartette, Op. 95. 
String Quartette, Op. 74. 
String Trio, Op. 9, No. 3. 
Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 97. 
Serenade for Violin, Viola, and 'Cello, Op. 8. 
Serenade for Flute, Violin, and Viola, Op. 25. 
Septette for Clarionet, Bassoon, Horn, and 
Strings, Op. 20. 

(Four movements. The wind instruments 
supplied upon the organ.) 
Concerto for Violin, Op. 61. 

(First movement with Leonard Cadenza.) 
Sonata for Piano and Violin, Op. 47. 
Borodine, Serenade Espagnole for Strings. 
Brahms, Quintette for Piano, two Violins, Viola, and 
'Cello, Op. 34. 
Sextette for Strings, Op. 18. 
Chopin, Polonaise for 'Cello and Piano, Op. 3. 
Dvorak, String Quartette, Op. 51. 

Quintette for Piano, two Violins, Viola, 'Cello. 

Op. 81. 
Bagatelles for two Violins, 'Cello, and Organ, 

Op. 47. 
Bagatelles for two Violins, 'Cello, and Organ, 

Op. 95. 
String Quartette, Op. 96. 
Cesar Franck, Sonata for Piano and Violin. 
Foote, Arthur, Quintette for Piano, two Violins, Viola 

and 'Cello, Op. 38. 
Gade, Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 42. 
Godard, Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 72. 
Goldmark, Quintette for Piano, two Violins, Viola, and 

'Cello, Op. 30. 
Golterman, Concertstueck for 'Cello, Op. 65. 
Grieg, Sonata for Piano and Violin, Op. 45. 
Sonata for Piano and Violin, Op. 13. 
String Quartette, G. minor. 
Hubbard W. Harris, Sonata for 'Cello and Piano. 

(Second and third movements.) 
Handel, Sonata for Piano and Violin, A. major. 
Haydn, String Quartette, Op. 77, No. 1. 

Variations from Kaiser Quartette. 
HoflFmann, Sonata for Violin and Piano, Op^ 67. 
Harold E. Knapp, String Quartette in C major. 
Liadow, Scherzo for Strings. 

P. C. Lutkin, Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 1. 
(Second movement.) 
Andante for Violin and Orchestra. Op. 6. 
(Orchestral part arranged for strings and organ.) 
Mendelssohn, String Quartette, Op. 12, No. 1. 

Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'CelVo. Op. 66. 
Sonata for 'Cello and Piano. Op. 45. No. 1. 
Mozart, Quintette for Clarionette and Strings. 

String Quartette No. 14. 
Arne Oldberg, String Quartette, C minor. 

Trio for Piano, Violin and 'Cello, E minor. 
String Qu 

Rubinstein, Sonata lor 'Cello and Piano, Op. 18. 
(First movement.) 
Sonata for Violin and Piano, Op. 13. 

(First movement.) 
String Quartette, Op. 17, No. 3. 
Charles Schubert, Andante and Caprice for 'Cello. 
Schubert, String Quartette, Op. 29. 
(Two movements.) 
String Quartette, D minor. 

(Two movements.) 
String Quintette. 

Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. 99. 
Trio for Piano, Violin, and 'Cello, Op. lOll 

Quintette for Piar 
Bass. Op. 114. 
Schumann. String Quartette. Op. 41. No 
Quintette for Piano, two Vi. 

'Cello. Op. 44. 
Quartette for Piano. Violin. Viola, and 'Cello, 
Op. 45. 
Saint Saens. Quintette for Piano and Strings, Op. 14. 
Svendsen, Allegro Scherzando. 
Tschaikowsky, String Quartette. Op. 11. 

Trio, for Piano. Violin and 'Cello. Op. 50. 
Wathall. A. G.. Suite for Strings. 
Weber. Concerto for Clarionet. Op. 7j. 

(Orchestral part arranged for Organ and Strings.) 
Weber. Josef Miroslav, String Qu 

Viola, 'Cello, and 

Viola, and 

It is with difficulty that the business of 
the School is properly attended to in its . 
present inadequate quarters. Thirty rooms 
with as many pianos, are in constant use for 
instruction and practice. Ten more would 
only relieve our immediate necessities. A 
concert hall, with larger seating capacity, 
and a good-sized organ are also much need- 
ed. That the conditions exist in Evanston 
for the development of one of the largest 
and most influential schools of music in the 
country, there can be no doubt. Students 
have been registered from China, East India, 
South America, Mexico, France, England, 
Newfoundland, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba 
and twenty-eight of the United States. Each 
year brings us a more talented and desirable 
class of students, as our reputation expands. 
\'ery capable students have been graduated 
and at least three prominent Chicago 
churches have been supplied by us with 
organists, where the duties are as exacting 
as any churches in the West. A gifted 
violin student, who has received his entire 


training in the scliool, recently played for 
one of the most capable judges in the coun- 
try, and his work was most highly com- 
mended and a brilliant future for him pre- 
dicted. Alfred G. Wathall, one of our grad- 
uates in theory, has written the music to a 
light opera in conjunction with George Ade, 
and it has had an unprecedented run at the 
Studebaker in Chicago. Our piano grad- 
uates have appeared professionally with 
success and many have established good 
teaching connections and send capable stu- 
dents to us every year. Another has gone 
to Madison, Wis., where he is instructor in 
the University of Wisconsin, has the most 
important church position and conducts two 
choral societies, one of which he organized. 
These instances are cited to show some of 
the practical results of the School. 

A crying need in the musical education 
of America is a more thorough training in 
the theory of composition in music. With- 
out this we can never attain to artistic 
prominence in the world of art, as far as 
original work is concerned. The average 
American composer has a smattering of 
harmony and, possibly, a faint idea of strict 
counterpoint. With this limited equipment 
he rushes into print with the hope of meet- 
ing the popular taste and gaining notoriety 
and wealth. Of the exacting discipline that 
would place the material of musical com- 
position at his ready coniniand, the close 
study of the masters, the comprehension 
of the subtle laws of esthetics, of propor- 
tion, balance and contrast, of even the 
mechanical outline of musical forms, he 
knows little and cares less. 

A University School of Music should 
strive to supply this great lack and to estab- 
lish not only a high standard of musical 
learning, but of general culture as well. It 
should guard against the one-sided tenden- 
cies of professional education and add to 
it such elements as will serve to broaden the 

vision, enlarge the sympathies, and sharpen 
the intellect and understanding. Scholarli- 
ness and thoroughness should characterize 
its teachings and its faculty should stand for 
the highest ideals of art. Of equal, if not 
greater, importance should be its moral tone 
and influence. The sensitive and emotional 
nature associated with the artistic- tempera- 
ment should be safeguarded in every possi- 
ble way. In large cities there is, unhappily, 
a tinge of the moral laxity prevalent in 
European capitals among professional men. 
It is by no means confined to musicians. 
It is a most dangerous and pernicious en- 
vironment for the young in their formative 
years, and not infrequently ends most dis- 
astrously. Against these lamentable possi- 
bilities the wholesome surroundings of 
Evanston ofTer a marked contrast. Its 
churches and Christian associations, its 
freedom from saloons and questionable re- 
sorts, together with its educational facilities 
and attractive location, make it an ideal 
home for the pursuit of a musical educa- 

Evanston, with its beautiful homes and 
cultured residents, should take a peculiar 
pride in the cultivation of the fine arts, and 
should loyally support all educational ef- 
forts in that direction. The School of 
Music has grown steadily from small be- 
ginnings and its one advertisement has been 
its own work. It has drawn to itself an able 
faculty thoroughly in accord with Univer- 
sity ideals. It has an unusual proportion of 
men actively engaged in composition of the 
better sort. It attracts talented students 
and holds them to such an extent, that, in 
several instances, the entire family have 
changed their mode of life in order to live 
in Evanston, so that the student could 
reap the full benefit of the advantages of- 
fered by continuous residence here. With 
its Preparatory Department it has given op- 
portunity to a number of its capable grad- 



uates to make a start professionally. Its 
faculty and student recitals have been open 
to the public without charge, and they 
have formed, together with the concerts of 
the Evanston Musical Club, by far the 
larger and more important part of the musi- 
cal attractions in Evanston. Concert pro- 
grams that are arranged to please the aver- 
age audience are rarely of real educational 
value. The school has consistently and 
persistently held to the highest standards, 
and the value of such a rigid policy is not 
always readily recognized, but the wisdom 
of it has been amply justified by the steady 
increase in attendance and appreciation. 
There is no surer gauge of real refinement 
and culture than the measure of esteem in 
which good music is held in a community. 

But Evanston should not confine its 
ambition or interest to the welfare of a Con- 
servatory of Alusic. Great possibilities exist 
here for the development of the art outside 
the scope of a good music school. Music 
Festivals, after the plan of Cincinnati or 
Worcester, are quite feasible here. They 
are managed successfully, both from an ar- 
tistic and a financial point of view, at such 
small places as Ann Arbor, Mich., and 
Oberlin, Ohio, where they have but a frac- 
tion of our advantages or facilities. Still 
they contrive to have good choruses and 
orchestras and to engage really great artists. 
We are more fortunately situated here, in 
that we have better choral resources, and 
that an unsurpassed orchestra can be ob- 
tained without the great expense that is 
entailed by transportation and hotel accom- 
modations in places remote from large 
cities. The only essential lack in Evanston 
is a suitable hall. The rest is merely a 
matter of enterprise and ambition. 

The music festival presents peculiar con- 
ditions for the efifective performance of 
music — conditions that are almost a neces- 
sity for a satisfactory rendition of certain 
great works. These works require an enthu- 

siastic and responsive state of feeling as re- 
gards the audience, and this condition is 
difficult to arouse without the festival spirit. 
The stimulating atmosphere of excitement, 
the cumulative effect of successive perform- 
ances, the concentration of artistic talent, 
the relaxation from the ordinary daily 
pursuits, all tend to put the hearer in a 
receptive and appreciative attitude. All 
these elements react upon the performers 
and, as a consequence, results are realized 
which would be quite impossible at isolated 

The permanent establishment of annual 
or biennial festivals would give Evanston 
an artistic prominence obtainable in no 
other manner. With its great University 
and its superior moral surroundings, it al- 
ready enjoys a most enviable reputation as 
an educational center. Add to this the 
attraction and distinction of notable musi- 
cal festivals, and Evanston will be unique 
among the cities of the West as an artistic 
and literary community. .\nd the larger 
portion of gain would not be to the residents 
of our favored town, but to the student 
hailing from the farm or the country village. 
What an education it would be to him if, in 
the course of his college life, he would have 
the opportunity to hear the great inaster- 
works of music given under inspiring and 
uplifting conditions ! Coming, as they do, 
from all quarters of the Union, many of 
them would return to their homes as so 
many musical missionaries, fired with an 
ambition to do what they could for good art. 
Hundreds would go forth from us every 
year with their esthetic sense stirred 
and enlarged, with a wholesome respect for 
the great names in music and an apprecia- 
tive familiarity with the standard oratorios 
and orchestral works. The seeds of nuisical 
culture, thus sown, would bear fruit in 
scores of communities, and would play no 
small part in the higher development of our 



Events of 1902-03. — The year 1902-1903 
was made notable by an increase of an 
even hundred students in attendance and 
of over six thousand dollars in income. 
Courses in English language, English 
literature and modern languages were 
added to the graduating requirements 
with the result of bringing to the Uni- 
versity a better class of students, as far 
as general education was concerned. A 
series of eight concerts, known as the 
"Artists' Series," was begun, given alter- 
nately by members of our own faculty and 
by visiting artists. The latter included 
Minnie Fish-Griffin in a song recital ; Ar- 
thur Hochman, of Berlin, in a piano reci- 
tal ; Bruno Steindel in a 'cello recital, and 
Glenn Hall, of New York, and Allen 
Spencer, of Chicago, in a joint song and 
piano recital. These concerts attracted 
a large attendance, both on the part of 
the students and the town people. 

Additional quarters for the kindergar- 
ten work of the Preparatory Department 
were acquired in the Y. M. C. A. building. 
and the school was unable to supply all 
the non-resident students writh pianos for 
their practicing. The graduating con- 
certs brought brilliant performances of 
the Schumann A minor, and the Rubin- 
stein D minor piano concertos, and the 
Pagannini concerto for violin. Four di- 
plomas and thirteen certificates were atlded 
to our list. 

Enlarged Attendance of 1903-04. — The 
year 1903- 1904, brought the attendance 
just over the five hundred mark and the 
income up to $35,000, with eight gradu- 
ates in the diploma course and eighteen 
in the certificate course. The first con- 
cert in the Artists' Series was a decided 
novelty in the way of a programme of 
chamber music for piano and wood-wind 
instruments, participated in by Messrs. 
Starke, Aleyer, Demare. and Kruse of the 
Thomas Orchestra and Professor Oldberg 

of our faculty. Later there was a song re- 
cital by Gwylim Miles, a violin recital by 
Leopold Kramer, concert-meister of the 
Thomas Orchestra, and a piano recital by 
Augusta Cotlou. As usual, the Univer- 
sity String Quartette, under Professor 
Knapp. gave four excellent concerts, while 
Miss Cameron, Miss Hull, Mr. Blackman, 
and Mr. Williams of the faculty all ap- 
peared on interesting programmes. Pro- 
fessor Stanley of the University of Michi- 
gan gave a most entertaining lecture on 
early Venetian opera, and Gustav Holm- 
quist gave a most artistic recital of Scan- 
dinavian songs. A further matter of in- 
terest was the first performance of an 
elaborate quintette for piano and string, 
by Professor Oldberg, which proved to be 
a work of unusual scope and worth. 

Five of the advanced students and grad- 
uates went to Europe at the end of the 
school year to continue their work in 
Leipzig, Berlin and Paris, and several of 
them at once won prominence by reason 
of their talents and the schooling they had 
received in Evanston. Over fifty student 
recitals were given during the year, and 
many hundred compositions for piano, or- 
gan, violin and voice were performed. A 
house opposite Music Hall was rented and 
filled with pianos for practicing purposes. 

Conditions of 1904-05. — The year 1904- 
1905 again showed a recoil in attendance 
after successive gains of the previous 
years, the enrollment dropping to 466. 
The loss in income was not relatively so 
great, as a large proportion of students re- 
mained through the year. As usual, a 
number of inquiring students failed to ap- 
pear upon learning that the official board- 
ing places could not accommodate them; 
as they or their parents objected to board- 
ing in town, principally upon the score of 
expense. The graduates were four in the 
graduate class and fifteen in the certifi- 
cate class. 



The Artists' Series of concerts was a 
notable one. With the co-operation of 
the Thomas Study class and the Evan- 
ston Musical Club, famous artists and or- 
ganizations appeared. The first of these 
was the celebrated Kneisel Quartette of 
Boston, who gave us a fine program, re- 
markable for its charm of tone, refine- 
ment of shading, and artistic interpreta- 
tion. This was followed by a song re- 
cital by Muriel Foster, the greatest con- 
tralto now upon the concert stage. On 
the evening previous to her recital. Miss 
Foster appeared with the Evanston Mus- 
ical Club in Dvorak's "Stabat Mater" 
and upon the same occasion Professor 
Oldberg played for the first time his new 
symphonic concerto for piano and orches- 
tra, a brilliant and most difficult work, in 
which he scored a great success both as 
composer and pianist. 

In February the Pittsburg Symphony 
Orchestra, under the magnetic baton of 
Emil Paur, gave Beethoven's Overture to 
Egmont, the same composer's Emperor 
Concerto for piano and orchestra with 
Mr. Paur at the piano, Tscharkowsky's 
Pathetic Symphony and Wagner's Vor- 
spiel to the Meistersaenger. The concert 
provoked the utmost enthusiasm, due to 
the energy and virility of Mr. Paur's con- 

The last concert by visitors was an 
evening of old-time music by Arnold Dol- 
metsch's party, performed upon the in- 
struments for which the music was orig- 
inally written, such as the spinet, harpsi- 
chord, dulcimer and viola of various 
kinds. In the four concerts given by our 
own faculty a number of standard classi- 
cal string quartettes were played, and a 
first performance of a Quintette by Ca?sar 
Franck, in which Mrs. Coe supplemented 
the University Quartette at the piano. 
With the assistance of Mrs. Lida Scott 

Brown as reader, Mrs. Coe gave a per- 
formance of her popular melodrama, 
"Hiawatha," before a large and apprecia- 
tive audience. The musical themes for 
this work are largely drawn from Indian 
sources, and are judiciously and effective- 
ly applied as a back-ground to the recita- 
tion of this famous poem. 

The Outlook of 1905-06. — The present 
year {1905-1906) bids fair to be the most 
prosperous of all in a material sense, and 
the school shows, in many ways, the 
benefits accruing from fifteen years of en- 
deavor to establish an institution for 
musical instruction upon a worthy aca- 
demic basis. A new department of Pub- 
lic School Methods was inaugurated in 
the fall, designed to fit candidates for the 
position of supervisor of music in the 
public schools. There is but one school 
in the West that specializes to any con- 
siderable extent in this branch of work, 
and it would seem that such a depart- 
ment, with the collateral advantages of a 
College of Liberal Arts and a well-equip- 
ped School of Music, would be very at- 
tractive. This department is in the very 
capable charge of Miss Leila M. Harlow, 
supervisor of music in the Evanston grade 

The Artists' Series brought the Knei- 
sel Quartette for its second appearance 
here and a song recital by George Ham- 
lin, and will include a chamber music re- 
cital of wood-wind instruments, at which 
a new Quintette for piano, oboe, clari- 
net, French horn and bassoon of Profes- 
sor Oldberg's will receive its first pro- 
duction, and a piano recital by Emil 

That there is a coterie of ardent and 
sincere music lovers in Evanston is evi- 
denced by the increasing interest taken 
in chamber music. The concerts of the 
Kneisel Quartette have been patronized 

i/t^ ^ -t^/^^-VC^ y 



to an extent which puts Chicago to the 
bhish. and the keen and discriminating 
appreciation for string quartette music is 
largely due to the unceasing efforts of 
Professor Harold Knapp in this direction. 
He has labored for the cause in season 
and out of season, with unflagging zeal 
and enthusiasm, despite discouragements 
and lukewarm interest, and it is pleasant 
to chronicle that his high ideals and abid- 
ing faith in the best in art have at last 
won recognition. His capable quartette 
has played repeatedly in the homes of our 
music lovers and chamber music in every 
sense of the term has come to its own. 
Professor Knapp's able colleagues are 
Messrs. Lewis R. Blackman, Charles El- 
ander and Day ^^'i^iams, 

Changes in Teaching Force, — The well- 
known contralto, Mrs. Eleanor Kirkham. 
was added to the vocal force of the fac- 
ulty and, upon her removal to New Ytirk, 
was succeeded by Mrs. Lillian French 
Read. Provision for the study of the harp 
was made by the appointment of Mrs. 
Clara Murray, who was succeeded by 
Walfried Singer of the Thomas orches- 
tra, Mr. Walter Keller and Mr. Anthony 
Stankowitch resigned, the latter to ac- 
cept charge of a large music department 
in a Southern school. Mr. Alfred G. Wat- 
hall, a graduate of the school who had 
been appointed instructor in harmony, 
and who played viola in the Lhiiversity 
String Quartette, resigned in order to pur- 
sue his studies in London, The Evan- 
ston Musical Club performed a very cred- 
itable cantata of Mr. Wathall's, entitled 
"Alice P.rand," for chorus, soli, and full 
orchestra. His undoubted ability as a 
composer has enlisted the active interest 
of Sir Villiers Stanford and Sir Frederick 
Bridge, of the Royal College of Music. 

John Skelton was succeeded by Charles 

S. Horn as instructor of band instru- 
ments, and also took charge of the Uni- 
versity Band. Mrs. Elizabeth Raymond 
Woodward, :Mrs. Nina Shumway Knapp. 
and Miss Bertha A, Beeman were ad- 
vanced from the Preparatory Department 
to the regular faculty. Mr. Irving Ham- 
lin was appointed Secretary of the school 
in 1902, and greatly improved the busi- 
ness relations of the school, which had 
formerly been in the hands of inexper- 
ienced students. 

The following names appear on the fac- 
ulty of the Preparatory Department 
since 1902: William E. Zench, Mrs. Car- 
rie D. Barrows, Grace Ericson, Elizabeth 
L. Shotwell, Mrs. Hila \'erbeck Knapp. 
Sarah :\Ioore, Juliet Maude Marceau, Nel- 
lie B, Flodin and John M. Rosborough. 
The last fi\-e mentioned are still upon the 

Necrology of the Year.— The sad duty 
remains of making record of the death 
of two who were intimately connected 
with the school — the one as teacher 
and the other as student. Mrs. Saidee 
Knowland Coe, Professor of Piano and 
Musical History, and wife of Professor 
George A, Coe, of the College of Liberal 
Arts, died at Alameda. Cal., August 24, 
1905. ^Irs. Coe was a member of the 
faculty of the School of Music for eleven 
years and performed her duties w-ith great 
fidelity and success. As a pianist, teacher 
and lecture recitalist Mrs, Coe had an ex- 
tended reputation, and she was particu- 
larly interested in bringing forward new 
or comparatively unknown works. The 
courses in the History of Music were 
greatl}' extended under her direction and 
compared favorably with those of our 
greatest schools and universities. Her lec- 
tures on the music of the American In- 
dians and on the Wagner music-dramas 
were especially noteworthy, Mrs, Coe 



had resigned her position in the School of 
Music and had been appointed as a spe- 
cial lecturer on music in the College of 
Liberal Arts. Her plans for a year's vaca- 
tion in Europe for recreation and study 
were rudely shattered by her sudden 
death. A large circle of friends and pupils 
mourn her loss and untimely end. 

Earle Waterous, for ten years a violin 
student under Professor Knapp, died at 
his home in Evanston November 15, 1905. 
Evincing signs of unusual ajjility as a 
mere child, he was given a thorough 

schooling and before he was out of his 
'teens had acquired a very unusual tech- 
nical mastery of his instrument. Inter- 
ested friends sent him to Europe and he 
immediately took a commanding posi- 
tion in the Leipszig Conservatory, elicit- 
ing the most flattering comments from the 
local press and winning predictions of 
high rank as a virtuoso from his teachers. 
With every promise of a brilliant career 
he was seized with a dread disease and 
barely reached his home ere he passed 



Professor Cumnock as Founder — Grouih 
and Standing Due to his Labors — First 
Class Graduated in 1881 — Its Aim and 
Branches Taught — Building Erected — Is 
Dedicated in 1895 — Location and Descrip- 
tion — Advantage over Private Institu- 
tions of Like Character — Training in 
English Composition and Rhetoric — En- 
rollment According to Last Catalogue — 
Promising Outlook for the Future. 

The existence, growth and high standing 
of the School of Oratory of the North- 
western University (generally known as the 
Cumnock School of Oratory), is largely the 
outcome of the life and labors of Prof. 
R. L. Cumnock. Entering the service 
of the University in the fall of 1868, he 
labored for ten years, doing the work as- 
signed him in the curriculum of the College 
of Liberal Arts. In the fall of 1878 an 
urgent demand for advanced work in vocal 
expression and interpretation resulted in 
the organization of a special department 
known as the School of Oratory. The first 
class was graduated in 1881. The special 
purpose involved in the organization of 
this new department was to furnish instruc- 
tion and training in three subjects, viz: 
Elocution, English and Physical Culture. 

The chief aim of the school was to pre- 
pare young men and women to teach these 
subjects in colleges, academies, high and 

normal schooli. For many years the stu- 
dents in this department were accommo- 
dated in the College of Liberal Arts. From 
1890 to 1894 the applications for admission 
to the school were so numerous that many 
could not be accepted by reason of the 
meager accommodations in University Hall. 
In the spring of 1894 Professor Cumnock 
secured from the Trustees a site on the 
L'niversity campus and assumed the entire 
responsibility of erecting a building for the 
special use of the School of Oratory. The 
building, with its equipment costing $30,- 
000, was, at its dedication on May 16, 1895, 
handed over to the President of the Univer- 
sity by Professor Cumnock, entirely free 
from debt. 

The building was named the Annie May 
Swift Hall, in memory of one of Professor 
Cumnock's former pupils, whose father, 
Gustavus F. Swift, of Chicago, generously 
contributed to its erection. It stands just 
northeast of the Liberal Arts Building, near 
the lake shore. Alany of the windows look 
directly upon the water, and from every 
point the view is beautiful. The building is 
of the Venetian style of architecture. The 
basement is of rock- faced Lemont lime- 
stone, and the upper stories are a buff-col- 
ored Roman brick and terra cotta. The 
roof is of red tile. There are three main 
entrances, the one on the south leading to 
the broad corridor that opens into the audi- 


torium, and the other two on the east and 
west sides of the building. 

The auditorium, though not large, is the 
handsomest room in any of the University 
buildings. No pillars obstruct the view, 
as the roof is supported by iron trusses 
stretching from the roof girders. The floor 
has a gentle incline to the stage from the 
sides and rear of the auditorium, so that 
from every seat an excellent view may be 
obtained. This building gives the depart- 
ment the best facilities of any school of 
oratory in America, and enables it to ofifer 
special advantages to all students pursuing 
its course of study. 

The unique feature in the organization 
of the work of the school is the emphasis 
placed upon private training. Two private 
lessons in elocution are given, weekly, to 
each student during the entire course. Be- 
ing free from rent and taxes, which other 
schools of like character are compelled to 

pay, the management can afford to provide 
this personal training which other schools 
of oratory cannot, or do not, ofifer. 

In a large measure the same personal 
training is carried on in English composition 
and rhetoric. The number enrolled in the 
last catalogue of the school is 214, and the 
patronage is increasing slowly, but steadily. 
The graduates of the school are filling im- 
portant positions in many of the leading 
colleges and schools of the Middle West, 
while a flourishing school of oratory, named 
after the Director and managed by one of 
the former teachers of this Department, is 
located at Los Angeles, California. 

It is safe to say that the future of this 
Department is secure, and that students, as 
they come to learn the high grade and qual- 
ity of the work done here, will enroll them- 
selves, where the highest art in public 
speaking and writing are essential condi- 
tions for graduation. 



(By PROF. J. SCOTT CLARK, A. M., Lit. D.) 

Evanston Lifc-Saving Crczv — Tragic Fate 
of the Steamer "Lady Elgi}i" Leads to 
Its Organisation — Its First Members — 
List of Notable Rescues — Service Re- 
zvarded by Issue of Medals to the Creiv 
by Act of Congress — Baseball History — 
The Old Gymnasium — Tng of War 
Teams — Football Records — Athletic Field 
and Grand Stand — Track Athletics and 
Tennis Games. 

The noblest and the most interesting 
chapter in the history of athletics at North- 
western University grows out of the fact 
that its founders selected for the University 
a site near what had long been known to 
lake mariners as a dangerous point on the 
shore of Lake Michigan. As the determin- 
ation of this site settled the site of Evanston, 
so the configuration of the shore at this point 
inade it inevitable that, sooner or later, there 
should be established here a life-saving sta- 
tion. Long before the days of football 
teams, coaches, trainers, and tiie like — long 
before a gymnasium was even asked for, 
a volunteer band of Northwestern students 
made themselves immortal and won the 
praise of the nation by their heroic rescue 
of passengers from the ill-fated steamer, 
the "Lady Elgin." On the 8th day of 
September, i860, a merry company of four 
hundred souls set out from Chicago for an 

excursion trip. The story of the rapid de- 
struction of the steamer by fire and the 
death by drowning and otherwise of all but 
q8 of the passengers, is one of the tragic 
episodes in the history of Chicago. As the 
terrified victims came floating toward the 
shore line of the University campus, cling- 
ing to bits of the wreckage, only to be 
tossed cruelly back by the breakers, while 
horrified friends who lined the bluff 
shrieked in agony, several students, led by 
Edward W. Spencer, of the class of 1861, 
stepped out from the crowd, attached ropes 
to their waists, and plunged into the surf, to 
risk their lives in an effort to save drowning 
women and children. Again and again 
they made their way through the angry 
waves and deposited in safety some fainting 
victim of the disaster. It was only when 
their own strength gave out completely that 
thev desisted. Spencer was carried to his 
room in a fainting condition. He is still 
living (1903) in California, and it is as- 
serted on apparently good authority that 
his health, throughout his long life, has 
been seriously affected by his voluntary ex- 
posure in behalf of the victims of the "Lady 
Elgin" disaster. 

The wide interest excited by the action 
of the Northwestern students in connection 
with the burning of the "Lady Elgin" re- 
sulted in the organization, in October. 1872, 



of a volunteer crew of five men from the 
Senior class of the College of Liberal Arts. 
The members of this crew have since be- 
come well known in high circles in the 
Central West ; they were L. C. Collins, 
George Lunt, E. J. Harrison, Eltinge El- 
more, George Bragdon, F. Roys, and M. D. 
Kimball. Soon afterward Dr. E. O. Haven, 
then President of the University, received 
from Commodore Murray, then in charge of 
the United States life-saving service, a pres- 
ent of a iine life-boat, and Dr. Haven com- 
mitted the boat to the care of the Senior 
class, from whose members the crew were 
selected. The boat was presented with the 
provision "that proper care will be taken of 
it and that it will be officered and manned 
by students, who will train themselves and 
do their best, if an emergency arises, to 
help any craft that may be in danger on the 
coast of the University." We find no record 
of any immediate provision for housing the 
boat; but, in 1873, the students petitioned 
that the life-boat be taken from the ex- 
clusive control of the Senior class and be 
placed in charge of a crew selected from all 
classes, according to their best physical and 
moral qualifications. No action seems to 
have been taken during 1874, but in 1875 
the boat was placed in the hands of such a 
crew as was called for by the petition. 

In December, 1876, it was announced that 
an agreement had been reached with 
the Federal Government, by the terms 
of which a life-saving station was to 
be immediately erected by the Gov- 
ernment on the University campus, and 
that a crew of five was to be selected 
from the student body, irrespective of 
classes, which was to be captained by an 
experienced seaman paid by the Govern- 

In April, 1877, E. J. Bickell, 'j"], was ap- 
pointed captain of the new crew, and sixty 
other students applied for the subordinate 

positions. They were to receive $40 por 
month during the season and $3 extra for 
every wreck trip. In the followmg June the 
college faculty nominated as members of 
the crew: Warrington, 79; Hobart. '79; 
King, '79; Piper, '80; Shannon, '81: and 
AI. J. Hall of the Preparatory School, and 
these students were duly accepted by the 
Government. For a time the life-boat was 
housed in a temporary structure on the 
beach, but in 1876 the Government erected 
the eastern two-thirds of the present Life- 
Saving Station at a cost of about six thou- 
sand dollars. The site selected was on 
ground now covered by Fisk Hall. Prior 
to the erection of the latter building, in the 
summer of 1899, the station was removed to 
its present site on land then newly made 
near the water's edge. 

Since the formal organization of the 
Evanston life-saving crew, in 1877, as a 
regular part of the government service, over 
four hundred lives have been saved by its 
agency. The following tabular statement 
is taken from the records somewhat at ran- 
dom, and is typical of the work of the crew 
since 1883. To such rescues as these must 
be added scores of cases where vessels have 
been relieved from awkward or dangerous 
situations, but where it was not found neces- 
sary to remove either passengers or crews. 
Besides the aggregate of over four hundred 
lives the local life-saving crew has saved 
property amounting to millions in value: 

Name and No. Brought 


Class of .\shore in 

Vessel Surf-boat. 

May 9, 1S8.3. 

Schooner, "Kate E. Howard." 8 

Sept. 19, 18S6. 

Schooner. "Sodus," 5 

June 19. 18S-. 

Schooner, "Sunrise," 7 

Nov. 24, 1SS-. 

Schooner, "Halstead," lU 

Oct. 22, 1889. 

Schooner, "Ironton." 8 

Nov. 28. 1889. 

Steamer, "Calumet," 18 

May IS. 1894. 

Schooner, "Lincoln Ball," 4 

May 26. 189.5. 

Schooner, "J. Emory Owen." 27 

Nov. 26, 1895. 

Steamer, "Michigan," 9 

Of these. 

the rescues from the vessels 


"Owen," and "Michigan," are 



the most noteworthy. By reference to the 
dates it will be seen that two rescues 
were made very late in November, nearly 
a month after the crews were off from reg- 
ular summer and autumn duty. In both 
cases the rescues were made in the teeth 
of fierce gales and blinding snowstorms. 
Both involved tremendous and heroic exer- 
tion on the part of the crew, in order to get 
the surf-boat launched at the points opposite 
the wrecks. The "Calumet" was stranded 
at the very unusual distance of one thousand 
yards from the shore. The aggregate value 
of the three vessels, with their cargoes, 
was over $252,000. Not a life was lost in 
any of the rescues enumerated in the fore- 
going table. ^Mention should also be made 
of the large number of persons who have 
been rescued from capsized row-boats and 
of the rescued children who have fallen 
from the piers. 

The present captain, Patrick Murray 
(1904), was appointed July 18, 1903, after 
having served as surfman seven years at the 
North Manitou Island station, two years at 
Muskegon station, and five years at Evan- 

Captain Lawrence O. Lawson, who made 
such a worthy record for twenty-three years 
at the head of our station, was born in Swe- 
den in 1843. and began the life of a sailor 
at the age of eighteen. He came to Amer- 
ica in 1 86 1, and sailed on the Great Lakes 
during the following three years. He be- 
came a citizen of Evanston in 1864, engaged 
in fishing for a time, and was appointed Cap- 
tain of the crew in 1880. In addition to his 
services in aiding to save nearly five hun- 
dred lives. Captain Lawson originated the 
system of righting the Beebee-McClellan 
surf-boat, which has since been adopted by 
the Government for use by all the crews of 
the service. In rescuing the "Calumet," as 
already described. Captain Lawson and his 
crew manifested such courage and endur- 

ance that Congress awarded to each man a 
gold medal for "saving life from the perils 
of the sea." The medal consists of a gold 
bar from which hangs a broad ribbon sup- 
porting a golden eagle, sustaining in his 
beak a heavy disk of gold. The medal com- 
plete weighs about four ounces. In a circle 
on the face of the medal are the words 
"United States of America — Act of Con- 
gress, June 20th, 1874." In high relief is a 
representation of a crew in the act of saving 
a drowning person. On the obverse, in a 
circle, are the words : "In memory of heroic 
deeds in saving life from the perils of the 
sea." In relief is a tablet, surmounted by 
an eagle, with a woman's figure on the left, 
while on the right are an anchor and seals. 
Each medal is inscribed to its owner: "For 
heroic services at the wreck of the "Calu- 
met," Nov. 28, 1889." In addition to Cap- 
tain Lawson, the crew who thus honored 
Evanston in honoring themselves were : W. 
M. Ewing, F. M. Kindig, E. B. Fowler, W. 
L. Wilson, G. E. Crosby, and Jacob Loin- 
ing, all University students at the time. 

Little seems to have been done in the way 
of general college athletics during the first 
twenty-five years of Northwestern's exist- 
ence. In fact, systematic athletics were as 
yet undeveloped in this country. Lawn ten- 
nis had not been imported, track athletics 
were in an incipient stage, and the modern 
game of football was unknown. The village 
of Evanston was small, and the college was 
smaller. There was plenty of wood to saw, 
and there was now and then a citizen's cow 
to be pulled out of the slough that existed 
in all its depth along the present line of our 
railways. In such diversions as these did 
the early sons of Northwestern engage for 
the development of their physical strength 
and, incidentally, the repletion of their thin 
purses. With the incoming of the 'seventies 



baseball began to be called "the national 
game," and our boys, like all normal youths, 
soon caught the fever. 

As early as the spring of 1871, we read 
of inter-class games, and in June of that 
year a nine, of which Air. James Raymond 
was a member, placed on record the first 
publicly recorded score, which stood North- 
western 35, "The Prairies" (a local Chicago 
nine) 7. On the 4th of July, 1871, occurred 
a memorable series of events, no small part 
of which were athletic in character. This 
was the day when ten thousand people 
gathered from all the surrounding country 
in the campus grove; when the Ellsworth 
Zouaves paraded under General John L. 
Beveridge as Grand Marshal: when $10,- 
000 was raised to set the young University 
on its feet, and when the corner-stone of the 
"Evanston College for Ladies" (now \\"il- 
lard Hall) was laid. This was an indepen- 
dent school until June, 1873. Of the $10.- 
000 raised on this memorable day, $2,500 
was given by Governor Evans, whose nair.e 
our city bears ; several thousands were given 
by other friends of higher education, and r.n 
small sum was raised, as the college paper 
says, "by sales and exhibitions." These ex- 
hibitions seem to have consisted of what 
would now be called, in the parlance of 
track athletics, various "events," such as 
jumps, ball-throwing, tub-races, boat-races 
on the lake, etc.. etc. So we may say with 
much of accuracy that Northwestern's for- 
mal athletics began with a field day. Some 
features of this first field day are worth 
chronicling in detail. Here they are: 

"Baseball match between Ladies' College 
nine and Northwestern University : prize a 
silver ball ; score, 57 to 4 in favor of North- 
western." (What an ominous beginning 
for co-education!) 

"Regatta — -Yachts, six-oared barges, and 
sculls ; prize an ice-set and three flags." 

"Exhibition drill by the Ellsworth 

"Baseball match with the 'Atlantics" of 

During the spring and fall of 187 1 the 
University nine played ten games with non- ^ 
college nines, including the afterward fa- 
mous White Stockings of Chicago, whom 
the college boys beat by a score of 18 to 12, 
and two with Racine College, in which 
each side scored but once. The highest 
recorded score of the season was 68 — a fact 
that speaks volumes as to the crudeness of 
the game and the players of those early 
(lays. Of the twelve games, our team won 

During the next decade, and longer, the 
four colleges of what was then literally the 
Northwest were Northwestern University, 
Chicago University (the old institution, dis- 
continued in 1885), Racine College, and, 
later, Lake Forest University. The great 
State L'niversities that have since so largely 
dominated Western college athletics, were 
then either unborn or still in their infancy, 
and the custom of making long trips for in- 
tercollegiate games had not become estab- 
lished. We find no records for 1872 and 
1873. but during 1874 a team, which in- 
cluded John Hamline as short-stop and 
Charles Wheeler as center-fielder, played 
nine intercollegiate games. In the "final" for 
"the championship of the Northwest," Ra- 
cine won by a few points. As compared 
with "our ancient enemy." Chicago, the 
total score for the season was Northwestern 
University 42, Chicago University, 34. 

From 1875 to the present day the baseball 
records of Northwestern are chequered but 
not discreditable. In 1875 we won the silver 
ball and "the championship for the North- 
west," with Charles Wheeler as left-fielder.- 
W. G. Evans, 'jj, son of Governor Evans, 
and George Lunt, '72, were the leaders in 




the L'niversity athletics of the early seven- 
ties. In 1876, at Waukegan, was formed 
the first intercollegiate baseball association 
in this section, and the games of the season 
transferred the silver ball and the champion- 
ship to Chicago. During this year batting 
records of the college nines began to be 
published. By the terms of the constitution 
of this intercollegiate association, each col- 
lege was to play two games with each of the 
other three institutions. In 1877 Chicago 
again won the championship. During 1878 
the colors white and brown were adopted 
by the Northwestern players, and a regular 
baseball diamond was laid out, "resodded, 
and rolled," on the site where the Orrington 
Lunt Library building now stands. It was 
during this year that the first efforts were 
made to check the already growing tendency 
toward professionalism. Before this year 
the custom seems to have been to use, as 
players on any college team, the best men 
obtainable, without much scrutiny as to their 
actual relation to the scholastic curriculum 
of the college. But in the constitution of 
the "Intercollegiate Baseball Association" 
that was in force during 1878, I find the fol- 
lowing article : 

"The captains of the respective nines must 
file with the secretary of the Association, be- 
fore April 20th, the names of their respec- 
tive nines and of the substitutes, together 
with a certificate from the secretary of the 
Faculty showing that the players have been 
in daily attendance at their respective insti- 
tutions for twenty days previous to the first 
announced league game." 

It will be seen that, while this action did 
not prevent a student from entering college 
for a course in baseball, it was the first step 
toward pure college athletics in the Central 

During 1878 the silver ball went to Ra- 
cine College. 

In 1870 our team defeated Racine once 
and Chicago twice. In 1880 the games of 
the Association resulted in a tie between 
Racine and Northwestern ; and, as Racine 
refused to play off the tie. thus retaining 
possession of the silver ball trophy. North- 
western withdrew from the association. 

Because of the disruption of the old 
league there seems to have been no inter- 
collegiate baseball here during 188 1, but 
in December of that year delegates from 
Racine College, the University of Wiscon- 
sin, the University of Michigan, Chicago 
University and Northwestern met in Chi- 
cago and formed a new league. The limits 
of our space forbid a detailed account of the 
baseball games from 1881 to 1903. Over 
our defeats it is fair to draw the mantle of 
oblivion : over our victories we have a right 
to rejoice. In 1883, when the University 
of Michigan had withdrawn from the base 
ball league, and when Beloit College had 
been admitted instead, Northwestern won 
the chainpionship of the league without los- 
ing a single game. The team for that year 
consisted of Plummer. Huxford, Rollins, 
Stewart, Bannister, PoUey, Tillinghast, Dill- 
man and Tomlinson. 

Again in 1889 we won the championship 
of the Northwest and a pennant, with a 
team consisting of T. C. Moulding. J. A. 
Rogers, A. P. Haagenson, M. P. Noyes, F. 
C. Chapin, A. B. Fleager, C. C. Johnson, 
L. H. Stewart, and H. H. Jones ; and in 
i8qi the championship was again awarded 
to Northwestern. In 1892 we won the 
championship in the smaller league (the old 
league), and secured the second place in 
a new league, including the great State uni- 
versities of the Middle West. In 1894 our 
team defeated Chicago in three excellent 
games, one of 12 and one of 10 innings, the 
scores being, respectively, 3-2. 8-1, and 6-4 
in our favor. During this season we also 



defeated Wisconsin 9 to 8, Oberlin 11 to 6, 
Wisconsin again 4 to I, and ^Minnesota 
6 to 2. 

So the season of 1894 is the banner year 
of our baseball history ; for, by winning nine 
games in succession, we were fairly en- 
titled to the intercollegiate baseball cham- 
pionship of the Central West. The men who 
thus shed undying glory on Alma Mater 
were: John H. Kedzie (Captain), Frank 
Griffith, C. N. Jenks, J. K. Bass, C. D. Mc- 
Williams, Otis Maclay, W. D. Barnes, T. H. 
Lewis, W. A. Cooling, C. D. Reimers, A. E. 
Price and C. L. Leesley. The loss of several 
of these star players by graduation left the 
team of 1895 unable to win many victories, 
and the team of 1896 was not much more 
successful. In '97 the fates were kinder to 
us, and we defeated Nebraska, Beloit, Ohio 
State, and Wisconsin, by good scores ; '98 
was another off year in Northwestern base- 
ball ; in '99 we defeated Chicago once and 
Wisconsin once; in 1900 we defeated Chi- 
cago once and Oberlin once ; in IQOI Illi- 
nois was our only victim among "the big 
nine"; in igo2 we defeated Chicago twice, 
Nebraska once, and Beloit once. The sea- 
sons of 1903 and 1904 have not been suc- 


The movement for the erection of a gym- 
nasium was begun by under-graduates. In 
October, 1875, two young men, since prom- 
inent in Evanston and Denver, Messrs. 
Frank "SI. Elliot and W. G. Evans, issued 
a circular setting forth the project of build- 
ing a gymnasium and soliciting aid from 
the friends and graduates of the institution. 
They soon perfected an organization, under 
the laws of the State, with F. M. Elliot, W. 
G. Evans, F. M. Bristol, F. M. Taylor, A. 
W. McPherson, and J. A. J. Whipple as 
commissioners. These under-graduates pro- 
ceeded to issue $4,000 worth of stock in 
shares of $10 each, whose duration was for 

ninety-nine years. It must be remembered 
that the University was then still in its 
early infancy and that the students were 
few in number and poor in purse. But their 
faith in themselves and in the future was 
sublime. Fourteen hundred dollars was 
soon raised by sales to one hundred and 
twenty-nine subscribers, nearly every one 
being an under-graduate. Work was begun 
in December, 1875, and by the ist of Febru- 
ary the building, 40.X80, resting on a brick 
foundation, was erected, enclosed, and par- 
tially equipped, at a total cost of $1,900. It 
was not found possible, at that time, to 
complete the exterior of the building by 
casing the walls with brick, according to the 
original plan. .^ bowling alley was built 
in the basement by the Sigma Chi fraternity, 
and the "gym" was very popular with the 
under-graduates until 1878, when it began 
to lose its attractions. To quote one of the 
original commissioners : The new generation 
of students did not or could not raise money 
to veneer the building in order to protect 
it and to repair the worn-out apparatus. 
It was necessary to do something before all 
should be lost or ruined. It was finally 
decided to have the University take the 
property and maintain it as a "gy-mnasium." 
Through the indefatigable efforts of Mr. 
George Lunt. of the class of '72. a major- 
ity of the stock was finally secured, and was 
transferred to the Trustees, on condition 
that they should complete the building, fur- 
nish it with necessary apparatus, assume all 
liabilities of the association, and maintain 
the building and the apparatus in good re- 
pair for gymnasium purposes only. The 
transfer was completed in the spring of 
188 1, and one of the first acts of Dr. Joseph 
Cummings, then recently elected President 
of the University, was to induce the Trus- 
tees to veneer the building. The interior 
was cased with lumber by the students and 
members of the Faculty, including the ven- 



erable President, the trustees furnishing 
only the himber and the nails. New appar- 
atus was put in, and the rejuvenated "gym" 
was opened with a public entertainment on 
February 20, 1883. 

The feelings of the under-graduates were 
expressed thus by Mr. M. M. Gridley, 
editor-in-chief of the college journal in 
1882-83 : "Once more the gymnasium is a 
topic of great interest. It is not now, as 
it was last year, a source of grumbling and 
discontent. Instead of a broken-down, 
weather-beaten old building, an eye-sore to 
the campus, it is a fine-looking brick struc- 
ture, a thing of beauty and a joy forever. 
. . . We now have one of the fin- 
est and most complete gymnasiums in the 
\\'est." (Sic.) As an assurance of better 
things in the college athletics, the Trustees 
at this time engaged a regular instructor 
in physical culture, Mr. C. A. Duplessis, 
who held the position until October, 1883, 
when he was succeeded by Mr. Philip 
Greiner. Mr. Greiner continued to act as 
physical instructor until June, 1894, when 
he was succeeded by Mr. W. L. Bryan. At 
the opening of the college year 1898, the 
gymnasium and the physical work passed 
into the hands of Dr. C. M. Hollister, who 
held the place until December, 1902. The 
present physical director (1903) is Mr. 
Horace Butterworth, who has made an en- 
viable reputation in such work at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 


During the later 'eighties and the early 
'nineties the athletes of Northwestern ob- 
tained wide fame in a test of muscle not 
ordinarily given much emphasis in college 
athletics. We refer to our memorable tug- 
of-war team, of which the instructor was 
the organizer and a prominent member. We 
find the first notice of the team in 1886. 
In 1887 they won a medal in a contest with 

a team from the Casino Gymnasium, then 
recently established in Chicago, and later 
in the same year they won "the champion- 
ship" and a silver cup by defeating a team 
from the Illinois National Guards. This 
original tug-of-war team consisted of Philip 
Greiner, H. Caddock, C. T. Watrous, W. W. 
Wilkinson, and C. Greenman. 

During 1888, when E. B. Fowler, H. R. 
Hayes, J. B. Loining, J. G. Hensel, A. H. 
Phelps, and J. T. Hottendorf had been 
added to the team, Messrs. Wilkinson and 
Greenman having dropped out, they de- 
feated a Pullman team, the Casino Gymna- 
sium team of Chicago, the Chicago Amateur 
Athletic Club team, and the Illinois National 
Guard team; and in April of that year, in 
a contest with three teams at the Casino 
Gymnasium, they proved themselves cham- 
pions and won five gold medals. During 
1889 they continued their victories over all 
local teams, winning various prizes and se- 
curing possession of the Meriden cup. It 
was this team that really began the practice 
of inter-department contests at North- 
western; for we read that, on University 
Day, in January, 1890, the tug-of-war team 
defeated teams from our Medical and 
Dental Schools, respectively. During the 
spring of 1890 they defeated several local 
teams, and won the championship of the 
West, securing permanent possession of the 
Hub cup. After several local victories early 
in 1891, the team made an Eastern trip, with 
the intention of meeting teams from the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Harvard. Columbia, and other Eastern Uni- 
versities. Only one of these proposed con- 
tests was ever held. After beating the 
Technology team in three trial contests, our 
team, in the -final contest, lost the "drop" by 
five inches, and were defeated by two and 
one-half inches. But their display of skill 
and brawn was such that the teams from 
the other great institutions of the East found 


it wise to excuse themselves from pulling, 
on the ground of illness, etc. This was not 
the last time that an Eastern team has de- 
clined to match conclusions with one from 
the West. 


We have spoken of the beginning of the 
movement against professionalism in West- 
ern college athletics. In this movement the 
representatives of Northwestern University 
have had a prominent and very creditable 
part. In 1883 the Western Baseball Asso- 
ciation, then made up of Racine, Wisconsin, 
Chicago, Northwestern, and Beloit, enacted 
further rules forbidding a student player to 
play on a professional team during the col- 
lege season or to take pay for playing any- 
where during such a season, recjuiring a 
previous residence in college of at least 
two terms, and making ineligible any man 
"whose college expenses are in any way 
borne by men connected with baseball in- 
terests." The new association of 1891 ad- 
vanced the good work by enacting that a 
candidate for a college team position must 
be carrying at least five hours of work in 
class per week, must not receive in any 
way compensation for playing on the college 
team or on any other team, must be regis- 
tered at least two months before the first 
scheduled intercollegiate game, must not 
play on a college team for more than an 
aggregate of five years, must be prepared to 
make affidavit, on demand, as to his eligi- 
bility, and must present a certificate of eligi- 
bility signed by three members of his Fac- 
ulty. In March, 1892, a local association 
was formed, in which the four branches 
of athletics now generally recognized as 
such — namely: baseball, football, track ath- 
letics, and tennis — were each represented on 
a joint committee consisting of two men 
representing each branch, two alumni, and a 
secretary, chosen by this joint committee. 

This committee was to audit the accounts 
of the four branches, to have general over- 
sight of the athletic grounds, to ratify the 
elections of all captains, and to have power 
to demand resignations and to order new 
elections in case of incompetency or mal- 
feasance in ofiice. The prime object of 
this arrangement seems to have been to 
eliminate from our athletics the sometimes 
harmful influence of fraternity preferences 
in selecting men and officers for the various 

At the beginning of the college year 
1892-93, our Faculty appointed a committee 
on athletics consisting of Professors Coe 
(chairman), Hatfield, and Gray. No for- 
mal rules were at first laid down, but the 
Annual of that year informs the students 
that they must not hereafter play with pro- 
fessional teams : that members of all our 
local teams must be students in full and 
regular standing ; that all schedules of 
games must be submitted to the committee 
for approval, and that, before joining a 
team, men will be subjected to a physical 
examination. During the year 1893-94 Pro- 
fessor Coe remained as chairman, supported 
by Professors Sheppard and Gray, and addi- 
tional restrictions were announced, forbid- 
ding a student to play on any other team 
while a member of a university team and 
requiring the selection of players to be sub- 
mitted to the committee for approval. In 
these days of comparatively pure college 
athletics, the restrictions already named 
seem mild indeed. But they were regarded 
by the under-graduates in 1892-94 as severe. 
That first faculty committee made a brave 
fight. Their greatest victory was in dem- 
onstrating to the student body that ath- 
letics was a subject legitimately within 
the control of the faculty. After undergo- 
ing a vast amount of abuse and obloquy. 
Professor Coe settled that question conclu- 



sively, and his efforts and sufferings in a 
good cause should not be forgotten. 

With the beginning of the college year of 
1894-95 the Trustees took athletics from the 
direct control of the Faculty and placed it 
in the hands of a "Committee for the Regu- 
lation of Athletic Sports," consisting of 
three professors, three alumni, and three 
under-graduates. At that time and ever 
since, the Faculty and alumni members of 
the committee have been appointed by the 
Trustees and the student members by the 
general student body. During 1894-95 the 
Faculty members were Professors Holgate 
(Chairman), Sheppard, and Gray. This 
committee continued the good work already 
begun, and dropped summarily from a 
team one of the worst offenders of the early 
days. Although hampered by a deadlock in 
tlie committee lasting nearly all the year, 
they stood for higher ideals in college sport. 

The restrictions on the various teams 
during 1894-95 seem to have been substan- 
tially those in force during the previous 
year. But the call for more stringent meas- 
ures was everywhere heard ; and so, early 
in January, 1895, a meeting of the presi- 
dents of the universities then familiarly 
known as "the big seven" was held in Chi- 
cago. The fruit of this presidents' confer- 
ence was "The Presidents' Rules," the first 
general enactment for the government of 
college athletics in the Central West. In 
brief, these rules required that a student, to 
be eligible for a team in any of the universi- 
ties concerned, must be a bona fide student, 
must have been in residence in his college 
at least six months, must receive no pay for 
his athletic services, must not play under an 
assumed name, and must not be delinquent 
in his studies. It was further provided that 
a graduate student might play during the 
minimum number of years necessary to se- 
cure a degree in his graduate school (thus 
allowing a medical student, for example, to 

play altogether seven years on a college 
team) ; that college games might be played 
only on grounds controlled by one or the 
other team participating ; that the selection 
of managers and captains must be submitted 
for approval to the governing boards ; that 
no college teams should play with profes- 
sional teams; and that the respective reg- 
istrars should certify to the proper selection 
of the various teams. These rules were pub- 
lished in our Annual of 1894-95, and were 
promptly put into effect here. 

At the beginning of the college year 1895- 
96, the Trustees formed an entirely new 
committee, of which the Faculty members 
were Professors Clark (Chairman), Young, 
and White, while Messrs. Fred Raymond, 
Frank Dyche, and Charles Wheeler were the 
alumni members. With the exception of 
Mr. Wheeler, who resigned in 1898, this 
committee remained unchanged as to Fac- 
ulty and alumni during the succeeding four 
years. It was during these years that the 
Conference Rules were gradually developed 
into substantially their present form. The 
chairmen of the boards of control in the 
"big seven" universities, who endeavored to 
enforce "The Presidents' Rules" soon found 
that they must be amended if the desired 
ends were to be attained. Consequently a 
conference of chairmen was called at Chi- 
cago early in the winter of 1896, and a 
mutual interpretation of the rules was 
agreed upon, while the term "professional" 
was more clearly defined. 

At every one of the successive confer- 
ences the lines were drawn more sharply 
and the restrictions made more severe. In 
November, 1896. we lengthened the required 
probation of a player in residence from six 
months to one year ; we reduced the possi- 
ble time-limit for a graduate-student player 
from three or four to two years ; we 
restricted all games to contests between 
"erlucational institutions" ; and where a stu- 



dent had not been in residence over half of 
the year preceding his proposed admission 
to the under-graduate team, we required 
him to be on probation still six months 
longer. In the conference of 1897 we re- 
duced the combined graduate and under- 
graduate limit to four )'ears of playing on 
a 'varsity team ; we enacted that, after 
September i, 1898, all preparatory students 
should be barred from playing on a 'varsity 
team, and we ordered that, thereafter, there 
must be an exchange of lists of proposed 
players at least ten days before any inter- 
collegiate game. In the conference of 1898 
we defined professionalism still more closely, 
adopting the now famous clause requiring 
the candidate to make affidavit that he has 
"never used his athletic skill for gain." We 
also shut out from the teams all persons who 
were receiving from any of the universi- 
ties concerned any remuneration for their 
services as teachers. A few minor changes 
in the conference rules have been made since 
1898. By the gradual enactment and honest 
enforcement of these rules the universities 
of the Central West have secured a degree 
of purity in their athletics of which they 
may well be proud. 

During the autumn of 1878 the old-fash- 
ioned Rugby game of football began to be 
played on the campus in a general way, and 
the college colors were changed to purple 
and gold. In February, 1880, the first local 
football association was formed, the Rugby 
rules were published in the college paper, 
and regular team practice was begun. 

Little seems to have been done in this 
game during 1881, but in November, 1882, 
we find that Northwestern defeated Lake 
Forest in what was later to become the most 
intense of college sports. During '83, '84. 
'85, and '86 the records hardly mention foot- 
"ball. In November, 18S7, a cliallenge for a 

Thanksgiving game with Michigan Univer- 
sity was declined on the ground that our 
team was not in training. There was a team 
during 1889, but we find no mention of any 
intercollegiate games. The first recorded 
game with an institution of similar rank was 
in November, 1890, when Northwestern de- 
feated Wisconsin by a score of 22 to 10. A 
little later we beat Beloit 22 to 6. In the 
autumn of 1891 a Football League was 
formed with Wisconsin, Beloit, and -Lake 
Forest, and five intercollegiate games were 
played, our men winning two and tying one. 
In 1892 Northwestern first took a prom- 
inent place in football, defeating Michigan 
by a score of 10 to 8, Beloit by a score of 
36 to o, Wisconsin by a score of 26 to 6, 
tying both Chicago and Illinois, and thus 
winning second place in the big Western 
League. This first great team was captained 
and trained .by Paul Noyes, and included 
VanDoozer, Oates, Culver, Sheppard, Ken- 
nicott, Wilson, Pearce, McCluskey, Oberne, 
Griffith, and Williams. The games of 1893 
and 1894 did not redound to our glory. In 
1895 the team was strengthened by such 
men as Potter, Gloss, and Siberts, and de- 
feated Beloit 34 to 6; Armour Institute 44 
to o; Chicago 22 to 6 (in the return game 
Chicago won, 6 to o) ; Purdue, 24 to 6 ; and 
Illinois 43 to 8. The year 1896 was the 
banner year in football for Northwestern, 
up to the present. The team consisted of 
the famous veteran half-backs. Potter and 
VanDoozer. aided by such helpers as 
Hunter, Pearce, Levings, Perry, Sloane, 
Andrews, Thorne, Gloss, and Brown. These 
were the famous "cripples," so happily car- 
icatured in the Chicago Record, who de- 
feated Chicago on Marshall Field by the 
score of 46 to 6 ; who tied Chicago in the 
return game, with a score of 6 to 6 ; who 
went down to Champaign with a crowd of 
three hundred roaring student supporters 
in a special train, and gave to the Illini their 

^^ 4^ 






first defeat in football on their home 
grounds to the tune of 6 to 4 ; and who, in 
that famous Thanksgiving game on our 
home grounds, before a crowd of four 
thousand people, played Wisconsin to a 
standstill. The score was 6 to 6; but the 
conditions and circumstances were such 
that unbiased observers generally counted 
it a victory for Northwestern. The team 
was managed during 1896 by Mr. Frank 
Haller, and much was done in the way of 
providing a training-table and a coach that 
had not been so thoroughly done before. 
After paying all expenses of the season, we 
were able to settle a bill of ?i,ooo which had 
been hanging over the local athletic asso- 
ciation ever since the grand stand was built 
and partially paid for in 1891-92. 

The season of 1897 was not a successful 
one, although the remarkable kick from the 
middle of our field by O'Dea of Wisconsin 
must be mentioned as one of the most sen- 
sational features in the history of Western 
football. During the season of 1898 partic- 
ular effort was made in the way of hiring a 
high-priced coach from the East and a pro- 
fessional trainer, providing a large training 
table, etc. But our unwise plan of changing 
coaches and methods every year could have 
but one result, and that was defeat. With 
the coming of Dr. C. M. Hollister, in Sep- 
tember, 1898, to act as general manager and 
coach for all branches of our college ath- 
letics except tennis, a great advance was 
made in every way. It now became possible 
to gain in momentum every year by con- 
tinuing the same style of play and by taking 
advantage of the specific training given to 
particular men on the team of a preceding 
year. Although we were far from regain- 
ing the glories of 1896, we made some im- 
provement during 1898, and in 1899 we de- 
feated Minnesota 11 to 5, Indiana 11 to 6, 
and Purdue 29 to o. In 1900 we defeated 
Chicago 5 to o, Indiana 12 to o, tied Beloit 

6 to 6, tied Iowa 6 to 6, and secured third 
place in the "big nine" group of Western 
universities. The game with Iowa, which 
was played at Rock Island on Thanksgiving 
Day, was one of the great surprises of that 
year, for the Iowa giants had defeated near- 
ly all comers so far during that season, and 
had widely advertised their intention to "do 
up" Northwestern. In 1901 our team de- 
feated Illinois 17 to II, Chicago 6 to 5, and 
Purdue 10 to 5. With the graduation of 
the class of 1902 we lost five great players : 
Johnson, the Dietz brothers, Elliott, and 
Hansen. The team of the following season 
was therefore composed largely of new, 
untrained material, and the results were 
what was to be expected under the circum- 

.An interesting social feature connected 
with football at Northwestern has been the 
football "banquets" that have been held 
for several years in the old chapel room of 
"Old College" during the week after the 
close of the season. To Dr. R. L. Sheppard, 
who has annually paid the bill for "feeding" 
the members of the team and the "scrubs" 
at these banquets, thankful recognition is 
here due. 


It was not until 1892 that the field sports 
of Northwestern could be said to have a 
home. Prior to 1891 the teams had played, 
as before stated, where the Orrington Lunt 
Library now stands, and the spectators had 
been compelled to use the turf for grand 
stand and "bleachers." In September, 1891, 
the Trustees formally set apart the present 
field for athletic purposes, and at the same 
time Mr. George Muir, Evanston's long- 
time genial bookseller, whose Davis Street 
store, where Smith's studio is now, was for 
decades the downtown headquarters for stu- 
dents, started an energetic movement to 
raise money for a grand stand. In this ef- 


fort Mr. Muir was ably assisted by Mr. paid for out of the treasury of the athletic 

Louis S. Rice, of the class of '83. These association. 

two men worked indefatigably and most tk.^ck athletics and tennis. 
unselfishly, soliciting aid from every alum- ^^^ j^^^,^ ^j^^^^^^ ^p^j^^,^ ^^ ^1^^ ^^^,j 
nus whom they could reach, and witlrin a ^^^^^^ connected wi'th the great celebration 
few months they succeeded m raismg about ^^^^ .^ ^,^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^,^^ ^j,^ ^^ j^^j^._ 
$1,500 from citizens, alumm, and under- ^g^^ 5^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,^^,^ ^;^ 
graduates. Strong in faith in the loyalty of -^^^^^^^^-^.^ bv way of comparison with more 
future students, these two gentlemen went ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^,^ j^^^^ j,^^^ ^_ ^ ^y^^_ 
ahead with the building, and completed the ^.^^^^^ j^^^^^^j ^,^^ ^^^^^^U ^^^ ^^^^ ^ 
present structure at a cost of about $2,500. .^^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^^^^, ^,^g ^^^^^j^^jj ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
The grand stand was opened with appro- j^^,^^^. ^j^^^ p^^^j. ^^^rews won the hurdle 
priate ceremonies on the 15th of October, ^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^j^ ^^^^ j^^,^ hurdles) in 18 
1892. Meantime the Trustees had done ^.^^^j, . ^„,i ^^^^ c.eorge Lunt won the 
some work in grading and partially draining ^^j^ ^.^^^jj_ ^^^^^-^^^ ^^ ^^^^ „ -^^^^^^^ ^1^^ 
the baseball field. But we were still without ^^^^ ^^^^^^^j University field day was held in 
an enclosing fence, so that there were no jg^^_ ^^^^ ^,^5^ observance has been a part 
certain means of collecting revenue by ^^ ^j^^ ^^jj^^^ ^^,^1^^;^ U^^ p^^^^^, regularly 
charging an admission to the games. But ^^,^^ ^j,^^^ ^,^_. ,^^^^^ noteworthy records 
in the autumn of 1893 Dr. Sheppard-al- ^^.^^ ,^^^^j^ ^,^ ^,^^ 1^^,^^^ j^^lj by North- 
ways the most generous local supporter of ^^^^^^.^ students are as follows: 

our athletics, and the man for wdiom the 100 yard dash. 10 seconds a. r. Jones, 'yo 

students later unanimously and very prop- 200 yard dash. 221-5 seconds a. r. Jones, '99 

erly named the present gn^unds "Sheppard Z Z"^ IZ f:Z:^2:..^.s:::ll:IZ^: Z 

Field" came forward with an offer to fur- 1 mile run, 4 minutes 35 seconds H. Baker, '01 

■111/- /• IT re 2 mile run, 10 minutes 214-5 seconds.. F. E. Morris, '04 

nish lumber for a fence. His offer was 220 yard hurdles, 26 2-5 seconds j. a. Brown 

promptly accepted, a boss carpenter was 120 yard hurdles. 16 2-5 seconds j. a. Brown 

hired, also through Dr. Sheppard's gener- ^-^L^IZ^, y'^^et'sln^"::;:::'!^^ ^ 

osity, and scores of under-graduates turned Pole vault, 10 feet 6 inches R. e. wiison. 'os 

out'with saw and hammer, with the resuU "="""" 'iT'/n*'-*",' ^ '""" wV^"'" p'"h 

' Shot-put. 39 feet 9 mches \rthur Baird 

that the present enclosure \vas soon com- Discus Throw, 121 feet 3 inches Arthur Baird 

pleted. The first three of the present seven Col- 

During the summer of 1896 the present lege and Academy tennis courts were laid 

quarter-mile cinder track was made entirely out and partially completed in the spring of 

by student and Faculty enterprise, and was 1895. In the following autumn, under a 

paid for largely from the football receipts new administration, these were completed 

of the previous year. In the autumn of and paid for and a fourth was built, thus 

1896 the first of the now existing "bleach- completing the courts of the University 

ers" were built, the work being entirely done proper. The Academy courts were built in 

by students and professors under the direc- 1900. Our local courts have been the scene 

tion of the Chairman of the Committee for of many a well-fought battle between our 

the Regulation of Athletic Sports. The own students and between the many profes- 

northern half of the west "bleachers" and all sors and instructors who seek health in 

the east "bleachers" were built in the fall tennis, and they have witnessed several in- 

of 1898, and the work and material were tercollegiate contests. 




Historical Sketch — Orij^in of the Institute 
Due to the Munificence of Mrs. Augustus 
Garrett — Building Erected in 1855 and 
Institute Opened in iS§6 — Additional 
Buildings Erected in i86f and 1887 — 
The Republican "IVigivam" of i860 Be- 
comes the Property of the Institute— Re- 
verse Caused by Eire of j8ji — Disaster 
Averted in iSgj — Groivth of the Insti- 
tute — Personal History — Large Number 
of the Alumni in Missionary and Other 
Fields — Members of the Eacnlty and 
Board of Trustees. 

In the winter of 1839 Mr. Augustus Gar- 
rett and his wife, Eliza Garrett, joined the 
Clark Street Methodist Episcopal Church 
of Chicago, of which the Rev. Peter R. 
Borein was then pastor. Mr. Borein was a 
man of unusual eloquence and piety, but of 
imperfect education. He often attributed 
this fact to the lack of a school in which 
men like himself might obtain a proper 
preparation for the ministry, and frequently 
said this in conversations with Mrs. Gar- 

In 1848 Mrs. Garrett was left a widow 
and in possession of what subsequently de- 
veloped into a large property. In the year 
1852 she authorized her legal adviser. 
Grant Goodrich, to ascertain the views of 
persons whom he might deem worthy of 

special regard and consultation as to the 
field of greatest promise for her beneficence, 
and in October, 1853, her last will and testa- 
ment was formally executed, in which she 
set apart the residue of her estate for the 
founding of Garrett Biblical Institute. 

During the autumn in which her will 
was executed the Rev. Dr. John Dempster 
visited the West with the intention of 
planting an institution for the training of 
Methodist ministers. On passing through 
Chicago he learned of Mrs. Garrett's pur- 
pose, and, after an interview with her, a 
meeting of the Church in Chicago was 
called to determine what course should be 
pursued. Rev. John Clark presided. A 
committee consisting of John Clark, Philo 
Judson, Orrington Lunt, John Adams and 
Grant Goodrich, was empowered to adopt 
such measures as it was believed would re- 
sult in the speedy erection of a building in 
which to open a school and to provide the 
means to sustain it until Mrs. Garrett's 
bequest should become available. They 
took upon themselves the responsibility of 
providing a building at Evanston and of fur- 
nishing an annual revenue of $1,600. Dr. 
Dempster undertook to provide whatever 
amount above that sum might be necessary 
to support the faculty. A building capable 
of accommodating forty students was com- 
pleted in 1855, and the first term was opened 



in charge of Rev. John Dempster, D.D. ; 
Rev. William Goodfellow, A.M., and Rev. 
William P. Wright. A. M. The institution 
was opened with interesting services, in 
which Mrs. Garrett participated. The first 
term began with four students and closed 
with sixteen. The second began with twelve 
and closed with nineteen. The greatest num- 
ber in attendance at any one time was 
twenty-eight. Annual conferences passed 
encouraging resolutions and individuals and 
churches contributed to support the school. 
Mrs. Garrett was so anxious to disencumber 
her estate and make it available for her 
benevolent designs that for several years 
she would accept only $400 a year for her 
support, nearly half of which she devoted 
to pious purposes. This estimable and ex- 
cellent woman died on the 23d of Novem- 
ber, 1855, the last act of her life being to 
confirm to the now chartered institute the 
munificent bequest that she had made for its 

An excellent portrait of Mrs. Garrett 
now hangs in the President's oflice in Me- 
morial Hall. It is the picture of a sweet- 
faced, intelligent woman, and corresponds 
with all that has been said and written of 
her goodness and piety. Her death was 
sudden and unexpected, but she died m 
great peace — indeed, in great triumph. She 
was greatly beloved and greatly lamented. 

The temporary organization was brought 
to a close in the spring of 1856, and in May 
of the same year the Trustees, under the 
charter of 1855, appealed to the General 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church for recognition. This recognition 
was granted and the Bishops were request- 
ed to act as an advisory committee to coun- 
sel with the Trustees. A permanent organi- 
zation was effected and the Institute opened 
on the 22d of September, 1856, about three 
years from the time that Mrs. Garrett de- 
termined upon its founding. 

When the Institute was first opened at 
Evanston there was not, in the whole dis- 
tance between Chicago and Waukegan, a 
single Protestant church. There was great 
need of evangelical effort in the villages 
that were springing up along the lake shore. 
The students of the Institute established 
and maintained regular appointments at 
which they preached, exhorted, taught Sun- 
day schools, distributed tracts, and in con- 
nection with which they visited the people 
to converse with them concerning their reli- 
gious welfare. Great interest was taken by 
the faculty in this evangelical activity. At 
the same time earnest efforts were made to 
connect with the Institute a department for 
missionary training. In an early catalogue 
the leading design of the Institute was 
stated in these words: "It is to make think- 
ing, speaking, acting men." The founders 
of the Institute had a vivid forecast of 
the future of Chicago, and believed that a 
special Providence had directed its loca- 
tion ; but they were compelled to face much 
prejudice and often deplored the lack of 
earnest co-operation, both of laymen and 

The first building was a wooden structure 
accommodating forty students. In a few 
years a new building became necessary, and 
in 1867, through the efficient agency of 
Rev. J. S. Smart and the Women's Centen- 
nial Association, a building, now known as 
Heck Hall, was erected at a cost of $57,000. 
This served for lecture rooms, library and 
chapel, as well as a dormitory for stu- 
dents until 1887, when the present Me- 
morial Hall was finished during the presi- 
dency of Rev. Dr. Henry B. Ridgaway. 
The older building, which has recently been 
completely renovated, is now devoted sole- 
ly to the use of students. 

The portion of Mrs. Garrett's estate 
which came into the hands of the Trustees 
consisted chiefly of the ground where in 



i860 the "Wigwam" was erected in which 
Abraham Lincoln was nominated for Pres- 
ident of the United States. In 1870 a block 
of brick stores was built upon this ground, 
but all these buildings were destroyed in 
the fire of 187 1, and the estate was left 
with a debt of $92,000. The generous lib- 
erality of the church contributed a sum of 
$62,500 for the relief of the Institute in this 
critical time, and in 1872 a larger block of 
buildings was erected upon the same site. 
The debt incurred in this enterprise was re- 
moved by the active efforts of the Rev. W. 
C. Dandy, D.D., who was appointed finan- 
cial agent. Among the numerous gifts ob- 
tained by him was one of $30,000 from 
Mrs. Cornelia Miller for the endowment of 
the Chair of Practical Theology. Under the 
wise management of the Trustees the prop- 
erty of the Institute gradually increased in 
value, but in 1897 another crisis occurred, 
the results of which were averted by the 
careful management of the present treasur- 
er of the Institute, the Rev. Dr. R. D. Shep- 
pard. The magnificent building now occu- 
pied by Reid, Murdock & Co. was erected 
under Dr. Sheppard's supervision after a 
lease had been negotiated which promises to 
afford a large revenue for immediate needs. 
The debt created in this connection the 
Trustees hope to extinguish by the sinking 
fund which they have started. 

The Institute has deviated but little from 
its original ideal. It has met, from time to 
time, the demands of the period ; thus, in 
the summer of 1892, it enlarged its facili- 
ties for the study of the English Bible, a 
systematic scheme for English Bible study 
being substituted in the diploma course for 
the study of Hebrew. In 1895 •* took steps 
for instruction in Sociology. The Library 
has grown rapidly under the careful man- 
agement of the Rev. Dr. Terry, and in- 
cludes the splendid collection of Methodist 
books and original documents — the finest in 

the world — purchased for the Institute by 
Mr. William Deering. The records of the 
Seminary show that, since 1854, nearly 
3,500 persons have enjoyed the privileges of 
the school. Of this number 700 have com- 
pleted a three years' course, and of these 
365 have received the degree of Bachelor of 
Divinity. The large majority of these grad- 
uates are pastors, many of whom are now 
filling conspicuous pulpits with ability. 
Among those now living may be mentioned : 
James S. Chadwick and George E. Stro- 
bridge, of the New York East Conference ; 
Charles B. Wilcox, of Kansas City : Polemus 
H. Swift, W. E. Tilroe, John N.Hall, John 

D. Leek and John P. Brushingham, of Chi- 
cago ; Edward S, Ninde, of Ann Arbor ; 
Edwin A. Schell, of Greencastle, Ind. ; 
Hugh D; Atchison, of Dubuque, Iowa ; A. 

E. Craig, of Ottumwa, Iowa : E. G. Lewis, of 
Grand Rapids, Mich. ; William A. Shanklin, 
of Reading, Pa. ; James S. Montgomery, of 
Minneapolis ; E. B. Patterson, of Balti- 
more ; James H. Senseny, Des Moines, 

Forty of the Alumni have gone to the 
foreign field as missionaries. Among these 
are two Missionary Bishops, Joseph C. 
Hartzell and F. W. Warne ; in China are 
Virgil C. Hart, William T. Hobart, Myron 
C. Wilcox, H. Olin Cady, Spencer Lewis, 

F. L. Guthrie, W. H. Lacey, W. C. Lang- 
don and Quincy A. Meyers ; in India are J. 
H. Gill, D. O. Fox, James S. Messmore, 
J. W. Waugh, J. C. Lawson, William H. 
Hollister, Harvey R. Calkins, D. C. Clancy 
and John W. Robinson ; in Burmah, Julius 
Smith ; in Southeast Africa, John M. 
Springer ; in Singapore, John R. Denyes 
and Ernest S. Lyons ; in Mexico, Ira C. 
Cartwright ; in South America, M. J. Pusey 
and H. B. Shinn. Homer C. Stuntz, for- 
merly of India, is now in the Philippine 

Thirty-three are serving as Presidents 

1 66 


and professors in scliools and colleges. 
Among these are : Nathan Burwash, Presi- 
dent of Victoria College, Canada; William 
H. Crawford, President of Allegheny Col- 
lege, Pa. ; Eli McClish, President of Pacific 
College, Cal. ; Nels E. Simonson, Principal 
of the Norwegian-Danish School, Evans- 
ton ; J. Riley Weaver, Professor in DePauw 
University ; Robert D. Sheppard and Amos 
W. Patten, Professors in Northwestern 
L'niversity ; Charles Horswell, Solon C. 
Bronson and Charles M. Stuart, Professors 
in Garrett Biblical Institute ; Melvin P. 
Lackland. Professor in Illinois Wesleyan 
University ; Orange H. Cessna, Professor 
in Iowa State Agricultural College ; Thomas 
Nicholson, President Dakota Wesleyan 
University, South Dakota. 

Among the earliest graduates in the class 
of 1861 was Bishop Charles H. Fowler. 
In the same class was Oliver A. Willard, 
the brilliant brother of the lamented Frances 
E. Willard. 

The Norwegian-Danish Department was 
organized in 1886 under the principalship 
of Rev. Nels E. Simonson, D.D., an alum- 
nus of the English Department. During 
the thirteen years of its operation, it has 
had in attendance more than one hundred 

The Presidents of the faculty have been : 
John Dempster, Matthew Simpson, William 
X. Ninde, Henry B. Ridgawav and Charles 
J. Little. 

The members of the faculty have been : 
John Dempster, William Goodfellow, Wil- 
liam O. Wright, Daniel P. Kidder, Henry 
Bannister, Francis D. Hemenway, Miner 
Raymond, Robert L. Cumnock, William 
X. Ninde, Henry B. Ridgaway, Charles F. 
Bradley, Milton S. Terry, Charles W. Ben- 
nett, Charles Horswell, Charles J. Little, 
Solon C. Bronson, Charles M. Stuart, Dore- 
nnis A. Hayes. 

The Trustees have been : Grant Good- 

rich, Orrington Lunt, John Evans, Philo 
Judson, Stephen P. Keyes, Luke Hitchcock, 
Hooper Crews, Thomas M. Eddy, John \ . 
Farwell, E. H. Gammon, Charles H. Fowl- 
er, A. E. Bishop, S. H. Adams, William 
Deering. Robert D. Sheppard, Oliver H. 
Horton, William C. Dandy. Frank M. Bris- 
tol, Frank P. Crandon, Amos W. Patton. 
Polemus H. Swift. 

John Dempster, the first President, be- 
longed to that vigorous Scotch-Irish stock 
which has been so potent in American his- 
tory. His natural powers were very great, 
and though himself without a theological 
training, he may be said to be the founder 
of the theological schools in American 
Methodism. He exercised great influence, 
not only among his brethren, but in the gen- 
eral community, and was one of the com- 
mittee that waited upon Mr. Lincoln in the 
crisis of the war to strengthen his hands 
and to assure him of the unfailing support 
of his fellow-citizens of Illinois. 

Matthew Simpson, the eloquent Bishop, 
was the greatest preacher that recent Meth- 
odism has produced. His influence during 
the war surpassed that of any clergyman in 
the land, partly because of his great en- 
dowments and excellent character, and 
partly because he represented a church that 
"sent more men to the field and more pray- 
ers to heaven" than any other in the land. 

Bishop Ninde, who succeeded him as 
President, drew all hearts to himself. His 
personal appearance was singularly at- 
tractive : his behavior was brotherly and his 
spirit so Christ-like that students revered 
him and the community trusted him im- 

Dr. Ridgaway came to Evanston from 
Cincinnati. He brought with him a great 
reputation as an eloquent preacher and a 
successful pastor. During his administra- 
tion Memorial Hall was built. He, too, was 
greatly beloved. 




Of the many distinguished members of 
the faculty the most conspicuous was Dr. 
Miner Raymond. No man in Methodism 
possessed a clearer mind. His words were 
weighty and his sentences, many of them, 
have become household words to his pu- 
pils. He lived to be more than four score 
years of age and continued his teaching un- 
til his eighty-second year. 

Among the Trustees Orrington Lunt 

was, by reason of his personality and his 
many years of service, the most conspicu- 
ous and the most useful. He gave to the 
Institute unstinted service. He watched 
over its interests as he watched over his 
own, and prayed for it as he prayed for 
his family. Few institutions have enjoyed 
such devotion as Orrington Lunt gave to 
Garrett Biblical Institute, and his name will 
be connected with it so long as it shall last. 



First Steps in Organisation of a Drainage 
System for Evanston — Natural Condi- 
tions — Early Legislation of i8j5 — The 
Late Harvey B. Hiird, Member and Sec- 
retary of First Board of Commissioners — 
Construction of Ditches Begun — Drain- 
age Amendment of the Present Consti- 
tution Adopted in 1878 — Extension of 
the System — Local Opposition — A Tax 
Collector's Experience — A Flood Con- 
verts the Opponents of the System. 

The drainage of Evanston forms an im- 
portant and interesting chapter in its his- 
tory. There is plenty of evidence showing 
that all the territory now included in the 
towns of Evanston, Niles, Jefferson, Lake 
View and the southeastern portion of New 
Trier, were at some time covered by the 
waters of Lake Michigan. There are, in 
this territory, three distinct ridges made by 
the lake which mark several distinct reces- 
sions of its waters. The west one, some- 
times called "Dutch Ridge," commences at 
Winnetka, at the south end of the clay bluff 
stretching along the west shore, and runs 
thence southwesterly, spreading and flat- 
tening out in fan-shape towards the north 
branch of the Chicago River and terminat- 
ing at that stream near Niles Center. East 
of this, from a mile in width at the north 
end. to two or three miles at the south end, 
is Evanston's "West Ridge," which com- 

mences where Ridge Avenue strikes the 
lake and runs almost directly south to Rose- 
hill, where it turns sharply to the west, 
forming a J and flattening out considerably 
at Bowmanville, and also terminating at the 
north branch near that place, leaving be- 
tween these two ridges a valley partly 
wooded and partly prairie. The east one of 
the three ridges commences at the lake 
shore in the University campus and runs 
southerly through Evanston, and bending 
slightly to the eastward through Lake View, 
ends at Lincoln Park. 

Natural Conditions. — These several 
ridges, to a certain extent, cut off the drain- 
age of the land between them, and this land 
was subject to occasional overflow, and 
was to some extent swampy during the en- 
tire year. Portions of it were impassable 
during most of the year. At quite an early 
day a small ditch was constructed midway 
between the east and west ridges, emptying 
into the lake through a ravine between the 
College campus and the site of the first 
Biblical Institute building erected in 1854, 
but afterward destroyed by fire. This ditch 
was called the Mulford Ditch, from the fact 
that Major E. H. Mulford was principally 
instrumental in its construction; Edward 
Murphy was associated with him in the 
making of it. 

At the time of the location of Evanston 
this ditch had pretty much gone to decay 


ant! the land between the two ridges was 
so swampy it was difficult to pass from one 
ridge to the other except in one or two 
places. Something in the way of drainage 
was accomplished by the throwing up of 
the streets when Evanston was laid out in 

First Drainage Commission. — B\' an 
act approved February 15, 1855, "The 
Drainage Commission" was created for the 
purpose of draining the wet lands in Town- 
ships 41 and 42, in Range 13 and 14, and 
Sections i, 2. 11 and 12, in Township 40 of 
Range 13. This Commission was given 
power "to lay out, locate, construct, com- 
plete and alter ditches, embankments, cul- 
verts, bridges and roads, and maintain and 
keep the same in repair." The Commission- 
ers named in the act were Harvey B. Hurd, 
George ^I. Huntoon, James B. Colvin, John 
L. Beveridge and John H. Foster. As Dr. 
Foster resided in Chicago and did not wish 
to engage in the undertaking, A. G. Wilder 
was put in his place. Mr. Hurd was Secre- 
tary of the Commission, and to a consider- 
able extent managed its operations. 

At that time the only road on the prairie 
west of Evanston was one running north 
and south along the east edge of the Big 
Woods, leading from what was known as 
"Emerson's barn" to Chicago by way of 
Bowmanville. This road was passable only 
during a portion of the year — late in the 
summer and when the ground was frozen 

Construction of Ditches Begun. — The 
first ditch constructed by the Commission 
was along the west side of this road : 
the excavation being thrown up in such a 
manner as to make a fairly passable road 
from "Emerson's barn" neighborhood to 

The next work of the Commission was 
the construction of what is known as the 
"Big Ditch," about half way between the 

Big Woods and West Ridge. It was so 
shaped that the north end of it from the 
north side of Center Street, on the town 
line between Evanston and New Trier, 
emptied into the lake, and from the south 
side of Center Street the water was carried 
south, emptying into the North Branch at a 
point about three-fourths of a nulc north- 
west of Bowmanville. 

Later several ditches were laid out and 
constructed across the prairie ; these were so 
laid out and constructed as to create roads. 
One of them is the Rogers Road, com- 
mencing just west of what was then the 
home of Philip Rogers, after whom Rogers 
Park was named, running thence west to 
Niles Center. Another is the Mulford 
Road; another extended on Church Street 
west to the Big Woods, and another was 
the Emerson Road, now Emerson Street. 

These roads have all become prominent 
thoroughfares ; the last three have been ex- 
tended west to Dutch Ridge, and Church 
Street has been extended to the Glenn View 
Golf Club grounds. The Commission en- 
larged the Mulford Ditch so that it fur- 
nished pretty fair drainage for the territory 
lying between the east and west ridges in 
the Village of Evanston until the sewerage 
system was put in. Later a ditch was con- 
structed across the east ridge from a point 
just west of Tillman Mann's house, at the 
distance of about three blocks south of Rog- 
ers Park depot to the lake. 

A. G. Wilder having died, Michael Gorm- 
ley of Glencoe was put on the Commission 
in his place, and the Commission undertook 
to drain the Skokie, lying west of Winnet- 
ka, Glencoe and Highland Park. It first 
constructed a ditch emptying into the east 
fork of the North Branch, but it was found 
that in tlood times the water set back in 
the North Branch and up this ditch, flood- 
ing the Skokie. Another outlet was there- 
fore made through the Dutch Ridge, at a 


point about half way between Winnetka 
and the Gross Point settlement, carrying 
the water into the lake through what is now 
Kenilworth. The Skokie being about forty 
feet above the lake level, ample fall was 
found, and this last ditch redeemed a large 
amount of valuable lands at the south end 
of the Skokie, now covered by some of the 
best farms in that neighborhood. 

The subsequent efforts of the Commis- 
sion to enlarge the Skokie ditch and extend 
it further north, were opposed by some of 
the land-owners who were assessed for the 
expense of their improvement, and two 
cases were carried to the Supreme Court to 
test the constitutionality of the law. In the 
case of Hessler vs. The Drainage Commis- 
sioners (reported in 53 111. Reports, page 
105), the court held the law to be unconsti- 
tutional. This decision was rendered in 
January, 1870, and put an end to the opera- 
tions of "The Drainage Commissioners." 
This was one of several decisions of like 
import, for there were several other com- 
missions in different parts of the State, 
acting under similar laws, where assess- 
ments for benefits had been held unconstitu- 
tional, but so much interest had been cre- 
ated in favor of drainage that a clause was 
put into the Constitution of 1870, designed 
to permit the General Assembly to pass 
laws for that purpose. This clause was 
amended by vote of the people in November, 
1878, adopting an amendment of the Consti- 
tution, which is now the authority for the 
drainage laws found in the statutes general- 
ly known as the Farm Drainage Acts. 

Extension of the System. — The 
north portion of the big ditch was later, 
under one of these acts, very considerably 
enlarged and extended south so as to draw 
the water lakeward from Church Street, 
but all those parts of the Big Ditch and 
Mulford Ditch within the corporate limits 
of Evanston have been supplanted by sew- 

ers constructed by the City of Evanston. 
The Rogers Park Ditch has been supplant- 
ed by a main sewer on Pratt Avenue, which 
carried all the drainage of Rogers Park 
west of the East Ridge into the lake. All 
the roads which were constructed by the 
Commission are not only maintained, but 
have been extended and improved and are 
now principal highways. The law under 
which they were constructed having been 
declared void, the owner of the land upon 
which they were laid out might have fenced 
them up, but they were of such evident util- 
ity and propriety that no one has shown any 
disposition to do so, and having now been in 
use over twenty years, they have become 
legal highways. 

Local Opposition. — The opposition of 
the owners of the lands proposed to be bene- 
fitted was not confined to the validity of the 
law. When the first ditch was being laid 
out along the west side of the Big Woods 
Road, the Big Woods people came out with 
pitch-forks and clubs to drive off the en- 
gineer and his assistants, but fortunately the 
engineer was a good-natured man, but very 
firm, and did not allow himself to be driven 

Later, when the Rogers Road ditch was 
projected, a very vigorous protest was 
made, the people insisting that they did not 
need any more drainage: that they would 
rather have their land as it was without fur- 
ther drainage, and I am of the opinion that 
had I not put on my pleasantest manner with 
them, I should have received rough treat- 
ment on one of my visits to the neighbor- 
hood in the collection of assessments. I had 
the satisfaction, however, later in the season, 
of turning the tables on them. It occurred 
in this way : Our ditchers, for the purpose 
of protecting their work from being flooded, 
threw up their excavation in such a way as 
to create a dam on each side of the ditch. 
In the midst of haying time, when a large 



quantity of hay was down, and considerable 
of it was in cocks, and when the ditch was 
about two-thirds across the prairie, there 
came a heavy rain which flooded the prairie. 
To save their hay, the people ralhed in 
force, drove ofT the ditchers, cut the dams 
and let the water off, and thus saved much 
of their hay which would otherwise have 
been all spoiled. We had the ring-leaders 
arrested, brought over to Evanston and 
fined. Though they were not quite happy 
in the payment of their fines, they were 
much more reconciled to the payment of 

their assessments, acknowledging that af- 
ter all the drainage was a pretty good 

All the work done by "The Drainage 
Commission" was by special assessment. 
Unfortunately, the Chicago fire in 1871 
destroyed all our assessment rolls, or I 
should take pleasure in showing you how 
much more economically work was done by 
commissioners interested in the land as 
owners than is now done by municipal 
authorities who have no interest in com- 
mon with those who have to foot the bills. 




Area and Topography of the City of Evan- 
ston — The Drainage Problem — A Period 
of Evolution — Municipal Development — 
Electric Light System Installed — Street 
Improvements — Parks and Boulevards — 
The Transportation Problem — Steam and 
Interurban Railway Connections — Heat- 
ing System — Telephone Service — Evan- 
ston as a Residence City. 

The total area of the city of Evanston is 
about 4,000 acres. The lots generally have 
a frontage of fifty feet. As they average 
about five lots to the acre, this would make 
a total of 20,000 lots within the city limits. 
Estimating a population of five persons to 
each lot, would give the city a total popula- 
tion of about 100,000 when the territory is 
fully built up. The present population is 
about 20,000. It consists largely of resi- 
dents who do business in the City of Chi- 
cago, while there is a large local population, 
residing permanently in the city, of whom 
a large proportion are in the employment 
of the other class. 

Topographically the territory consists of 
an area intersected by two ridges running 
north and south, one known as the East, and 
the other as the West Ridge. The East, or 
Chicago Avenue Ridge, has an elevation of 
twenty to twenty-five feet above Lake 
Michigan, while Ridge Avenue (West 

Ridge) rises about forty-five feet above the 
lake level. 

There is a large area to the west of Ridge 
Avenue which was at one time very low 
and swampy in its character. The opening 
of sewers through these two ridges to the 
lake has drained this area, and, although 
relatively low, it is actually about twenty 
feet above Lake Michigan, which is, on an 
average, about a mile and a half distant. 
The difiference in elevation, therefore, af- 
fords a very good fall when the sewers are 
cut through. 

Drainage. — The drainage of this area 
west of Ridge Avenue was a serious prob- 
lem for early Evanston. The first drainage 
district ever organized in the State of Illi- 
nois was created for the purpose of accom- 
plishing this purpose. In 1855, the Legis- 
lature, by special act, created a drainage 
corporation, consisting of the late Harvey 
B. Hurd and four other members, for the 
purpose of draining this territory. 

Early in the 'sixties, this act was declared* 
unconstitutional, and, in the meanwhile, the 
ditch leading from the prairie west of Evan- 
ston had been cut through to the lake at a 
point just north of the city limits, and also 
a connection had been made about the north 
line of Kenilworth, through the Gross 
Point Ridge to the Skokie. There two 
ditches carried away great volumes of sur- 


face water that flooded these areas at certain 
seasons of the year. 

The first sewer in Evanston which tapped 
this west prairie country was the Emerson 
Street sewer, which was made of large 
capacity and was intended to drain this 
area included within the limits of the city 
of Evanston ; as has already been stated, it 
has rendered the territory entirely habitable. 
There is a large area south of the portion 
included in the City of Evanston, part of 
which is in the Town of Evanston (now 
Ridgeville) and part within the Town of 
Niles, which as yet has no drainage, and 
must ultimately look for its drainage to a 
connection with the North Branch of the 
Chicago River, either through an open 
channel into which the Evanston drainage 
will be diverted, or by sewers constructed 
in the City of Chicago and connected with 
the Drainage Canal. A line of brickyards 
is gradually working its way along the east 
edge of this low ground, and, in time, will 
work out an open channel which will 
amount to an extension of the North 

A Period of Evolution. — It is exceed- 
ingly interesting to trace the evolution of 
an open farm country into the complex de- 
velopment of a city. It is difficult for the 
early residents of such a district to contem- 
plate the possibilities of paved streets, 
sewers, water mains, gas and electric supply. 
and to work with reference to the ultimate 
establishment of these improvements. Hence, 
such development goes on in a very tardy 
and expensive manner, the work being per- 
formed largely on experimental lines and 
with reference to the demands of the im- 
mediate present, and not with any compre- 
hensive grasp of the needs of the future. 

In the south end of the present City of 
Evanston, which constituted the village of 
South Evanston, the first attempt at drain- 
age was by means of wooden box-drains 

from the railroad leading down to the lake. 
One of these was constructed in Keeney 
Avenue, and a similar construction was 
placed on Main Street, but cut through 
Chicago Avenue Ridge, so as to drain the 
low-lying territory through the two ridges. 
It speaks well for the foresight of the men 
who performed this work, that, when they 
cut through Chicago Avenue Ridge, ex- 
cavated to a depth sufficient to drain this 
outlying territory and constructed the drain 
of brick, when later it was found neces- 
sary to change it into a sewer, it was only 
necessary to reconstruct the portion be- 
tween the ridges up to Chicago Avenue 
Ridge and then to excavate across Ridge 
Avenue to the city limits on the west. 

Municipal Consolidation. — The present 
city of Evanston is made up of what was 
originally three municipal corporations: 
Evanston proper. South Evanston and 
North Evanston. The boundary of Evan- 
ston proper, or Evanston center, was orig- 
inally on the south by Hamilton and Crain 
Streets, and on the north by Foster Street. 

The first attempt at merging was in 1873. 
The Village of Evanston as it then existed 
was desirous of securing a water supply, 
but did not have the means to do so, and 
under the constitutional limitations as to in- 
debtedness could not issue bonds in suffi- 
cient amount to accomplish this purpose. In 
order to increase its bonding capacity the 
plan was devised of uniting the Village of 
Evanston and North Evanston. The Village 
of South Evanston remained a distinct cor- 
poration until 1892, when, after some pre- 
vious attempts, which proved unsuccessful, 
the question of annexation to the Village of 
Evanston was taken up and, after a hotly 
contested campaign, was carried through. 

The Village of South Evanston owes its 
existence to the fact that no land was 
owned within its limits by the Northwest- 
ern University. In the earlv davs this Uni- 





versity owned a large portion of the proper- 
ty included the original City of Evans- 
ton, and as this property was largely unim- 
proved and not subject to taxation, this ex- 
emption threw a very serious burden upon 
the portion of the village not owned by the 
University. To escape this taxation was 
;he incentive for the organization of the 
new \'illage of South Evanston. 

The f ramers of our present Constitution 
in their wisdom, saw fit to so hedge about 
the municipality that no margin for ex- 
travagant expenditure should be allowed, 
and by inserting the provision in the Consti- 
tution that no municipal corporation should 
become indebted, including present indebt- 
edness, in excess of five per cent of its 
property, so hampered an increase of in- 
debtedness that it is utterly impossible for 
any small municipality to have metropolitan 
facilities : so that, just as soon as these 
facilities are desired, it becomes necessary 
to consolidate in order to enlarge the bond- 
ing and taxing area. 

The same principle that applies in busi- 
ness, and influencing the merging of several 
disconnected establishments in the same line 
of business into one, thereby securing great- 
er economy in their management and opera- 
tion, applies, up to a certain limit, with even 
greater force to municipalities. 

The desperate struggles of some of these 
corporations to assume metropolitan airs, 
without the means, are very amusing. For 
instance, the \'illage of South Evanston de- 
sired a water supply, and, in order to secure 
it, first bored an artesian well about 2.600 
feet deep, which spurted up like an oil gush- 
er sixty feet above the surface ; but the 
water was so hard that it could not be cut 
with an axe, and left a residuum of its or- 
ganic elements upon the foliage that hap- 
pened to be sprinkled with it. 

The residents then began to clamor for 
lake water ; but, in order to get a pure sup- 

ply, it was necessary to go out some dis- 
tance from the shore and construct a pump- 
ing station. A block of ground betw-een 
Main Street and Kedzie Avenue was found 
which the lake was gradually eating up. It 
had been taken by foreclosure by Eastern 
parties, and they were in danger of losing 
their holdings by the erosion of the water. 
It was found, therefore, that the whole 
block could be purchased for about $1,600. 
A frontage of about 800 feet on Lake Mich- 
igan was thus secured at this nominal figure. 
The question then arose how to get the 
money to protect this land from the en- 
croachments of the lake, grade it and se- 
cure a water supply. The first problem was 
solved by levying a special assessment on 
every lot between the Ridge and the lake — 
on those lots between the railroad and the 
lake $5.00 each, and on those between the 
Xorthwestern Railroad and Ridge Ave- 
nue $3.00 each. By this means $7,000 was 
raised, which was spent upon breakwaters, 
grading and setting out trees, and the pres- 
ent little park is the result of that invest- 
ment. The extent of the ground has already 
been nearlv doubled by accretion, and is 
capable of much greater enlargement at a 
trifling expenditure. About $20,000 was 
added to the bonded indebtedness and a 
pumping station and water-tower were 

Electric Lighting. — The town then 
having started on the highway of progress, 
it was thought that it would be a good thing 
if an electric lighting system could be in- 
stalled ; bids were called for and it was as- 
certained that such a system could be estab- 
lished with a capacity for lighting the town 
at about $7,000. But the town was already 
bonded up to its full constitutional limit, 
and the improvement being a public one, it 
did not seem possible that any more money 
could be raised by special assessment. This 
device was then resorted to : a contract was 



made with an electric light company where- 
by it constructed a plant in the village and 
leased it to the municipality at a rental to 
be paid quarterly, with an agreement that, 
when a certain amount of rent was paid, the 
title to the plant should vest in the village. 
This plan was borrowed from the method 
pursued by impecunious females in pur- 
chasing sewing machines, pianos and furni- 
ture. To the credit of the people of the 
village and the lawyers residing in it, no 
effort was made to test the doubtful legali- 
ty of this proceeding, and South Evanston 
soon had the satisfaction of being the only 
municipality electrically lighted between 
Waukegan and Chicago. The same boilers, 
the same engineers and fireman that oper- 
ated the water plant also operated the light- 
ing 'plant, and the success of the experi- 
ment is a very instructive lesson in the 
municipal management of public utilities. 

But it was soon found that the sewer- 
age which poured into the lake on Main 
Street, about 600 feet from the pumping 
station, was threatening contamination of 
the water supply, and it was necessary that 
the inlet be pushed far out into the lake. 
By none of the devices before discovered 
could any additional funds be secured, and 
it became a question with South Evanston 
of annexation or impure water; and this, 
more than any other fact, contributed to 
the merging of the two municipalities. 
Shortly after they were merged, the City of 
Evanston was organized, with seven wards 
and fourteen Aldermen. 

Street Improvements. — The surface 
soil of most of the area upon which Evans- 
ton is built is sand, excepting the west prai- 
rie, where it consists of a light stratum of 
black soil over blue clay. On the sandy 
area the first method of street-making was 
confined to what is known as claying and 
graveling. Loads of blue clay from the 
west prairie were dumped along and spread 

upon the street to a depth of four or five 
inches, this being covered by a layer of three 
or four inches of lake gravel. When the 
rains fell the gravel worked itself into the 
mud, and, for a lightly traveled street, it 
was not bad. The claying and graveling of 
a strip twenty feet wide in the center of 
a street cost about 50 cents per running 
foot, and the writer has a very distinct re- 
collection of the clamor that was raised 
when the assessment was levied upon the 
abutting property for this improvement. The 
bearing of the burden of assessments is 
purely a matter of education. As the Irish- 
man said about hanging: it is not so bad 
when you get used to it, provided you do 
not die in the meantime ; and the same 
property owners that so bitterly contested 
the 50 cents per running foot assessment 
have since then borne with the greatest 
equanimity an assessment of three or four 
dollars per front foot for paving and curb- 

I have a very distinct recollection of the 
paving of Davis Street with clay and 
gravel. The abutting owners desired that 
there should be plenty of clay put on; so 
they stood around in the hot sun and 
bossed the job, and the contractor gave 
them all they wanted. Six or eight inches 
of it was put on and the gravel dumped on 
this, and, for the next year and a half, Davis 
Street was a hog-wallow during the greater 
part of the year. This ended the era of clay 
and gravel. The next pavement laid upon 
Davis Street was macadam. This was not 
found satisfactory and brick was laid upon 
the macadam. I think the history of the 
paving of Davis Street illustrates most 
forcibly the expensive evolution by which 
municipalities are educated up to the man- 
agement of their affairs. "Vox populi" 
may be "vox Dei," but it is an exceedingly 
expensive voice when it comes to dealing 
with business matters. I think a careful in- 



vestigation will establish the fact that gen- 
erally what the people want in a business 
proposition is the thing they ought not to 
get. Such questions can not be settled by 
town meetings. I remember very distinctly 
when James Ayers attempted to pave Hin- 
man Avenue. After an immense amount of 
oratory, discussions back and forth, theories 
and protests from people who wanted the 
street kept like a country village street and 
who dreaded city improvements, James 
finally gave the matter up and said in his 
opinion Hinman x\venue could never be 
paved — that there was "too much brains on 
the street." 

With the advent of paved streets came 
the problem of providing for the cost of 
their maintenance, and the City of Evanston 
to-day, with its increased area and valua- 
tion, finds itself in almost as great financial 
straits as the old village of South Evanston 
in its early struggles. 

The wooden block pavement craze struck 
quite hard in South Evanston, and the re- 
sult is miles of streets to be repaved at the 
expense of the abutting owners. Perhaps 
the best and most durable pavement ever 
laid in Evanston is the piece on Chicago 
Avenue from Davis Street north. It is of 
brick, and has been down ten years and is 
practically as smooth and good to-day as 
when first laid. It was laid by experts. It 
consists of a layer of sand with a layer of 
brick laid flatwise, this being surmounted 
by another layer of sand and a layer of 
brick laid edgewise. The only possible ob- 
jection to such a pavement is its noise. 

Evanston has to-day some of the finest 
macadamized streets in the country. Asso- 
ciations have been formed on quite a num- 
ber of streets for their care and mainte- 
nance, and it has been found that a street 
can be kept clean and in perfect condition 
for less than the cost of sprinkling on the 
individual plan. Property owners are grad- 

ually waking up to the proposition that the 
care of the street in front of abutting prop- 
erty is just as much a duty on the part of 
the owner as the care of his front yard and 
household surroundings. 

Evanston is shut in on the south by Cal- 
vary Cemetery, which extends from the lake 
to Chicago Avenue. Chicago Avenue is an 
extension of Clark Street; Asbury Avenue 
an extension of Western Avenue, and 
Sheridan Road an extension in South Ev- 
anston of Ashland Avenue in the City of 

In the early '60s an effort was made by the 
township authorities to extend Evanston 
Avenue through Calvary Cemetery, and the 
attempt was resisted, vi ct annis, by the 
then Archbishop. But along in 1887 an as- 
sociation, known as the North Shore Im- 
provement Association, was organized by 
citizens along the North Shore for the prin- 
cipal purpose of constructing a driveway 
along the lake for the use of the shore towns 
from Lincoln Park north. So much en- 
thusiasm and public spirit was generated in 
the matter that Archbishop Feehan gener- 
ously donated a 100-foot strip through Cal- 
vary Cemetery, and public-spirited citizens 
in Evanston, headed by Mr. Volney W. Fos- 
ter, raised about $3,000 to level down the 
sand-hills and clay and gravel the roadway. 
This ODened up an outlet for driving pur- 
poses from Evanston to Chicago. 

Parks and Boulevards. — The drive- 
way thus opened up was known as the 
Sheridan Road. Except at a few points it 
constitutes a good highway all the way 
from Fort Sheridan to Chicago, with por- 
tions in Lake Forest and Waukegan. In 
1893 the passage of an act of the Legis- 
lature was secured authorizing the forma- 
tion of park districts along the shore of 
Lake Michigan, and vesting in such dis- 
tricts the title to the submerged land. An 
effort was made to organize such a district 


to include the City of Evanston, but times 
were hard and taxes were high, and the 
people could not see their way clear to es- 
tablish a new taxing municipality. The 
portion of the West Side of Rogers Park, 
however, organized itself into a district un- 
der this law, and has constructed on Ridge 
Avenue a mile and three-quarters of the 
finest driveway in or around the city. This 
little district took this street as a sand-heap 
and has improved and beautified it in every 
particular with trees, sod and every requisite 
for residence purposes. Spurred to emula- 
tion, the East Side of Rogers Park, after a 
bitter contest, succeeded in organizing an- 
other district, and these people have taken 
hold of the Sheridan Road on the east side 
and are now duplicating the improvements 
made on Ridge Avenue. 

Township Organization. — An effort is 
now being made by the City of Evanston 
to abolish the useless and expensive town- 
ship organization system by which the ter- 
ritory is burdened. (As will be seen by 
the first chapter of this work, relating to the 
present territorial boundaries of the City of 
Evanston, the object just mentioned has 
been accomplished by the organization of 
the territory embraced within the City of 
Evanston into a single township under the 
name of "Ridgeville," with boundaries iden- 
tical with those of the city.) The territory 
embraced within the City of Evanston pre- 
viously included portions of three town- 
ships, and each of these townships placed 
a different valuation on property. The re- 
sult was that a lot on one side of McDaniel 
Street, in North Evanston, bore 50 per 
cent more of all the burden of taxation than 
a lot on the opposite side of the street in 
the township of Niles, equally well situated. 
Moreover, the city was burdened with three 
sets of Highway Commissioners ; three sets 
of Assessors; three sets of Collectors, and 
three sets of Town Clerks, necessitating an 

immense amount of bookkeeping. These 
Highway Commissioners were vested with 
taxing powers equal to about one-half of 
the taxing power of the municipality itself, 
with a provision that one-half of all th? 
money raised in the area of the City of 
Evanston must be expended on the farm ter- 
ritory outside of the city limits. The whole 
method of township organization, as it ex- 
isted in the City of Evanston, was one of the 
most outrageous illustrations of municipal 
mismanagement that could be well devised. 
The consolidation alluded to — which was 
accomplished under an act of the Legis- 
lature passed in 1903 — has resulted in the 
abolition of the useless offices of Highway 
Commissioner, Town Clerk and Town Col- 
lector, and the consolidation of the town- 
ship business with the .city business, as well 
as the abolition of township elections on a 
separate day. As a result of this change 
greater economy will be secured and the 
City of Evanston will be enabled to or- 
ganize itself into a park district under the 
law of 1893, and it will also be in position 
to take possession of the submerged land 
on the lake front, with a view of establish- 
ing, in the future, parks and drives along 
the whole shore. No man with an atom of 
prevision can fail to see the great possibili- 
ties of such a right to the city. Of course, 
to attempt to fill in the great areas of this 
submerged land under previous conditions 
would have meant bankruptcy to the city. 
The money heretofore spent under the com- 
plicated township organization, if spent in 
this direction, would have added immensely 
to the future prosperity and beauty of the 
city. Lender the new arrangement rights 
and property can be secured at the cost of a 
few hundreds of dollars that, ten years 
hence, would have cost thousands. The 
best illustration of this is the history of the 
little park in South Evanston heretofore 
narrated. What was then secured for $1,600 

Oi-ocCmeCtA yr&se.^Tya.^2^rt^-^>-}^ 

of Kvanstoii. 




1 of Map piiblislieil by ,1. II. Rits. 

fil, ^ of the 
Chicago Historical Society. 

ville Township was organized 
1, 1850, enibracinK wlial was 
■wiinls LaiiH \ iew Tuwii>l,ip. 



would probably now cost from twenty to 
thirty thousand dollars. 

Transportation. — About the time of 
the incorporation of the Village of Evans- 
ton, along in 1856 or 1858, the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad was completed be- 
tween Chicago and Milwaukee, and a sub- 
urban service was installed and carried on 
upon a single track until along about 1885, 
when the present double-track service was 
installed. In 1864 a corporation consisting 
of Orrington Lunt, John Evans and some 
other persons, was created under the title 
of the Chicago & Evanston Railroad Com- 
pany. The object of the scheme was to con- 
struct a horse or steam road from the City 
of Evanston to the City of Chicago, the in- 
tention being to connect about Fullerton 
Avenue with the horse cars. The road got 
no farther than some rights along the river 
up to Fullerton Avenue, and it then slum- 
bered under the blanket of an injunction 
until along in 1887, when it was revived 
and pushed to completion up to Calvary 
Cemetery, and a new corporation was then 
organized known as the Chicago, Evanston 
& Lake Superior Railroad Company, which 
obtained rights to construct the road 
through South Evanston and Evanston. The 
road soon after came under the control of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Com- 
pany, which was then looking for another 
entrance into the city, its lease over the Pan- 
handle being about to expire. The property 
was bought for this purpose, but its use 
was not needed and it has been operated 
since as a local line, with very little profit 
to the company. 

In 1892 the writer, D. H. Louderback, 
and John L. Cockran organized a company 
known as the Chicago & North Shore Street 
Railway Company to construct a street rail- 
way line from Evanston to Chicago. The 
installation of this service in Evanston was 
very bitterly contested by many of the resi- 
dents, who claimed thev had come out to 

Evanston to get away from this sort of 
thing; but it was pointed out to them that, 
with the growth of the City of Chicago, in 
order to get away from it, it would be nec- 
essary to get farther out than twelve miles 
from the center of the city. One resident 
was particularly solicitous about the effect 
of this innovation upon the Lord's day. He 
afterward agreed, however, that in consid- 
eration of $1,500 he would withdraw his 
opposition and leave the Lord to take care 
of his own day. The $1,500 was not paid. 
The road was finally installed and has 
proved a very fair success, and it is be- 
lieved to be a benefit to the people of the 

The City of Evanston is now anxious to 
get some benefit from the construction of 
the Northwestern Elevated. The present 
service is not satisfactory on account of its 
slowness and the necessity for transfers. 
When the road was completed it was ex- 
pected that the St. Paul would make some 
traffic arrangement by which a connection 
could be secured with the elevated by an 
incline, and its cars could pass without 
transfer from Evanston down into the city 
over the express tracks of the elevated. Ne- 
gotiations up to the present time have not 
resulted in the success of such a scheme; 
but it is so much to the interest of all par- 
ties concerned that it can be safely assured 
that this plan will finally be carried out, and 
that the St. Paul line will be equipped with 
electricity and operated in connection with 
the Northwestern Elevated to Evanston. If 
such an equipment were made, and stops 
made at frequent intervals through the city, 
with an express service from the city down 
over the elevated without any stop, say to 
Kinzie Street, and a frequent service given 
with a ten-cent fare, it is believed that the 
building boom that has set in at the terminus 
of the elevated would extend up along the 
shore and include the City of Evanston. 



A line leaving this main line at Oakton 
Avenue and going west to Asbury, and 
along on Asbury, Florence and Ashland, 
and along the Northwestern up through to 
Gross Point, would bring a large area of 
the City of Evanston, which is now remote 
from depots, into close touch with the city 
by the very best kind of service, provided 
the cars were carried through without trans- 
fer over the elevated down into the city. A 
trolley line from Evanston to Waukegan 
has been installed, and a branch line leaving 
this line at Lake Bluff is now being built 
across to Libertyville, with the intention 
of being pushed into the Fox Lake region. 
When this line is completed it will certainly 
be the greatest pleasure riding and picnic 
line around Chicago, and the people of 
Evanston will be put in close connection 
with some of the most beautiful country 
around Chicago. 

Gas and Electric Lighting. — At a very 
early day in the history of Evanston, Edwin 
Lee Brown, one of the city's public- spirited 
citizens, organized a company known as the 
Northwestern Gas Light and Coke Com- 
pany, and started a gas plant. Pipes were 
laid to the principal buildings in the village. 
This plant has now been finally merged with 
the People's Gas Company of Chicago and 
gas rates run about the same as they do in 
the city, and the service has been extended 
practically over the whole city of Evanston. 

Another corporation was organized by 
some of the citizens of Evanston eight or 
ten years ago for the purpose of furnishing 
electric light to the then village of Evan- 
ston, known as the Evanston Illuminating 
Company, and it has done for the City of 
Evanston what has not been done for any 
other city of its size in the United States, 
namely : put most of its wires underground. 
Its franchise for the use of the streets runs 
for about seventeen years, and it has a con- 
tract with the City of Evanston for public 
lighting running about ten years. 

Heating System. — A couple of years ago 
a corporation was organized by Mr. Yaryan, 
of Toledo, Ohio, known as the Evanston 
Yaryan Company, and a franchise secured 
for furnishing heat by hot water carried 
through pipes connected with the houses. 
Recently a plant has been constructed and 
the service extended to about two hundred 
houses with the most gratifying results. 
Ashes, smoke and coal dust are eliminated 
from the home, and heat is furnished at a 
rate less than the actual cost of coal for 
private heating. It is very generally ad- 
mitted that this single improvement adds 
fully twenty-five per cent to the value of 
property thereby benefited for residence. 
If any man is going to build a home he 
would be willing to pay that much more, 
provided he could secure this service; and 
the demand is spreading all over the city for 
the extension of the same. 

Telephone Service. — The Chicago Tel- 
ephone Company has extended its service 
into Evanston and erected a very beautiful 
building on Chicago Avenue, just south of 
Davis Street, for its offices. The local 
charge for residences is very reasonable, and 
the service has been found extremely satis- 

As has already been suggested, the terri- 
tory embraced within the limits of the City 
of Evanston is capable of furnishing com- 
fortable homes with plenty of air-space for 
about people. There is no reason 
why this city should not be a model one. 
The problems of municipal government and 
management are live ones, and some of the 
best thought of the country is devoting 
itself to their solution. Perhaps nowhere 
could be found a more ideal spot or a better 
environment for the practical solution of 
many of these problems, and the residents 
of the City of Evanston are of a class to 
lend themselves readily to assisting along 
these lines. 




Conditions Prior to 18/4— First Move for ston Water-Works. He not only gave lib- 

an Adequate Water Supply — Charles J. erally of his time, but also contributed lib- 

Gilbert Leader in the Movement — Holly erally of his private means in traveling 

Engines Installed in 1874 and 1886 — about the country for the purpose of ascer- 

Anncxation of South Evanston — The 
Consolidated City Incorporated in i8()2 — 
Increase in the Water Supply in 1897— 
Source of Supply — Revenue — Extent of 
System — Street Lighting by Gas Intro- 
duced in 1871 — Introduction of Electric 
Lighting in i8go — Installation of the 
Evanston-Yaryan Light and Heating 

Prior to 1874 the supply of water used 
by the citizens of Evanston was procured 
from their own private wells and cisterns. 
However, for two years before that time, 
the Milage Board of the then X'illage of 
Evanston had been considering and discus- 
sing the possibility of a more satisfactory 
means of furnishing the people with water, 
but, as it involved the building of a water- 
works plant, putting down sewers and 
water-pipes and the purchase of an engine, 
it involved an expense which, to some of the 
learned fathers of that time, was appalling. 

Leader in the Movement for an Im- 
proved Water Supply. — The manvvhovvas 918 gallons, and for the entire month of 
most active and persistent in his fight for May, 1876, there was pumped 6,636,448 
the establishment of a w^ater-plant was gallons in the thirty-one days. As com- 
Charles J. Gilbert, who has, ever since that pared with this record, it may be said that, 
time, been known as the father of the Evan- on August 8, 1900, the amount of water 

taining the best system, the best engines and 
the best sort of plant for the village, and, in 
1874, the first engine and pumping station 
were installed. 

The engine was named the "C. J. Gilbert." 
It is a quadroduplex Holly engine, with a 
rated capacity of 2,000,000 gallons per day ; 
but after it was installed and, in cases of 
emergency, it pumped in the neighborhood 
of 3,000.000 gallons per day. This engine 
is still running and in good condition, and it 
is a somewhat remarkable fact that Samuel 
B. Penney, who was installed as second 
engineer of the Evanston Water-Works in 
1874, is still in charge of them, and has 
been in the continuous service of the village 
and city successively since the old "C. J. 
Gilbert" pumped the first gallon of water. 

This engine was run for seventeen years, 
night and day, and during those seventeen 
vears it ran on an average of 23.7 hours 
out of each 24 for the entire time. 

The largest amount of water ever pumped 
in one day during the year 1875 was 656,- 



pumped in one day at the Evanston pump- 
ing station was 10.156,132 gallons, almost 
one-third more than was pumped for the en- 
tire month of May, 1876. 

The Cost — Second Engine Installed in 
1886. — The cost of the first Holly engine 
bought in Evanston, together with boiler, 
was $24,000. In the year 1886 it became 
apparent to the authorities of the then Mi- 
lage of Evanston, that the engine which 
had run night and day since 1875 was, in its 
capacity, inadequate for the wants of the 
people, and thereupon, after the usual in- 
vestigation, consideration and discussion, a 
second Holly engine was purchased, of the 
Gaskill type, and, in the year 1888, it was 
installed with a rated capacity of 5.000,000 
gallons a day, which, under pressure, could 
be increased to 5,500,000 per day. 

It is a little remarkable that, upon the 
installation of this second engine, the then 
Village Board of Trustees were divided as 
to whether they should throw out the first 
engine or sell it for what they could get, 
upon the theory that this second engine, 
with a 5.000,000 gallons capacity, would be 
sufficient for the needs of the village for the 
next twenty years. It was, however, finally 
decided to retain the first engine for a time 
at least, and the wisdom of this decision was 
shown by the fact that, in less than three 
years, the second engine was found inad- 
equate, and from that time until the year 
1896, the water required at times taxed the 
full capacity of both engines. 

Annexation of South Evanston. — A few 
years after the installation of the second 
engine, the Village of South Evanston was 
annexed to Evanston, and one month later 
(March, 1892), the'consolidated village was 
incorporated as the City of Evanston. Prior 
to the annexation of the Milage of South 
Evanston, it had received its water supply 
largely from an artesian well : but after the 
annexation, the water-mains were extended 

or connected with the mains of the City of 
Evanston, and it then became apparent that 
the capacity of the engines was insufficient 
to supply the needs of the people, and, there- 
fore, in 1896 the City Council of Evanston 
took into consideration the question of the 
purchase of another engine to meet the in- 
creased demand. 

Third Engine Installed in 1897. — Great 
diversity of opinion arose in the minds of 
the Aldermen composing the City Council 
as to what kind of an engine was best fitted 
for the purpose. The discussion at times 
was bitter and personal, but it resulted in 
the purchase, in 1897, and the installation of 
another Holly engine, of the Decrow type, 
with a pumping capacity of 12,000,000 to 
14.000,000 gallons per day. This last men- 
tioned engine, up to this time, has been 
found fully adequate to supply the needs 
of the city. The second engine, without any 
boilers or fittings, cost about $12,000, and 
the third engine, together with foundations 
and such fittings as were necessary, cost 
about $35,000. 

The supply of water to these engines is 
procured through two in-take pipes, the first 
being 16 inches in diameter, which was laid 
on the bed of the lake in 1875, ^"^ which 
extends out 1,200 feet from the shore. In 
18S9. this in-take pipe being found insuf- 
ficient, another in-take pipe 30 inches in 
diameter was laid on the bottom of the lake, 
extending out 2.600 feet to a submerged 
crib, and it is through this latter pipe that 
all of the water pumped for the City of 
Evanston is received, except in summer 
time, when much water is used for the 
sprinkling of lawns, and then both pipes are 
necessary to supply the demand. 

Much inconvenience has been experienced 
in the coldest weather of the winter months, 
from what is known as anchor or slush ice, 
which sinks and accumulates about the 
openings of the submerged cribs and clogs 


leted June 


Dad and Central Street 
1873. Light exhibited Spring of :874 



the flow of water, and many expedients have 
been resorted to in order to overcome this 
difficulty, none of which, however, have been 
entirely successful. With a view to accom- 
plishing this object, within the past year, 
connections have been made with the mains 
of Rogers Park and the City of Chicago, by 
which, in case of emergency, the valves may 
be opened and the supply of water, if cut 
off bv anchor ice, may be obtained from the 
mains of the City of Chicago through 
Rogers Park. At the present time the ques- 
tion of a tunnel out under the surface of 
the lake is being agitated and seriously con- 
sidered for the purpose of, at all times, 
securing an adequate supply. 

At the present time the City of Evanston 
is also furnishing to the Village of Wil- 
mette its supply of water. 

The pressure upon the mains on an aver- 
age is 40 pounds to the square inch, which 
can be raised to 80 pounds to the square inch 
in case of fire. The coal consumed in the 
year 1901 was 2,000 tons. 

Income — Extent of System. — The rev- 
enue received from water-tax in 1901 was 
$65,000, which does not include the water 
permits ; including the water permits, the 
total receipts of the Water Department for 
the year 1901 was about $70,000. It, per- 
haps, would not be advisable to state how 
much of this $70,000 is clear profit to the 
city, but it may be sufficient to add that, 
whilst the water-tax in the city is not higher 
than that of other cities — in fact, is con- 
siderably less than the water-tax of many 
cities — still the Evanston water-works 
plant, today, is proving an exceedingly 
profitable investment for the city. 

The water, for which this $70,000 is paid, 
is distributed to the citizens of Evanston 
through sixty-one miles of water-mains. 
The supply is abundant. No restrictions are 
placed upon the citizens in regard to lawn 
sprinkling, and the beautiful trees and lawns 

of the city bear witness to the fact that the 
water-plant of Evanston, today, is a decided 

Lighting. — Prior to 1871 a few smoky, 
flickering oil-lamps were the only guide 
which an Evanston citizen had at night to 
aid him in keeping out of the mud and the 
ditches of the unpaved and unsewered 
streets ; but it was during this year that 
the Northwestern Gas-Light & Coke Com- 
pany erected a small plant and furnished 
to a very limited number a substitute for the 
oil-lamps in the form of gas. It was nearly 
five years after this, however, before gas 
street-lamps came into anything like gen- 
eral use. 

Evanston then, as now, was a city of 
homes. The people who settled there de- 
sired large lawns and plenty of room. A 
comparatively few people covered a large 
area, and to light effectively all the streets 
with gas involved an expenditure which was 
out of all proportion to the number of in- 
habitants who derived the benefit; and, 
therefore, it was not until about the year 
1890 that an Evanston citizen could boast 
that his town was well lighted. Indeed, it 
was not until about the year 1895 that the 
lighting of the streets of the city could be 
said to be entirely satisfactory. 

Evanston Electric Illuminating Com- 
pany. — In the year 1890 the Evanston 
Electric Illuminating Company built its 
plant in Evanston, and, within one year 
after that plant was established, it entered 
into a contract with the City of Evanston 
to supply arc-lights of 2,000-candle power 
at the rate of $83.75 each per year, under 
what was known as the Philadelphia Moon- 
light Schedule. 

In the month of July, 1895, the city 
entered into a contract with the Evanston 
Electric Illuminating Company by which it 
was agreed that the latter should furnish 
arc-lights of 2,000-candle power at a yearly 



cost of $65 per light, which contract pro- 
vided that, at the end of five years, the 
ilkiminating company should have the right 
to raise the price to $67.50 per light. 

The five-year contract expired in July, 
1900, but in the spring of 1900 the Evan- 
ston-Yaryan Company applied to the City 
Council for an ordinance permitting them 
to establish an electric light and heating 
plant, and it was represented by the latter 
company that, by combining the two and 
furnishing both light and heat to the cit- 
izens, they would be able to furnish electric 
light at a greatly reduced price. 

The ordinance for which the new com- 
pany petitioned was granted by the Coun- 
cil, and the Evanston-Yaryan Company at 
once entered into competition with the 
Evanston Electric Illuminating Company 
for the street lighting contract, the result of 
which was that the City Council were 
enabled to make and close a contract with 
the Evanston Electric Illuminating Com- 
pany, by which the latter agreed to furnish 
arc-lamps for lighting the streets of Evan- 
ston at $60 per light of 2,000-candle power, 
for a period of ten years, upon a schedule 
much more liberal than that known as the 
Philadelphia Moon-light Schedule. Lender 
this contract the City of Evanston is now 
paying for 273 lights at an aggregate cost 
of $16,380.00 per year. 

Yaryan Light and Heating System. — 
The Evanston-Yaryan Company erected its 
light and heat plant in the year igoo. It 
experienced great difficulty in securing per- 
mits for the extension of its wires, the re- 
sult being that it was able to furnish elec- 
tric light only to a comparatively small 
number of consumers ; but it immediately 
placed its mains in the central portion of the 
city for the furnishing of heat by means of 
hot water, which was pumped through those 
mains and into the houses from force pumps 
located in the central plant. In the summer 

or fall of 1902 it consolidated its electric 
plant with the Evanston Electric Illumi- 
nating Company, and, at the present time, 
the electric lighting of Evanston is again 
controlled by one corporation. 

The franchise granted by the City Council 
of Evanston to the Evanston-Yaryan Com- 
pany fixed a limit upon the price that it 
might charge for furnishing heat to con- 
sumers, and in the summer of 1902 the com- 
pany complained to the City Council that, 
under the limit thus fixed, it was unable to 
furnish heat upon a paying basis ; and, in 
fact, it complained that it was running its 
plant at a loss. Thereupon, in September, 
IQ02, further concessions were granted to 
the company by the City Council, under 
which it is now running its heating plant, 
and by reason of which it is enabled to 
secure a higher price for the heat furnished 
to consumers. 

There can be no question that the heat 
thus furnished is ideal and very satisfactory 
to the consumers ; but the question remains 
whether the Evanston-Yaryan Company 
will be enabled to furnish heat to its patrons 
at a price which they can afiford to pav. In 
other words, the present prices charged arc 
something in excess of what it would cost 
the consumer to heat his premises with a 
plant of his own. However, whilst this 
plant may be said to be now in an experi- 
mental state, there can be no question that 
the furnishing heat from a central plaMt is 
coming more largely into favor every year, 
and it is therefore predicted that the Heat- 
ing plant erected by the Evanston-Yaryan 
Company is now, and hereafter will be, a 

It is claimed by this company that it can 
furnish heat to residents living a mile from 
its central plant, the hot water being forced 
out through pipes that are protected from 
the influence of the cold and returned by 
other pipes to the central heating plant, 



where the water is again heated to a high 
temperature and again forced out through 
the pipes to the consumers. But whilst the 
company claims that it can heat buildings a 
mile from its plant, still it is doubtful 
whether the heat can be profitably furnished 
to buildings situated three-quarters of a 
mile away. 

It is estimated that the Evanston-Yaryan 
Company are, at this time, supplying heat 
to about 250 consumers, and, from the re- 

ports received, it is fair to assume that but 
few of those consumers would be willing 
to go back to the old system of heating, even 
though the expense of the hot- water heat 
from the Yaryan plant is somewhat greater 
than would be the cost of heating their 
buildings by the old process. 

In conclusion, it may be said today that, 
in the matter of water supply and in city 
lighting, there are few, if any, cities more 
fortunate than the citv of Evanston. 



(By PROF. HENKY L. BOLTWOOD, late Principal Towns 

ip High School) 

The Public Schools of Evanston — Day of 
the Log School House — Early Schools and 
their Teachers — Sacrifice of School Land 
— Present School Buildings — TozviisJiij^ 
High School — Preliminary History — 
— School Opened in September, i88j — 
Prof. Boltzcood its First Principal- 
Present School Building — Manual Train- 
ing — A Mimic Presidential Election — ■ 
Drawing Department — List of Trustees. 

The earliest records of Evanston public 
schools begin with May 9, 1846. This was 
about eleven years before the existing school 
laws of Illinois were framed. In those days 
the Township Trustees constituted the 
Board of Education, unless more than one 
district existed in the township. These 
trustees were appointed by the County 
Commissioners. The trustees of Township 
41 North, Range 14 East, in 1846, were E. 
Bennett and O. Munn, Jr., with George 
M. Huntoon, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Prior to the above date, a log school- 
house had been erected, probably by private 
subscription, on the northwest corner of 
Ridge Avenue and Greenleaf Street, on a 
lot which Henry Clark had deeded to the 
township for school and cemetery purposes. 
A private or subscription school had been 
maintained as early as 1844. The first 
teacher employed was a Mrs. Marshall, who 
taught at first in a cooper shop on the 

Ridge road, nearly opposite the residence of 
the late Ozro Grain. The log school-house 
occupied in 1846 was probably built in 1845. 
One of its logs is now in the Central school 
at South Evanston. It seems to have 
needed repairs in 1846. 

Before 1857, public schools in Illinois 
were not free schools. The public funds 
derived from the State and from the income 
of the school lands were not ample enough 
to maintain school except for a brief time. 
Teachers kept a schedule of attendance, 
and all the expenses for fuel, repairs and 
teachers' wages, were distributed among 
the parents of the several pupils in propor- 
tion to the number of days of attendance, 
regardless of property. The poorest man in 
the district might be called upon to pay the 
heaviest tax. This was the case in Connec- 
ticut as late as 1853. Parents were also 
required to board the teacher a certain num- 
ber of days, according to the number of 
pupils sent from their family. This "board- 
ing 'round" was the rule, and not the ex- 
ception, in New England in those days, and 
is occasionally to be found even now. In 
case of a refusal to board the teacher, the 
teacher might, after due notice, select a 
boarding place, and the board-bill could be 
legally collected of the recusant family. The 
per diem rates do not appear in the school 
records, but from tuition bills in the posses- 
sion of some of the old residents, they varied 

1 88 


from three-fourths of a cent to six cents, 
according to the number of pupils or the 
wages of the teacher. 

The first teacher employed by the Trus- 
tees of the Evanston District was Miss Cor- 
nelia Wheadon, daughter of the well-known 
"Father Wheadon." Miss Wheadon now 
Mrs. C. A. Churcher, is still Hving (1903) 
at 2044 Sherman Avenue. She was engaged 
at a salary of $1.25 per week — very fair 
wages for the time. A motion was made at 
the board meeting to repair the school- 
house and to purchase a water-pail and 
dipper. The repairs were voted down. 

Pupils who lived along Chicago and Hin- 
man Avenue, then known as the East Ridge, 
were sometimes unable to cross to the 
school-house except in boats or on rafts, 
on account of the deep water. Ozro Crain 
shot wild ducks, and occasionally a deer, 
about where Crain Street crosses Benson 
.Avenue, just south of the present high 
school building. Before Miss Wheadon, 
Elmira Burroughs (Mrs. Palmer), and a 
Mr. T. H. Ballard taught. Miss Wheadon 
had also taught five weeks before her re- 
corded engagement, and was allowed six 
shillings a week for her services. 

Miss H. W. Barnes succeeded Miss 
Wheadon. She was married to Sylvester 
Hill, and continued to teach after marriage. 
Her wages were two dollars a week. In the 
winter of 1846 nine cords of wood were 
required to warm the little one-room 

School Funds. — In the famous Ordin- 
ance of 1787,. Congress declared that 
"schools and the means of education shall 
be forever encouraged," but did not specify 
how this should be done. But when, in 
1818, Congress passed the act enabling the 
people of Illinois to form a State Constitu- 
tion, it was provided that Section 16 in 
every township should be granted to the 
State for the use of the inhabitants of such 

township for the support of schools. In case 
that Section 16 had already been disposed 
of, other lands equivalent thereto, and as 
contiguous as may be, were to be granted. 
The State Constitutional Convention ac- 
cepted this provision. 

But as Evanston is only a small fraction 
of the west side of a township whose legal 
designation is 41 North, Range 14 East, 
Section 16 is under the lake. To provide 
for such and similar cases, a law was passed 
in 1826, allowing townships so situated to 
select lands elsewhere. Accordingly Evan- 
ston, then known as Gross Point or Ridge- 
ville, obtained as school land a tract lying in 
Section 12, Township 41 North, Range 13 
East, a part of Niles Township, containing 
153.48 acres. This land lay between Simp- 
son Street on the south and Grant Street on 
the north. Dodge Avenue on the east and 
Hartrey Avenue on the west. 

Most unwisely, as it now seems, the 
School Trustees sold this land at the min- 
imum Government price of $1.25 per acre. 
One of the purchasers was Wendel Ellis, 
whose patent to the land was granted De- 
cember 27, 1847, by Augustus C. French, 
Governor of Illinois, upon a return made by 
George Manierre, School Commissioner of 
Cook County. The money obtained by the 
sale of this land disappeared when School 
Treasurer Green defaulted in 1873. 

To prevent such sales as the above, sev- 
eral of the younger States have laws that fix 
a minimum price for school lands, far in ex- 
cess of the Government rate, and thus secure 
to the schools a permanent fund of great 
value. The school lands of Texas will 
ultimately give the schools of that State a 
permanent fund of not less than thirty mil- 
lions. If Chicago had today all the original 
school lands of its several townships, the 
income would be almost enough to run its 

The earlv records are sadlv defective. 



Nothing is recorded for tlie year 1847. The 
Trustees in 1848 were O. A. Grain, E. Ben- 
nett and M. Dunlap. G. M. Huntoon was 
Treasurer. His bond was fixed at $400. 
The regular meetings were held at the 
Ridge House in Gross Point. A special 
meeting was called to be held "at early 
candle light." In that year it was voted 
that a sale of cemetery lots be held on the 
school premises, but no record of sale ap- 

In March, 1848, it was voted to divide 
the township into two school districts, put- 
ting all of the township north of the south 
line of Section 19 into District One. Legal 
notice of a meeting to vote on the proposed 
change was ordered, but there is no record 
of any vote upon the question, and the prob- 
ability is that the matter was dropped with- 
out a vote. It was not till February, 1852, 
that the division into districts was legally 
made. District i comprised the south part 
of the township, and District 2 extended 
"from the south line of Eli Gafifield's farm" 
to the north boundary of the township. So 
reads the record. But a subsequent vote 
makes the north District Xo. i. and makes 
its south boundary the middle line east and 
west of Section 19. 

In a list of by-laws adopted in April, 
i860, trustees who were absent without ex- 
cuse from a regular meeting were to pay a 
fine of fifty cents, but no record is made of 
any collection of a fine. Teachers were 
required to teach twenty-two days each 
month. They were also required to use 
exertions to have the children go to and 
from school in an orderly manner, and make 
it a rule that they should not play by the way, 
or bear tales of any of the transactions in 
school or during intermission. "Scholars 
shall be required to come with clean faces 
and hands under pain of being expelled 
from school." 

When District 2 was organized, the school 

funds were divided upon a property basis, 
and District i received $25.49, and District 
2, $13.50. 

By vote of the township, February 14, 
1856, District 2 was divided, and that part 
south of the Indian boundary was desig- 
nated as District 3, but there is no record of 
its organization, though the organization of 
Districts i, 2 and 4 are preserved. In 1870 
District 3 was annexed again to District 2. 
The bond of the School Treasurer for 1856 
was for $1,000. 

The first regular school-tax was levied in 
1856 — fifty cents on each hundred dollars of 
taxable property. This amount was ex- 
pected to provide for the rimning of the 
schools, and to pay up a deficiency. 

District 4 was organized in April, 1857. 
It included "all that part of Evanston" 
north of the center of the south half of 
fractional Sections 7 and 12, in Townships 
13 and 14. The first teacher of this school 
was M. E. Budlong. 

The first recorded school census was in 
October, 1857. All white children under 
twenty-one were to be enumerated. C. 
Thomas took the census, and was allowed 
six dollars for his services, but no record 
of the result appears. 

It seems that the Directors of District 2 
bought a school-house lot of George M. 
Huntoon for $250, and received a deed from 
him, running to the Directors. Treasurer 
H. B. Hurd took the necessary legal action 
to restrain the Directors from paying the 
sum to Huntoon until the proper deed was 
made, vesting the title in the School Trus- 
tees. This result was not secured without 
a lawsuit. 

In 1859 District 4 was re-annexed to Dis- 
trict I. This seems to have been because of 
the small number of children in the district. 
There are no records of the trustees be- 
tween ;\Iay, 1862. and October, 1868. 
Samuel Greene was elected Treasurer. 



In April, 1870, "Section 12, and so much 
of Section 7 as lies west of the Ridge road 
and in the town of Evanston," was made a 
separate district, to be known as District 
3. At a subsequent meeting, all of Section 
7 was set back to District i. 

An appraisement of property was made 
in July following, to determine the allotment 
of school funds. The valuation of District 
I was $307,399, and of Section 12, $6,470. 

Upon petition of residents of New Trier 
and of "lots No. i to 19, both inclusive, in 
George Smith's sub-division of the south 
part of the Archange Ouilmette Reserva- 
tion," Union District No. 3, — the North 
Evanston district — was legally constituted, 
October 3, 1870. 

District No. 4, the Rogers Park District, 
was also constituted in October, 1870. 
There was some difficulty about its boun- 
daries, but it was finally settled that it 
should include all of the township lying 
south of the south boundary of Calvary 

In April, 1875, Union School District No. 
5 was organized. It included the northeast 
part of Evanston Township, and a part of 
New Trier Township, or the "Ouilmette 

Samuel Greene, Township Treasurer, de- 
faulted in 1873. His bondsmen, apparently, 
paid the amount due from him in 1876, 

The first school-house built in District i 
was a one-story, one-room building, which 
was erected on the north side of Church 
Street, just east of Maple Avenue. Another 
story was added to it later. It was after- 
wards removed to 1618 Orrington Avenue, 
and is now occupied as a laundry. It was 
probably built in 1852, the year of the or- 
ganization of the district. The upper story 
was used as a polling place for several 

About i860 the Benson Avenue school- 

house was erected, just south of Clark 
Street. It was twice enlarged ; the last 
time in 1870. In this same year the lots on 
which the Hinman Avenue and the Noyes 
Street schools now stand were purchased, 
and school-houses were probably built soon 
after, but all the records of the district prior 
to 1870 are missing, and some records of 
later years are incomplete. 

The original Noyes Street building is 
still standing on the north side of Gaffield 
Place, just west of the Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Railroad. The Hinman Avenue frame 
building was removed in 188 1, to make 
room for a new brick edifice. It was taken 
to Benson Avenue, near Clark Street, and 
used as a church by the Second Baptist 
congregation till destroyed by fire in 1889. 

In 1879 the three schools had outgrown 
their accommodations, and there was much 
discussion as to the proper means to provide 
more room. The Board of Education recom- 
mended a consolidation of all the schools 
on the block then known as the Lakeside 
property between Sherman and Chicago 
Avenue, north of Greenwood and south of 
Lake. The citizens, however, disapproved 
of this, and a new building was voted, to be 
placed on the Hinman Avenue lot, and a lot 
was purchased on Wesley Avenue, on which 
a large one-story brick building was erected. 
This was known as the Wesley Avenue 
School until 1900, when the name of David 
B. Dewey School was given it in honor of 
one of Evanston's most efficient citizens, 
who was for many years a member of the 
School Board. Both the Hinman Avenue 
and the Wesley Avenue buildings were con- 
structed of one story only. The idea was, in 
this way, to avoid stair-climbing and to 
lessen danger in case of fire. The present 
high cost of land in Evanston will be in the 
way of any more buildings of this sort, but 
the Wesley Avenue building still has all its 
eight rooms on the ground floor. 


The Benson Avenue building stood on 
leased ground, directly on the right of way 
of the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. Its 
removal became necessary when that road 
was built in 1892. It was moved in three 
sections to the south side of Emerson Street, 
just west of Maple Avenue. The Haven 
school was then built on Church Street. It 
was very appropriately named after Dr. O. 
E. Haven, who was Superintendent of 
Schools from 1873 to 1882, and afterwards 
on the Board of Education till his untimely 
death in 1888. 

In 1892 the Xoyes Street School was pro- 
vided with a new and enlarged building, 
which has been already outgrown, and a 
large addition was completed early in 1903. 
In 1894 the Larimer School was erected 
on Grain Street, on the very south boundary 
line of the district. It was named in honor 
of Joseph Larimer, a valued member of the 
School Board, and a man whose love for 
young men, and whose good influence upon 
them, well merited such a tribute to his 
memory. The Hinman Avenue School re- 
ceived a new building in 1898. This gives 
District i (or 76 in the present county 
enumeration) five large buildings, contain- 
ing forty-nine rooms, with a seating ca- 
pacity of about two thousand. Three addi- 
tional rooms are also rented on Asbury 
Avenue, to accommodate the overflow of 
the D. B. Dewey School. 

There appears to be no record of the 
earliest teachers of this district. The names 
of Echenbracht and Edwards are found 
among the earlier Principals. P. C. Han- 
ford, who was murdered in Chicago, was 
also a Principal. Charles Raymond, who is 
still living here, was the first to grade the 
schools and to receive the title of Superin- 
tendent. He was succeeded in 1873 by 
Otis E. Haven, son of Bishop Haven of 
the University of Michigan. Mr. Haven 
was a born teacher of rare executive ability. 

He not only brought the schools to a high 
degree of efficiency, but secured for himself 
a remarkable personal afifection which still 
remains fresh in the minds of his numerous 

He was the first to organize a high school. 
There was no small opposition to the idea 
of a high school at first; especially from 
those who thought that the academy of the 
Northwestern University, which was al- 
ready in the field, was fully competent to 
do the work of such a school. However the 
school was established in 1876. It had no 
building, and was quartered in Lyons hall 
and elsewhere. From the very beginning 
it had an excellent name for scholarship, 
and sent its graduates to several of the best 
colleges. It had many tuition pupils from 
South Evanston, Rogers Park and else- 

Among its early teachers was Dr. E. J. 
James, now President of the University of 
Illinois, from January, 1878, to May, 1889, 
His successor was J. Scott Clark, now Pro- 
fessor of English in Northwestern Univer- 

George S. Baker, now a lawyer in Evan- 
ston, succeeded Mr. Haven in 1882, and 
was Superintendent for four years. Mr. 
Baker is a graduate of Michigan University 
and came to Evanston from McGregor, 
Iowa. He resigned his position to take 
up the study of law, as Mr. Haven did of 
medicine. During his administration the 
schools steadily grew and prospered. 

Homer H. Kingsley, a graduate of Mich- 
igan University, succeeded Mr. Baker in 
1886, and still continues in charge. Mr. 
Kingsley has been especially successful in 
thoroughly grading the schools, and in 
securing excellent buildings. The intro- 
duction of the kindergarten, of manual 
training and of domestic science is also due 
largely to his exertions, seconded and en- 
couraged by the Woman's Club, and by 



many citizens. His work is widely known 
throughout tlie State, and the scliools of 
Evanston attract many visitors from abroad 
and are most cordially supported by the 

This district was one of the first to give 
women a place on the School Board, and 
Mrs. Louise P. Stanwood was the first 
woman to serve on the Board. 

The value of the grounds and buildings 
now owned by the district is about $250,- 
000, and its bonded debt about $70,000. 
These bonds, at 4 and 4>^ per cent, com- 
mand a premium. The finances of the dis- 
trict have been very ably managed by our 
prominent business men. A. N. Young, 
Simeon Farwell, F. P. Crandon, and H. H. 
C. Miller may be mentioned as having done 
much in regard to the finances. 

Evanston was among the first to incor- 
porate the kindergarten in its school system. 
The first kindergarten was established in 
1892. There are now four, and the experi- 
ment has proved very satisfactory. 

Manual training was introduced in the 
form of shop-work as early as 1897, but a 
new impulse was given to it in 1901. Mrs. 
Alfred H. Gross and her brother, Irwin 
Rew, are the generous donors of funds to 
equip a Manual Training and a Domestic 
Science Department. Mrs. Gross offered 
an unlimited sum for the equipment of a 
Domestic Science school, only stipulating 
that it should be the finest in the country 
and the best that money could furnish. The 
Board furnished the building in which the 
two nev.- departments are housed. 

Mr. Rew ofifered $500 to equip the man- 
ual training room, and both Mrs. Gross and 
Mr. Rew offered $1,000 toward the salary 
of the requisite teachers, if the buildings 
were provided for by the Board. 

The equipment of the Domestic Science 
department cost over $1,700. Mr. Rew's 
first gift to equip the Manual Training De- 

partment was $500. He subsequently gave a 
dozen lathes, of the latest and most im- 
proved pattern, at a cost of about $400. 
The building cost $8,000. Classes of 
twenty-four are taught at the same time. 
About two hundred boys and the same num- 
ber of girls receive instruction weekly. The 
cost of the material used and all incidental 
expenses are paid by the regular appropria- 
tions of the Board. 

The tenure of office among Evanston 
teachers is worthy of notice. Miss Nannie 
M. Hines and Miss Celia Sargent have 
completed their thirtieth year of service, 
and many others are nearing twenty years 
of continuous work. 

District Two (South Evanston). — The 
modern history of District Two begins in 
1871, in which year a four-room brick 
building was erected on the present site of 
the Central School, on Main Street. The 
cost was $18,000. This building was great- 
ly enlarged in 1890, at a cost of $10,000. 

In 1893, while the school was in session, 
fire broke out and entirely destroyed the 
building. By heroic efforts on the part of 
the teachers, no lives were lost, though sev- 
eral persons were injured. In 1901 a 
memorial fountain was erected to commem- 
orate the names of the teachers who were 
most active in the rescue work. 

A new building was at once erected on 
the same site, at a cost of $47,000. While 
this was under construction, the schools 
were accommodated in rented rooms. The 
eighth grade pupils occupied part of the 
high school building till the end of the 
school year. 

In 1886 a four-room building was erected 
on the east side of the railroad, on Main 
Street near Forest Avenue. This was soon 
outgrown, and the present Lincoln school- 
house was erected in 1895, at a cost of $47,- 

In 1900 another building, known as the 



Washington School, was built on the west 
side, on the northwest corner of Ashland 
Avenue and Main Street, at a cost of $35,- 

It may safely be said that all these build- 
ings are unsurpassed in their adaptation to 
school work and in the completeness of 
their equipment. The lighting, heating and 
ornamentation can hardly be improved. 
Thev attract many visitors who are seeking 
for models and suggestions. 

Township High School. — In the winter 
of 1883, the attention of the citizens 
of Evanston village was called to the 
fact that additional school accommoda- 
tions were needed for all the schools, 
and especially for the High School, which 
had been maintained for several years with- 
out any regular home. It had been moved 
about from hall to hall, and was greatly 
hindered in its work by its cramped and 
uncomfortable quarters, in rooms which 
were in no way suited to school uses. The 
rapid growth of the village had filled all 
the school buildings to overflowing. As the 
villages of Evanston and of South Evan- 
ston were in close proximity, and as all of 
the population of the township was dis- 
tributed along the line of a single railroad, 
the idea of a Township High School was 
received with favor from its first mention. 
After considerable discussion in private 
circles and in the local papers, a public 
meeting was announced to be held in Lyons' 
hall, on the evening of February 11, 1882. 
The call for the meeting was headed by 
John L. Beveridge, L. C. Pitner and H. A. 

The meeting was held according to an- 
nouncement. Henry L. Boutelle presided. 
After free discussion, a committee was ap- 
pointed consisting of John H. Kedzie, 
George O. Ide, William Blanchard, Oliver 
.\dams and Harvey B. Hurd, who were in- 
structed to prepare a report to be pre- 

sented at an adjourned meeting to be 
held February i8th. This committee re- 
ported at the adjourned meeting, presenting 
the facts and figures which, in their judg- 
ment, favored the establishment of the pro- 
posed school. After considerable discus- 
sion, the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted : 

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this 
meeting that a Township High School be 
established at an early date, and that a com- 
mittee of seven be appointed by the chair, 
the duty of said committee being to interest 
the citizens of the town in the matter, and 
especially in those districts in which there 
has been thus far least interest in the mat- 

These districts were, naturally. North 
Evanston and Rogers Park, which were 
farthest from the center of the township. 
South Evanston had been sending many 
pupils to the village high school from its 
first organization, upon payment of tuition. 
The committee appointed in accordance 
with the foregoing resolution was composed 
of W. H. Crocker, Oliver Adams, Alex- 
ander H. Gunn, A. G. Bell, F. P. Crandon, 
Norton W. Boomer, and George O. Ide. 

The report of the committee appointed 
on the nth of February and the proceed- 
ings of the meeting held on the i8th of that 
month were published in the "Inde.x" of 
the week following the iSth. 

On the 9th of March, a petition, headed 
by Hugh A. White and H. B. Hurd, and 
signed by eighty-seven other legal voters, 
was filed with the Township Treasurer, 
Ambrose Foster, requesting that the ques- 
tion of the establishment of a Township 
High School be submitted to the legal 
voters of the township at the next election 
of School Trustees. This election resulted 
in a vote of 611 in favor of the school to 
147 against it. William Blanchard was 
elected School Trustee. Thomas A. Cos- 



grove resigned from the Board of Trustees 
and Norton W. Boomer was elected in his 
place. Mr. Cosgrove's resignation was 
because both j\Ir. Blanchard and himself 
were residents of the same school district, 
contrary to law. 

On the loth of July, 1882, a notice was 
issued calling an election to be held on 
the 22d of the same month, to vote upon 
two propositions: 

First. To authorize the Trustees of the 
township to purchase a site for building 
and to erect a suitable building upon it. 

Second. To authorize them to borrow 
not exceeding $40,000, for the purchase of a 
site and the erection of a building, and to 
issue bonds for the amount actually bor- 

The question of a site, of course, was of 
great interest, and several sites were pro- 
posed. Charles Raymond, once Principal 
of the schools in District i, advocated the 
selection of the public park; but it was 
found that this property was not available 
except for park purposes. Others advo- 
cated the block then known as the Lakeside 
Block, between Chicago and Sherman 
Avenues, north of Greenwood Boulevard, 
then occupied by a building which had been 
used for a private school. The site pro- 
posed in the election call was the corner of 
Benson Avenue and Dempster Street, front- 
ing west 250 feet on Benson Avenue, and 
measuring 200 feet on Dempster Street. 

At the election held in accordance with 
the above call, 176 votes were cast in favor 
of this site, and two against it. Only one 
vote was cast against issuing the bonds. 

The purchase price of the site selected 
was $4,000, or $16 per front foot. The 
ground was very low, and $2,200 was ex- 
pended in filling. The building of sewers 
has since entirely changed the conditions. 
The bonds issued bore 5 per cent interest, 
payable semi-annually, and were all taken 

by the Hide and Leather Bank of Chicago, 
at par. The plan selected for the building 
was furnished by W. W. Boynton, a Chi- 
cago architect. The contract price of the 
structure was $32,500. The furniture, 
library, and apparatus cost about $2,500. 
The mason work was done by Charles T. 
Bartlett of Evanston, and the woodwork by 

A. H. Avers of Chicago. McDougal Broth- 
ers, of Evanston, did the plumbing, and J. 

B. Hobbs, of Evanston, took the contract 
for painting. Ground was broken for the 
building October 18, 1882, but owing to 
the severity of the weather, little was done 
until the spring of the following year. The 
work was completed and the building form- 
ally dedicated August 31, 1883. 

At the dedicatory exercises prayer was 
offered by Rev. F. S. Jewell. Addresses 
were made by Dr. O. E. Haven, former 
Superintendent of the village schools ; by 
Albert G. Lane, County Superintendent of 
Schools; Rev. Dr. Cummings, President of 
the Northwestern University, and others. 
William Blanchard, President of the Town- 
ship Trustees of Schools, presented the 
keys of the building to" the Principal-elect, 
and Prof. R. H. Cumnock, of the School 
of Oratory, gave selected readings. 

The Board of Trustees, at the date of 
the opening of the school, were William 
Blanchard, S. Goodenow and S. D. Childs. 
Mr. Childs was chosen at a special election 
called to fill a vacancy caused by the death 
of Norton W. Boomer, who did not live to 
see the completion of an enterprise in which 
he had taken great interest. 

The school was opened September 3, 
1883. The following teachers were em- 
ployed : 

Principal, Henry L. Boltwood. A. M. 

Science. Lyndon Evans, A. B. (Knox.) 

]\Iathematics, Eva S. Edwards (Oswego 
Normal School.) 




Latin and English, Mary L. Barrie. 

German and History, Ellen L. White. 

Music, O. H. Mervvin. 

Mr. Boltwood, who came to Illinois from 
Massachusetts in 1865, is widely known as 
the father of the Township High School in 
Illinois. In 1867 he organized in Prince- 
ton, Bureau County, the first school of this 
kind. Its success was an important factor 
in procuring the passage of the present 
State law pertaining to high schools. The 
Princeton school was organized under a 
special act. After teaching eleven years in 
Princeton, he organized another township 
high school at Ottawa, LaSalle County. 
Air. Evans came from the High School in 
LaSalle. Miss Edwards and Miss White 
had been teaching for two years in the High 
School of Evanston. Aliss Barrie came 
with Mr. Boltwood from Ottawa. 

On the morning of December 20 — the 
first very cold day of the winter — the build- 
ing was found to be on fire. A register 
had been carelessly placed directly upon 
woodwork, only a few feet above a fur- 
nace. The school session was just com- 
mencing when the fire was discovered. The 
pupils behaved admirably. When it was ap- 
parent that the fire could not be controlled, 
they quietly removed their books, and as- 
sisted in carrying the library and apparatus 
to neighboring houses. Only one piece of 
apparatus, of trifling value, was injured. 
The fire department worked admirably, but 
it was very difficult to reach the fire. Aid 
was summoned from Chicago, and after 
three hours of hard work the flames were 
extinguished. The greater part of the build- 
ing was uninjured except by water and 
smoke. The loss was about $4,000, fully 
covered by insurance. By extra hard work 
the building was reopened for school in a 
little more than two weeks, although with 
many unfavorable conditions. An even one 
hundred pupils were enrolled at the outset. 

Among them were several who had grad- 
uated in former years, but who wished to 
carry their studies farther with improved 
conditions. The general course of study 
was lengthened from three years to four. 
In consequence there was no regular class 
to graduate at the end of the year. Five 
pupils graduated, however, of whom all but 
one had been in the school four years. The 
total enrollment for the year reached one 
hundred and forty-three. 

Drawing had not been taught in the vil- 
lage high school, nor in the graded schools, 
but Miss Edwards was kind enough to take 
up this subject, and the high quality of the 
drawing work of the school from the first 
has been largely due to her energy and 
perseverance. O. H. Merwin had charge of 
the music, but the interest in this subject 
has never been very great, and it was re- 
tained in the course only three years. While 
it was retained, the pupils furnished the 
music for the graduating exercises. 

Prize Speaking. — In the spring of 
1884 a prize-speaking contest was held, 
open to pupils of the third year. An admis- 
sion fee was charged and the prizes were 
paid out of the receipts. Any surplus was 
expended for the school, especially for the 
benefit of the Athletic Association. After a 
few years the prizes were given by two of 
our citizens, and the proceeds were applied 
to the class fund of the Junior Class. It 
soon became a custom for the Junior Class 
to give a reception to the Seniors on the 
occasion of graduation. This reception is 
generally held in the school building. 

The enrollment of 1883-84 reached one 
hundred and fifty-five. The drawing work 
was increased. Typewriting was introduced 
as a voluntary study in connection with 
bookkeeping, and a class in shorthand was 
conducted outside of school hours. Forty 
different pupils took up typewriting, some 
of whom became reasonably expert. 



Mr. Evans, having been elected Superin- 
tendent of the South Evanston schools, re- 
signed at the end of the first year, and was 
succeeded by William Harkins, A.M., as 
teacher of Science and English. 

Near the close of this year an industrial 
exhibit was given by the school, to which 
the pupils were requested to bring some- 
thing of their own handiwork, not neces- 
sarily anything connected with school work. 
Most of them complied, and a very inter- 
esting display was made. Besides drawing, 
writing in English and German, typewrit- 
ing, shorthand and map-drawing, which 
might be considered as school work, there 
were exhibited scroll sawing, wood carv- 
ing, pieces of philosophical apparatus, 
bread, butter, confectionery, a great variety 
of needlework, and various collections of 
plants, insects and postage stamps. A large 
number of visitors inspected the exhibit. A 
class of twelve graduated this year. 

One hundred and sixty pupils were en- 
rolled in the fall of 1885, and the total en- 
rollment of the year was one hundred and 
seventy-one. This necessitated more teach- 
ing force, and Miss Jane H. White was 
added to the corps. Mr. Harkins was suc- 
ceeded as teacher of Science by Benjamin 
B. James, now (1903) Superintendent of 
Schools in West Superior, Wis. 

The increased number of pupils required 
a remodeling of the assembly room, which 
had been arranged on the original plan for 
only one hundred and forty-four pupils. By 
doubling the number of desks in part of the 
room one hundred and eighty were accom- 

In 1885 the school competed for the 
first time in the State Fair Exhibit, send- 
ing five sets of examination papers. Three 
of these took first prizes of $5 each. In 
1886 ten sets of papers were sent, which 
took eight first prizes and two seconds, 
besides the two "sweep-stake" prizes for the 

best six and the best ten sets. For seven 
successive years the school carried off the 
highest honors, and received, in cash, $424, 
which was expended in pictui'es, casts and 
books for the library. At the end of this 
time the former system of awarding prizes 
was changed, and the school has not com- 
peted since. 

The industrial exhibit of 1886 surpassed 
that of the former year, both in quantity and 
quality. The drawing and clay modeling 
attracted no little attention. A class of four- 
teen graduated this year. 

Mr. James was succeeded at the close of 
the year by Lorenzo N. Johnson, A. B., of 
the Wesleyan University of Middletown, 
Conn. Mr. Johnson remained five years 
and did splendid work. He took great in- 
terest in school athletics, which, under his 
general charge, were very successful. He 
resigned in 1 89 1 to accept a position as In- 
structor in Botany at Ann Arbor Universi- 
ty, Mich., where he remained until his la- 
mented death in 1897. 

From the first, the school took special 
interest in athletics. For several years in 
succession Evanston won the pennant in the 
Cook County Baseball League. It has also 
won high honors in indoor baseball. In 
football it has not been able to compete very 
favorably with the larger schools. The loss 
of Crain field, near the schoolhouse. was a 
great drawback to good practice. The 
names of Frederick W. Poole, John H. 
Kedzie, Irving McDowell, Richard Carr, 
.'\rthur Sickels and Frederick Lanphear, 
not to mention many others, will long be 
remembered in the school. 

Without following further in detail the 
history of the school it may briefly be said 
that the growth was very regular for sev- 
eral consecutive years, the increase averag- 
ing about thirty a year, and requiring an 
additional teacher each year. The annexing 



of Rogers Park to Chicago, in 1893, pre- 
vented the usual increase in that year. 

While no effort has been made to secure 
pupils from abroad a considerable number 
have attended, chiefly from the towns on 
the north. New Trier Township — in which 
are located Wilmette, Winnetka, Kenil- 
worth and Glencoe — was a regular contrib- 
utor to the attendance until it established a 
Township High School of its own. In the 
first semester of 1900-01 all the High School 
pupils of that township, seventy-seven in 
number, attended the Evanston school, 
while their own building was in process of 
erection. Their tuition, amounting to 
$1,525, was paid by Xew Trier Township. 

The total enrollment of the school in 
twenty years is almost exactly 2,900. Com- 
paring this number with the number of 
graduates, 549, and not counting the 420 
enrolled this year ( 1903), it will be seen that 
about 22 per cent of all that enter the school 
complete the course. 

Nineteen classes have graduated, con- 
taining in all 549 pupils. Of these about 
forty per cent have gone to colleges, or 
higher institutions, besides many who have 
entered college without completing the 
High School course, or who have com- 
pleted their preparation elsewhere. 

Of these graduates 205 — or about 2,^ per 
cent — were boys ; a much larger proportion 
than is usually found among the graduates 
of high schools. In one class the boys out- 
numbered the girls, and in another they 
were equal in number. 

Graduates or under-graduates have en- 
tered the following colleges and profes- 
sional schools, though the list is undoubt- 
edly incomplete: Amherst, Boston Univer- 
sity, Bowdoin, Dartmouth, Harvard, Wil- 
liams, Yale, Massachusetts School of Tech- 
nology, Holyoke, Smith, Wellesley, \'assar, 
Bryn Mawr, Wells, Baltimore Female Col- 
lege, Cornell, Princeton, Syracuse, Annapo- 

lis, West Point, Lehigh University of Mich- 
igan, University of Wisconsin, University 
of Minnesota, Wesleyan University of 
Bloomington, Northwestern University, 
Lake Forest University, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley, Colorado, Denver, Beloit, 
Rockford, Oberlin, Lewis Institute, Ar- 
mour Institute, School of Mines at Golden, 
School of Mines at Rolla, School of Mines 
at Houghton, Art Institute at Chicago, 
Cumnock School of Oratory, besides sever- 
al law and medical schools. Many have 
taken high honors, and several are profes- 
sors or instructors in various colleges. 

The original school building was planned 
to satisfy the needs of the Evanston of 1883 
rather than with any view to the future. 
Evanston then had a population of about 
8,000. Before four years had passed, the 
original assembly room was too small to 
accommodate the pupils, and a remodeling 
of the building was necessary. The growth 
continued, and in 1889 a large wing on the 
south side, containing ten recitation rooms, 
was added to the building at a cost of $22.- 
000. This, in turn, proved too small, and in 
1899 a new front and a north wing were 
added. This involved a virtual reconstruc- 
tion of the whole building, and the prob- 
lem of fitting the new to the old was much 
more difficult of solution than the building 
of an entirely new structure. Mr. Charles 
R. Ayers, however, proved equal to the 
occasion, and the present building is both 
attractive in appearance and convenient for 
work. The cost of the improvement was 
about $90,000. 

The north wing contains the Biological, 
the Physical and the Chemical laboratories, 
and a lecture room which is used in com- 
mon by the different teachers. The Manual 
Training Department occupies the north 
basement. On the second floor of this wing 
are the rooms assigned to the Drawing 
Department. There are three study-rooms, 



one for the Senior class, one occupied by 
the second and third year pupils, and one 
(the original assembly room) allotted to the 
entering class. The pupils generally study 
in these rooms when not in recitation. 

The building contains thirty-six rooms 
above the basement, and is intended to ac- 
commodate at least six hundred pupils. 
The present enrollment (1903) is 420. One 
of the rooms is designated as the Infirmary, 
and is equipped as an emergency hospital. 
Two large recitation rooms, thrown to- 
gether, are used as a sort of gymnasium. 
There is not room enough on the premises 
for a regular gymnasium. The proximity 
to two railroads is the greatest defect in 
the location. Twenty teachers are now em- 
ployed besides an ofifice clerk. 

Manual Training.— In 1886 the Board 
purchased tools for woodwork, enough to 
equip a class of twelve, and Mr. T. E. Skin- 
ner, a carpenter and contractor, gave in- 
struction outside of school hours to classes. 
Each pupil paid a fee of twenty-five cents 
a week for instruction. Twenty took in- 
struction at first. They constructed their 
own benches and tool chests, and made 
easels enough to furnish the drawing de- 
partment, but there was no regular course 
pursued. The hours after school were not 
favorable to work. In winter it became dark 
too early and in the milder weather it in- 
terfered with school athletics. Manual 
training was therefore dropped for some 

When the enlarged and remodeled build- 
ing was planned two large rooms in the 
basement were set aside for mechanical 
training. Improved benches and new tools 
were provided. A three horse-power dyna- 
mo was furnished, which takes the requisite 
current from the city electric plant. Four 
wood lathes were provided. Mr. Clarence 
M. Thorne took charge of the work. A reg- 
ular course was laid out, in connection with 

mechanical drawing. The work was done 
in school hours, and received credit like 
any other study requiring equal time. 

IMr. Ward W. Pearson took charge of 
the work in 1901 and is still in charge of 
it. This year two lathes, a circular saw, a 
band-saw, a drill and a forge have been 
added to the plant, which altogether cost 
about $1,500. As a rule, the pupils have 
taken interest in their work. Conditions of 
room prevent any other than woodwork 
and a course longer than two years. 

Citizenship. — On the day of the Pres- 
idential election the school has twice had 
a lesson in practical citizenship by going 
through the form of holding an election. 
Judges are appointed ; voters are registered 
in regular poll-books by clerks; votes are 
challenged ; regulation polling-booths are 
erected, and the specimen ballots sent out 
by the county officials are used instead of 
the official ones. Careful instruction is 
given in regard to the marking of the bal- 
lot. These elections have excited no little 

Draviring Department. — Twenty years 
ago — except in Massachusetts — few schools 
outside the larger cities included drawing, 
or any kind of manual training, in their 
regular courses of study. At the opening of 
the Evanston Township High School, the 
Principal said, "We must make a begin- 
ning, no matter how small it is," and the 
beginning was made. 

The pupils enrolled in that first drawing- 
class, almost without exception, had never 
had any previous instruction in that study. 
However, their interest and faithfulness 
gave promise of success to the experiment, 
and the results justified it. From the first 
the aim was to be practical. The allotted 
time was forty-five minutes daily, on alter- 
nate days, for two years. The work was 
planned to open to the pupil as many ave- 



nues as possible, leaving him to choose and 
specialize later. 

Form-drawing and design from given 
units were the basis of the first year's work ; 
representation and construction followed as 
the pupils gained confidence and power. 
"Correlation" was an important feature ; 
the drawing department supplemented the 
work in science and history. Under the su- 
perintendence of the drawing teacher, 
charts and sketches in zoology and botany 
were prepared. 

Clay modeling was introduced in 1885. 
In those days the drawing and mathematics 
were taught in the same room, and the pu- 
pil who went to the board to demonstrate 
a problem in Algebra and Geometry thread- 
ed his way cautiously around and among 
easels, tables, draw-ing boards and all the 
other "needfuls" that were slowly but sure- 
ly accumulating. Increasing numbers and 
lack of space made it necessary to omit the 
modeling until 1889, when it was again 
taken up under much more favorable con- 
ditions : not as before, as a supplement to 
drawing, but as an independent study, 
taken daily for a full year. 

In 1887 Historic Art was introduced. 
The introduction of drawing in the public 
schools relieved our course of some of the 
elementary work which before had been nec- 
essary. Xo feature of the course has proved 
more satisfactory, and no other has brought, 
in after years, more emphatic testimonials 
as to "value received." The pupils receive 
lectures which they themselves illustrate 
with their own drawings, and also insert 
in their note books whatever comes to hand 
from magazine and other illustrations. The 
Egyptian, the Assyrian, the Greek, the Ro- 
man and the Gothic are all treated. This 
department has nearly a hundred books of 
its own. more than two hundred large 
charts of mounted magazine clippings and 
illustrations, several hundred mounted 

prints and photographs, besides the use of 
the pictures and charts belonging in other 
departments and about a hundred and fifty 
lantern slides. 

In 1899 clay modeling, under the efficient 
supervision of Miss Maud I. Moore, a 
graduate of the school, and later of the 
Chicago Art Institute, assumed new life 
and interest. It is a third-year study, and is 
open to none who have not done excellent 
work in art. 

In 1900 the introduction of Manual 
Training as a part of the school curriculum 
made it necessary to increase the work in 
mechanical drawing; consequently, in ad- 
dition to the regular free-hand drawing, 
those who elect can have a two years' course 
in mechanical. 

Twice the department has outgrown its 
quarters. It now has commodious rooms, 
well equipped with store-rooms and cases, 
in which to house its material. Modern 
and improved adjustable tables are provided 
for the mechanical and charcoal drawing; 
another room is devoted to historical art 
and design, and still another to the clay 

The school has, from time to time, sent 
its work to competitive exhibits, and al- 
though compelled to compete with schools 
that carry drawing through a full four 
years' course, has won honors and received 
honorable mention. 

A fair proportion of our pupils have gone 
to art schools, and are now professional 
teachers, illustrators, designers, architects, 
draftsmen and civil engineers, while others, 
in different professions, testify that their 
High School work in art has been of great 

It is due to the people of Evanston to say 
that the drawing department has always 
had their hearty support. They may justly 
congratulate themselves that they were 
among the first, and not the last, to recog- 


nize its value and give it an honorable 

It is simply an act of justice to say that 
Miss Eva S. Edwards, who has had full 
charge of the work from the beginning and 
developed it from feeble infancy to full ma- 
turity, is entitled to the highest credit for 
its present and past success. Few teachers 
have been privileged to witness such a hap- 
py growth, or have worked more patiently 
and unsparingly for its realization. 

List of Trustees. — The following 
were the Trustees of the school under the 
school law of 1870: 

William Blanchard, President (1882- 
1890) ; S. D. Childs, deceased (1882-1884) ; 
S. B. Goodenow (1882-1890) ; Henry J. 
Wallingford (vice Childs), (1884-1890). 

By the law of 1889 the High School 
passed, in April, 1890, under control of a 
Board of Education, consisting of five mem- 
bers. The Board then chosen was as fol- 
lows : 

Chas. B. Congdon. President (1890- 
1897) ; John W. Bynam (1890-1891) ; Ed- 

ward D. Coxe (Rogers Park), (1890- 
i8g3); Thomas Bates ( 1890-1900) ; How- 
ard G. Grey (1890-1902). 

Air. Coxe resigned in 1893 in conse- 
quence of the annexation of Rogers Park to 
the City of Chicago. 

The following have served since : L. H. 
Bushnell (1891-1900) ; David S. :McMullen 

The present board consists of .the follow- 
ing : 

William S. Lord, President, appointed 
1897 ; Conrad H. Poppenhusen, appointed 
1900 ; Harold Dyrenforth, appointed 1901 ; 
Dorr A. Kimball, appointed 1901 ; George 
P. Alerrick, appointed 1902. Winsor Chase 
is Secretary. 

( Prof. Henry L. Boltwood, who prepared 
the preceding chapter, died January 23, 
1906. terminating a career of over fifty 
}ears in connection with the cause of edu- 
cation, of which over forty years were 
spent in the State of Illinois and more than 
twenty-two years as Principal of the Evan- 
ston Township High School.) 

;^x^ha/c<^'Mxh/ ^i^^^Ay^^\^4/^ 



(By J. SEYMOUR CURRKY, President Evanston Historical Society) 

EslabHsIiiJioit of Xorthncstcni University 
Marks the Beginning of Evanston Liter- 
ary Life — Effect of the Gathering of 
Professors, Instructors and Students — 
GrozLih of Literary Activity — Edward 
Eggleston and Frances E. Willard Begin 
their Careers Here — Miss Willard' s "A 
Classic Town" — Miss Simpson's Cata- 
logue of Evanston Authors in igoo — 
Grozvth of A'ine Years — Alphabetical 
List of Authors xvith Bibliography and 
Biographical Records. 

The literary life of Evanston began with 
the establishment of the Northwestern Uni- 
versity in 1855, and has flourished and kept 
pace with the intellectual development of 
the people. Naturally the location of an 
institution of learning attracted a large 
number of dwellers here who were in sym- 
pathy with the University and its work, or 
who were connected with it as professors, 
instructors or students. This created an at- 
mosphere that was favorable to the growth 
of every form of literary activity, and the 
book publishers, as well as those of journals 
and periodicals, soon became familiar with 
the names of Evanston people as authors 
and contributors. \'arious weekly and 
monthly publications have been established 
here and have enjoyed prosperous careers. 

It was in Evanston that Edward Eggles- 
ton lived when he began to write his re- 

markable series of books, beginning as a 
writer of fiction and afterwards becoming 
a historian of great reputation. It was 
here that Frances Willard began her liter- 
ary work, and, possessing wonderful tal- 
ents, attracted the attention of the world 
to her work in the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union. There were others who 
were writers of wide reputation before com- 
ing here, but who continued their literary 
work in this favorable environment. Many 
societies of a literary character have en- 
joyed successful careers, and their records 
are a valuable possession of the community. 

The first account of the literary history 
of Evanston is embodied in Frances Wil- 
lartFs history, entitled "A Classic Town," 
published in 1891. in which she says: "The 
amount of scholarly ink which has been 
put to paper by Evanston pens will com- 
pare favorably with that of any other com- 
munity of its size and age in the world." 
"The literary atmosphere," she says, "is the 
highest charm of Evanston ;" and adds, "lit- 
erary people, be they great or small, hover 
by instinct around a center of books and 
thought and character." 

At a meeting of the Young Woman's 
Missionary Society of the First M. E. 
Church, in 1900, one of the features was 
the sale of a "Catalogue of Evanston Au- 
thors" for the benefit of the society. The 
catalogue was in pamphlet form and was 


compiled by Miss Frances Simpson, who, 
with the help of the staff of the Evanston 
PubHc Library, prepared a list of 214 
authors, with the titles of their books or 
contributions to the press in one form or 
another. In Miss \Villard"s book, published 
nine _\ears before, she had given the names 
of sixty-four authors and journalists. Thus 
it would appear that there had been a large 
increase in the number at the time that Miss 
Simpson's list was prepared. This was pre- 
dicted by ]\Iiss Willard who said in 1891, 
"It is safe to predict that the coming thirty- 
five years will show ten times as much work 
of this kind as the past thirty-five can 

The authors whose names and works are 
given below are those who do now, or, at 
some period of their lives, have resided in 
Evanston, and who have published their 
works in book form. The list does not in- 
clude journalists, contributors to periodi- 
cals, or writers of pamphlets. The attempt 
has been made to make the list fairly com- 
plete, but omissions are likely to be found. 
The reader's indulgence is asked for any 
shortcomings of this kind. 

The people of Evanston take a just pride 
in the work of their writers, denoting, as 
it does, the intellectual status and culture 
of the community : and they will, no 
doubt, be surprised and gratified at the 
record here shown. 


Isaac Emens Adams. — Born at Mend- 
ham, N. J., October 29, 1857 ; graduated at 
Northwestern University ; received degree 
of A. M. from same institution in 1882 ; on 
staff of "Chicago Times" for several years ; 
and afterwards practiced law. 

Author: "Life of Emorv A. Storrs" 

A. T. Andreas: "History of Cook Coun- 
ty, Illinois, from the Earliest Period to the 
Present Time" ( 1884) ; "History of Chi- 

cago from the Earliest Period to the Present 
Time" (3 v., 1884-86). 

Mrs. Rena Michaels Atchison: "L'n- 
American Immigration : Its Present Effects 
and Future Perils : A Study from the Cen- 
sus of 1890" (1894). 

Charles r>each Atwell. — Born at Theresa, 
X. Y.. April II, 1855; educated in Water- 
town (N. Y.) High School and Syracuse 
University ; Professor of Botany in Xorth- 
western L'niversity since 1894. 

Author: "The Alumni Record of the 
Northwestern Lmiversity" (1903). 

M. Helen Beckwith : "In IMythland." 
(2 v., 1896) ; "Storyland with the Scissors" 

Katharine Beebe: "First School Year 
for Primary Workers" (1895) ; "Home 
Occupations for Little Children" (1896) ; 
"School Room Plays" (1898); "Story of 
Longfellow" (1899); "Story of George 
Rogers Clark" (1900). 

Charles Wesley Bennett. — Born at East 
Bethany, N. Y., July 18, 1828; educated 
at Wesleyan (Conn.) University; Profes- 
sor of History at Syracuse (N. Y.) Uni- 
versity, 1871-85; Professor of Historical 
Theology in Garrett Biblical Institute, 
1885-91 ; died at Evanston, April 17, 1891. 

Author: "Christian Archaeology" (1888). 

Henry Leonidas Boltwood. — Born at 
Amherst, Mass. Jan. 17. 1831 ; died 
at Evanston, Jan. 23, 1906; was grad- 
uated at Amherst College; in 1864 entered 
the service of the U. S. Sanitary Commis- 
sion ; was principal of the High School at 
Princeton, III., from 1867 to 1878 ; and oc- 
cupied a similar position at Ottawa, 111., 
for the succeeding five years ; in 1883, came 
to Evanston where he became Principal of 
the High School and remained in this posi- 
tion up to the time of his death. 

Author: "English Grammar and How 
to Teach It." (1871) : "Topical Outlines of 



General History" (1889); "Higher Spell- 
er" ( i8()3l. 

Lewis Henry Boutell. — Born in Boston, 
Mass., July 21, 1826; died at Washington, 
D. C, January 16, 1899; was graduated 
from Brown University in 1844 and from 
Harvard Law School in 1847; o" J^"- '' 
1848, was admitted to the bar in Boston; 
came West in 1863 and. in 1865, began the 
practice of law in Chicago. In 1893 '''^ ^^^^ 
the law practice for literary pursuits. 
.\uthor: ".\le.xander Hamilton, the Con- 
structive Statesman" (1890); "Thomas 
Jefferson, the Man of Letters" (1891); 
"Life of Roger Sherman" (1896). 

Frank Milton Bristol. — Methodist Epis- 
copal clergyman, born in Orleans County, 
N. v., January 4. 185 1; graduated from 
Northwestern University, Ph. B., 1877, 
(A. M., D.D.) ; was pastor of leading 
churches in Chicago; now pastor Metro- 
politan Methodist Episcopal Church, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Author: "Providential Epochs"; "The 
Ministry of Art" (1897); "Shakespeare 
and America" (1898). 

Solon Cary Bronson. — Born at West 
Union, Iowa, July 26, 1855 ; graduated at 
Upper Iowa University. Fayette, Iowa ; be- 
came a professor in the Cornelia Miller de- 
partment of Practical Theology, of the Gar- 
rett Biblical Institute, in 1896 ; has received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity from two 
institutions, viz.: Garrett Biblical Institute, 
1894, and Cornell College, Iowa, 1903. 

Author: "Delusions: A Volume of Ad- 
dresses" (1895). 

Walter Lee Brown. — Born at Melrose, 
Mass., August 24, 1853, graduated at 
Northwestern L'niversity and Columbia 
College School of ]\Iines: died at Evans- 
ton, April 6, 1904. 

Author : "Manual of Assaying Gold, Sil- 
ver. Copper and Lead Ores" (Ed. 6. 1896). 
William Caldwell. — Born in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, November 10, 1863 ; educated in 

Edinburgh; graduated from Edinburgh 
University (M. A.) in 1884; post-graduate 
student in Germany, Paris, and Cambridge 
(England). 1887-91, inclusive; received de- 
gree of Doctor in Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence, Edinburgh ; obtained high honors at 
Edinburgh ; called to Sage School of Phil- 
osophy, Cornell University, N. Y., 189 1 ; to 
University of Chicago, 1892; to North- 
western University, 1894, where he has been 
Professor of Moral and Social Philosophy. 

Author: "Schopenhauer's System in its 
Philosophical Significance" (1893). 

Henry Smith Carhart. — Born, Coeymans, 
N. Y.. March 27. 1844 ; graduated from 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., 
in 1869; later studied at Yale, Harvard and 
Berlin; Professor of Physics and Chem- 
istry at Northwestern University, 1872-86: 
President of Board of Judges, Department 
of Electricity, Columbian E.xposition, 1893 ; 
member of Electrical Societies; Professor 
of Physics, University of Michigan since 

Author: "Primary Batteries" (1891); 
■'Elements of Physics" (with H. N. Chute) 
(1892); "University Physics" (1894-6); 
"Electrical Measurements" (1895). 

George Chainey. — Unitarian minister, 
born in England in 185 1 ; educated in Evan- 
ston and Boston ; pastor Unitarian Church, 
Evansville, Indiana, 1877-80; engaged in 
work on Biblical Interpretation. 

Author. "Foundation Stones." a Series 
of Unitarian Sermons (1879) ; "The New 
\'ersion : Discourses on the Bible in Boston" 
(1882) ; "She: An Allegory of the Church" 
(1889); "Jeanne D'Arc, the Flower of 
France" (1888); "The Ten Command- 
ments" (1900) ; "Book of Ruth: An Idyl 
of Friendship between the Heavens and the 
Earth" (1901) ; "Unsealed Bible"; v. i, 
Genesis (1902). 

J. Scott Clark. — Born in Copenhagen, N. 
Y., September 23, 1854; graduated from 



Syracuse University in 1877; Principal of 
Evanston High School, 1879-82; Professor 
of Rhetoric and English Criticism, Syracuse 
University, 1882-92; Professor of English 
Language, Northwestern University, 
since 1892. 

Author: "Practical Rhetoric" (1886); 
"Briefer Practical Rhetoric" (1892); 
"Study of English Prose Writers" (1898) ; 
"Study of English and American Poets" 

Samuel Travers Clover. — Born in Lon- 
don, England, August 13, 1859: educated 
there; began newspaper career in 1880, 
making trip around the world ; worked on 
newspapers in Dakota five years ; stafif cor- 
respondent of "Chicago Herald ;" Manag- 
ing editor of "Chicago Evening Post," 
from 1894 to 190 1 : "Los Angeles (Cal.) 
Evening News," 1905. 

Author: "Paul Travers' Adventures" 
(1897) ; "Glimpses Across the Sea" (1900) ;. 
"Rose Reef to Buluwayo" (1896) ; "Poets 
and Poetry of Dakota" (1898); "Zephyrs 
from Dakota" ( 1898). 

George Albert Coe. — Born Monroe Coun- 
ty, N. Y., March 26, 1862 ; graduated from 
L^niversity of Rochester ; Ph. D., Boston 
University, 1891 ; John Evans Professor of 
Philosophy, Northwestern University since 

Author: "The Spiritual Life: Studies 
in the Science of Religion" (1900) ; "The 
Religion of a Mature Mind" ( 1902). 

Lyman Edgar Cooley. — Born Canan- 
daigua, N. Y., December 5, 1850 : graduated 
from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, C.E., 
1874; Professor in Northwestern Univer- 
sity, 1874-77 : Associate Editor "Engineer- 
ing News," 1876-78: Assistant Engineer of 
railroad bridge over the Missouri River, 
Glasgow, Missouri, 1878; Assistant L'nited 
States Engineer on Mississippi and Miss- 
ouri River improvements, 1878-84: Editor 
"American Engineer," 1884: Consulting 

Engineer for Chicago Sanitary District 
(Drainage Canal). Member of the Inter- 
national Deep Waterwavs Committee, 1895- 

Author; "The Lakes and Gulf Water- 

Edwin C. Crawford. — Born at Fostoria, 
Ohio, April 10, 1845 ; educated at High 
School. Ft. Wayne. Ind., and graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1874. 

Author : "Civil Government of Illinois 
and the United States" ; Special Chapters 
on Chicago and Cook County (1890). 

Henr)- Crew. — Born Richmond, Ohio, 
June 4, 1859 ; graduated from Princeton 
College, B. A., 1882 ; Fellow at Princeton, 
1882-84: Fellow Johns Hopkins, 1884-87, 
Ph.D., 1887; Instructor in Physics, Har- 
vard College, 1888-91 ; Astronomer Lick 
Observatory, 1891-92: Assistant Editor 
".•\stroph\-sical Journal" : Professor of 
Ph\-sics. Northwestern Universitv, since 

Author: "Elements of Physics," for 
L^se in High Schools {1899) ; "Laboratory 
Manual of Physics," for LTse in High 
Schools (with R. R. Tatnall) (1902); 
Editor: "Wave Theory of Light"; "Mem- 
oirs of Huygens, Young and Fresnel" 

Robert McLean Cumnock. — Born in Ayr, 
Scotland, May 31, 1844; came to America 
in the following year : graduated at Wes- 
leyan University in 1868 ; and soon after 
became Professor of Elocution at North- 
western University, which position he has 
held to the present time. 

Author: "Choice Readings": "School 

Nathan Smith Davis, Sr., M. D., LL. D.— 
Born at Greene, N. Y., January 9, 1817 ; 
graduated from College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. Fairfield, N. Y., 1837 ; received 
honorary degree A. M. Northwestern Uni- 



versity, and LL. D. from Illinois Wesleyan 
University ; practiced medicine in Chicago 
from 1849; Professor in Rush Medical Col- 
lege, Chicago, 1849-59 ' one of the founders 
(1859) of Chicago Medical College, now 
Medical Department Xorthvvestern Univer- 
sity ; Professor there for thirty years and 
Dean of Faculty until 1898, resigned: editor 
of various medical journals; President of 
the International Medical Congress, 1887 ; 
one of the founders of Mercy Hospital, and 
one of its physicians, for over forty years ; 
a founder and Trustee of Xorthwestern 
University, Chicago Academy of Sciences, 
Chicago Historical Society, Illinois State 
Microscopical Society and Union College of 
Law ; a member of various other Medical 
Associations in Chicago and New York ; 
died June 16, 1904. 

Author: "Principles and Practice of 
Medicine," and various pamphlets on med- 
ical subjects and on temperance. 

Nathan Smith Davis, Jr., M. D. — Born in 
Chicago, September 5, 1858; graduated 
from Northwestern University, 1880, A. M. 
1883 ; graduated from Chicago Medical 
College, 1883 ; has since practiced in Chi- 
cago : Associate Professor of Pathology, 
1884-86; since then Professor of the Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Medicine and of Clin- 
ical Medicine, Chicago Medical College; 
Physician to Mercy Hospital since 1884; 
Member of the Ninth International Medical 
Congress, Pan-American Medical Congress, 

Author: "Consumption: How to Pre- 
vent It and How to Live With It"; "Dis- 
eases of the Lungs, Heart and Kidneys," 

Edward Eggleston. — Born \'evay, Indi- 
ana, December 10, 1837 ; died September 2, 
1902 ; educated at country and village 
schools in Indiana ; entered Methodist 
Episcopal ministry in 1857 ; editor of 
"Little Corporal," Chicago, 1866-67; chief 

Editor of the "National Sunday School 
Teacher" (1867-70) and other religious 
papers ; President of the American Histor- 
ical Association in 1900. 

Author: "Hoosier Schoolmaster" (1871) ; 
"End of the World" (1872); "Mystery 
of Metropolisville" (1873); "Circuit 
Rider" (1874); "Hoosier School Boy" 
(1883) ; "History of the United States and 
Its People" (1888) ; "First Book in Amer- 
ican History" ( 1889) ; "Beginners of a Na- 
tion" (1896); "Transit of Civilization from 
England to America" (1900) ; Editor, 
"Christ in Art" (1874) ; "Christ in Litera- 
ture" {1875). 

Finley Ellingwood. — Born Dearborn 
County, Ind.. September 12, 1852; educated 
in Kankakee, 111. : graduated from Bennett 
Medical College in 1878 ; Professor in same 
institution from 1885 to present time. 

Author: "Manual of Medical Chemis- 
try" (1889): "Annual of Eclectic Medi- 
cine" ( i8()0, V)i and 92) ; "Systematic 
Treatise on JNIateria Medica" (1899); 
"Treatment of Disease" (1906). 

Frank Macajah Elliot. — Born at Corin- 
na. Me., March 27, 1853; graduated at 
Xorthwestern University ; President Evans- 
ton Hospital Association since 1896. 

Author: "History of Omega" (1885). 

George H. Ellis: "Analysis of White 
Paints" (1898). 

Joseph Emerson : "Lectures and Ser- 
mons on Subjects connected with Christian 
Liberal Education" (1897). 

Marshall Davis Ewell. — Born in Oxford, 
Michigan, August 18, 1844; educated in 
Michigan : LL. B. University of Michigan 
1868 ; A. M. Northwestern Lfniversity, 
1879; Professor of Common Law, L^niver- 
sity College of Law, Chicago, from 1877 
until the founding of Kent College of Law 
— also known as Microscopist ; President of 
the American Microscopical Society, 1893. 

Author: "Leading Cases on Disabilities" 



(1876); "Treatise on Law of Fixtures" 
(1876); "Essentials of the Law" (1882); 
"Manual of Medical Jurisprudence" (1887). 

Editor: "Blackwell on Tax Titles"; 
"Evans on Agencies" ; "Lindley on Part- 
nership," and other works. 

Charles Samuel Farrar: "Art Topics: 
History of Sculpture, Painting and Archi- 
tecture" (1885). 

Randolph Sinks Foster. — Born Williams- 
burg, Ohio, February 22, 1820; educated 
at Augusta College, Kentucky; entered 
itinerant ministry of Methodist Episcopal 
Church 1837, in Kentucky Conference; 
later was transferred to Ohio and, in 1850, 
to New York, remaining until 1857; Presi- 
dent of Northwestern University 1857-60; 
again in pastorate work in New York and 
Sing Sing, 1860-68; Professor of Syste- 
matic Theology, 1868-69; President of 
Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. 
J., 1869-72 ; died in 1903. 

Author: "Objections to Calvinism" 
(1849); "Centenary Thoughts" (1884); 
"Beyond the Grave" (1878) : "Studies in 
Theology" (1886); "Philosophy of Chris- 
tian Experience"; "Christian Puritv" 

Francis Gellatly: "Necklace of Liberty" 
(1886) ; "Love Made to Order, and Temper 

Anna Adams Gordon. — Born in Boston, 
July 21, 1853; educated in Newton (Mass.) 
High School and at Mt. Holyoke College ; 
for twenty-one years private secretary of 
Miss Frances E. Willard ; Vice President 
at Large of National W. C. T. U. 

Author: "Marching Songs"'; "White 
Ribbon Hymnal" ; "Beautiful Life of 
Frances E. W'illard" (1898). 

Ulysses Sherman Grant.— Born in Mo- 
line, Illinois, February 14, 1867; graduated 
from the University of Minnesota in 1888 ; 
Ph. D., Johns Hopkins, 1893; Assistant 
State Geologist, Minnesota, 1893-99: In- 
structor in Geology in the University of 

Alinnesota, 1897-98; Assistant Geologist on 
the Geological and Natural History Survey 
of Wisconsin since 1899; Assistant Editor 
of the ".\merican Geologist" since 1897; 
Professor of Geology and Curator of the 
Museum, Northwestern University, since 

Author: " Preliminary Report on the 
Copperbearing Rocks of Douglas County, 
Wisconsin ( 1900) ; "Wisconsin Geological 
and Natural History Survey" (v. 6, 1900) ; 
"Final Report of the Geological and Natural 
History Survey of Minnesota" (with N. H. 
Winchell) (1899-1900). 

John Henry Gray.— Born in Charleston, 
Illinois, j\Iarch 11, 1859; graduated from 
Harvard in 1887; Ph. D., Halle, Germany, 
1892 ; Studied also at Paris, Vienna and 
Berlin ; Instructor in Political Economy at 
Harvard, 1887-89; Chairman of the World's 
Congress Auxiliary on Political Science in 
connection with the Columbian Exposition, 
Chicago, 1893 ; Chairman of the Municipal 
Committee of the Civic Federation of Chi- 
cago; 1894-96; First Vice President of the 
American Economic Association, 1897-98; 
appointed by Labor Commissioner. C. D. 
Wright, to investigate labor conditions in 
England, 1902 ; Professor of Political 
Economy and Social Science, Northwestern 
University, since 1892. 

Author: "Die Stellung der Privaten Be- 
leuchtnugsgesellschaften zu Stadt und 
Staat" ; "Die Erfahrung in Wein, Paris und 
Massachusetts," Jena (1893). 

Evarts Boutell Greene. — Born at Kobe, 
Japan, July 8, 1870; was educated in a 
private school at Yokohama, Japan, and in 
the public schools of Westborough, Mass., 
and Evanston ; student at Northwestern 
University, 1885-88, and at Harvard, 1888- 
93 : A. B., A. ^I.. Ph. D.,— all from Har- 
vard ; at L^niversity of Berlin, Germany, 
1893 to 1894: Professor of History, Uni- 
versitv of Illinois. 

/XL< ^^^hl*c.^ 



Author: "The Provincial Governors in 
the English Colonies of North America" 
(Harvard Historical Series, Vol. T, 1898). 
"The Government of Illinois, Its History 
and Administration" (Macmillan, 1904) ; 
"Provincial America" (Harpers, 1905). 

James Stanley Grimes: Geonomy: The 
Creation of Continents by Ocean Currents" 
(1857) ; "Human Nature and the Nerves" 
(1857) ; "Improved System of Geonomy" 
(1866) ; Mesmerism and Magic Eloquence" 
(1862); "^Mysteries of the Head and 
Heart" (1870) ; "New System of Phrenol- 
ogy and Evolution of the Brain" ( 1869) ; 
"Philosophy of the Mind" (1870) ; "Phreno 
Geology, the Evolution of Animals and 
I\Ian" (1850) ; "Phreno Physiology, Hu- 
man Nature, the Evolution of Mind and its 
Instruments" (1901). 

Mrs. Elizabeth Morrisson Boynton Har- 
bert. — Born in Crawfordsville, Indiana, 
April 15, 1845 ; graduated from Terre 
Haute Female College 1862 ; for eight years 
editor Woman's Department, "Chicago 

Author: "Out of Her Sphere" (1871) ; 
"The Golden Fleece" (1867); ".-Xmore" ; 
Composer of the songs, words and music of 
"On Arlington Heights," "What Shall we 
Do With the Hours?" etc. 

James Taft Hatfield. — Born in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., June 15, 1862; graduated from 
Northwestern University, 1883: A.M. 1886; 
Johns Hopkins University, Ph.D., 1890; 
traveled and studied in Japan, China, India 
and Egypt, 1883-84; Professor of Classi- 
cal Languages in Rust University, Holly 
Springs, Mississippi, 1884-85; graduate 
student and Fellow at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, 1887-90; Professor of German 
Language and Literature at Northwestern 
University, 1890; studied at Berlin, Weimar 
and Oxford, 1896-97 ; served in Spanish- 
American War as Captain of a five-inch gun 
on the U. S. cruiser "Yale," June to August, 

1898; Professor of German Literature at 
Northwestern University since 1890; Con- 
tributing editor "Americana Germanica" ; 
Member of the American Oriental Society 
since 1884; Member of the Modern Lan- 
guage Association of America, etc. 

Author: "Elements of Sanskrit Gram- 
mar" (1884) ; "Index to Gothic, Forms in 
Kluge's Woeterbuch" (1889) ; "Freytag's 
Rittmeister von alt-Rosen" (1894). 

Editor of German te.xts ; Translator of 
German poems. 

Erastus Otis Haven. — Born in Boston, 
November i, 1820; died in Salem, Oregon, 
August 1881 ; graduated from Wesleyan 
University in 1842 ; in 1848 entered Meth- 
odist Episcopal ministry in New York Con- 
ference; in 1853 Professor of Latin in L'ni- 
versity of Michigan, which he exchanged 
the next year for the chair of Eng- 
lish Language, Literature and History ; 
given degree of D. D. in 1854 by 
Union College; resigned in 1856, and 
returned to Boston, where he was 
editor of "Zion's Herald" for seven years, 
during which period he served two years in 
State Senate, and a part of the time was 
an Overseer of Harvard University; Presi- 
dent of University of Michigan, 1863-69; 
President of Northwestern LIniversity, 
1869-72 ; in 1880 was ordained a Bishop of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Author: "American Progress; The 
Young Man Advised" (1855); "Pillars of 
Truth" (1866); "Rhetoric" (1869). 

Henry Bixby Hemenway. — Born at 
Montpelier, Vt., December 20, 1856: gradu- 
ated at Northwestern University, 1879; 
practicing physician since 1880. 

Author: "Healthful Womanhood and 
Childhood" (1894). 

Newell Dwight Hillis.— Born in Mag- 
nolia, Iowa, September 2, 1858; educated 
at Iowa College, Lake Forest University 
and McCormick Theological Seminary 



(M. A., and D. D., Northwestern Univer- 
sity) ; entered Presbyterian ministry ; pas- 
tor at Peoria, Illinois, 1887-90; at Evan- 
ston, Illinois, 1890-94; succeeded late Prof. 
David Swing as pastor of Central Church, 
Chicago (an independent church), 1894; 
pastor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, since 
January, 1899. 

Author: "The Investment of Influence" 
(1898); "A Man's Value to Society" 
(1896); "How the Inner Light Failed"; 
"Foretokens of Immortality" ( 1897) ; 
"Great Books as Life Teachers" (1899); 
"Influence of Christ in Modern Life" 

Rosa Birch Hitt. — Born at Elkhart, Ind., 
April 25, 1863 ; educated at the High 
School, Marion, Ind., and at Northwestern 
University; married Isaac R. Hitt, Jr.. in 

Author: "The Instrument Tuned" 

Jane Currie Hoge. — Born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., July 31, 181 1 ; educated at Miss 
Longstrength's school in Philadelphia: en- 
gaged with the U. S. Sanitary Commission 
during the Civil War, visiting more than 
one hundred thousand men in hospitals ; 
died at Chicago, August 26, 1890. 

Author: "The Boys in Blue" (1867). 

Thomas Franklin Holgate. — Born in 
Hastings County. Ontario, April 8, 1859 ; 
graduated at Mctoria College. Toronto, 
1884; Professor at Northwestern L'niver- 
sity since 1893. 

Author: "Elementary Geometry, Plane 
and Solid" (1901). 

George Washington Hough. — Born in 
Montgomery County, New York, October 
24, 1836; graduated from Union College 
in 1856; Astronomer and Director of 
Dudley Observatory, Albany, N. Y., 1860- 
74; Director of Dearborn Observatory and 
Professor of Astronomy in University of 
Chicago, 1879-87; discovered more than 

600 new double stars and made systematic 
study of the planet Jupiter ; invented many 
instruments pertaining to astronomy, me- 
teorology and physics ; Professor of Astron- 
omy at Northwestern University and Direc- 
tor of Dearborn Observatory since 1887. 

Author : "Annals of the Dudley Obser- 
vatory" (2 v., 1866-1871); "Annual Re- 
ports of the Chicago Astronomical So- 

Mary Hess Hull.— Born at Miltonville, 
Ohio, April 22, 1845 (maiden name Mary 
Ann Hess) ; educated in schools of her na- 
tive town ; married Morton Hull, December, 
1863; died in Chicago September 13, 1905. 

Author: "Columbus, and What He 
Found" (1892) ; "Browning's Christmas 
Eve," (1900). 

Harvey Bostwick Hurd. — Born in Hun- 
tington, Connecticut, February 14, 1828; 
came to Chicago in 1846; admitted to the 
bar in 1848 ; LL. D. Northwestern Univer- 
sity ; Professor in the Chicago Law School 
(now a department of Northwestern Uni- 
versity), 1862-1900; first President of the 
Village of Evanston ; official reviser of 
General Statutes of Illinois ; edited State 
edition of the same, 1874; has since edited 
sixteen editions of General State Laws; 
originator of the great Chicago Drainage 
Canal scheme ; died January 20, 1906. 

Author: "Torrens Act of Illinois for 
Registration of Land Titles" ; also of "Juve- 
nile Court Act of Illinois," April 22, 1899. 

Edmund Janes James. — Born in Jackson- 
ville, Illinois, May 21, 1855; educated at 
Illinois State Normal School and North- 
western and Harvard Universities, A. M. ; 
Ph. D., L'niversity of Halle, Germany 
( 1877) ; Principal of Evanston High School 
(1878-79); Principal of Model High 
School, Normal, Illinois (1879-82) ; Pro- 
fessor of Public Finance and Admin- 
istration, Wharton School of Finance 
and Economy, University of Pennsyl- 



vania (1883-95); Professor of Politi- 
cal and Social Science, University of 
Pennsylvania (1884-95); Edited the pub- 
lications of the University of Pennsylvania, 
Political Economy and Public Law Series 
(1886-95) ; Vice President of the American 
Economic Association ; President of the 
American Academy of Political and Social 
Science since 1889; Vice President of the 
Board of Trustees of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library since 1895 '' Professor of 
Public Administration and Director of Ex- 
tension Division in the University of Chi- 
cago (1896-1902) ; President of Northwest- 
ern L^niversity (1902-04); then became 
President University of Illinois at Urbana, 

Author : "Relation of the Modern Muni- 
cipality to the Gas Supply" (1886) ; "The 
Legal Tender Decisions" (1887); "The 
Canal and the Railway" (1890); "Federal 
Constitution of Germany" (1890) ; "Federal 
Constitution of Switzerland" (1890) ; Edu- 
cation of Business Men in Europe" (1899) ; 
"Government of a Typical Prussian City" 
(Halle) (1900). 

James iMton James. — Born in Hazel- 
green, Wisconsin, September 17, 1864; 
graduated from University of Wisconsin in 
1888; held scholarship and fellowship in 
History, Johns Hopkins University, 1891- 
93 ; Ph. D., 1893 ; Professor of History 
Cornell College, Iowa, four years ; Member 
of the American Historical Society ; Mem- 
ber of Council and Secretary of North- 
western Settlement ; President of the North 
Central History Teachers' Association ; 
Professor of History, Northwestern Uni- 
versity since 1897. 

Aiithor : "Constitution and Admission of 
Iowa into the Union" (1900) ; "Govern- 
ment in State and Nation" (with A. H. 
Sanford) (1901). 

William Patterson Jones. — Born about 
1827; founder (1855) of the North- 

western Female College, and for many 
years President of same; in 1862 was sent 
as Consul to Macao, China; later became 
President of Fremont (Neb.) Normal 
School, where he died about 1890. 

.Author: "Myth of Stone Idol, a Poem" 
( 1876) ; "Inter-Ocean Curiosity Shop." 

John Hume Kedzie. — Born in Stamford, 
N. v., September 8, 1815; graduated from 
Oberlin College in 1841 ; admitted to the 
bar in 1847 '• member of Illinois Legislature, 
1877 to 1879; died at Evanston, April 9, 

Author: "Solar Heat, Gravitation and 
Sun Spots" (1886). 

Daniel Parish Kidder. — Born at Darien, 
N. Y., October 18, 1815 ; graduated at Wes- 
leyan University, Middletown, Conn., in 
1836; from 1837 to 1840 was a missionary 
to Brazil ; and from 1844 to 1856 editor of 
the Sunday School publications of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church ; compiled and edited 
more than eight hundred volumes for Sun- 
day School libraries ; the list of which would 
fill many pages of this history; in 1856 be- 
came Professor of Practical Theology in 
the Garrett Biblical Institute, where he re- 
mained until 1 87 1, when he was called to 
a like chair in the Drew Theological Sem- 
inary ; died at Evanston, July 29, 1891. 

Author: "Mormonism and the Mor- 
mons" (1844); "Residence and Travel in 
Brazil" (2 vols., 1845) ; in conjunction with 
Rev. J. C. Fletcher, "Brazil and the Bra- 
zilians" (1857) ; and "Treatise on Homilet- 
ics" (1868). 

Homer H. Kingsley. — Born at Kalama- 
zoo, Mich.. June 9, 1859; graduated at 
Alichigan University in 1881 ; Principal of 
Evanston Public Schools (Dist. No. i) 
since 1886. 

Author: "The New Era Word Book" 
( 1901 ). 

Nellie Fitch Kingsley. — Born at Peoria, 
111., October 4, 1862; educated at Kalama- 


zoo (i\Iich.) High _School : married to 
Homer H. Kingsley, August i8, 1886. 

Author: "History of the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition" ( igoo) ; "Four Ameri- 
can Explorers" (1902). 

Marshall ^Monroe Kirkman. — Born in Il- 
linois, July 10, 1842 ; entered railway ser- 
vice with Chicago & Northwestern Railroad 
in 1856; Second \'ice President of Chicago 
& Northwestern Railway since 1889. 

Author: "The Science of Railways" (12 
v., 1894) : "Classical P'ortfolio of Primi- 
tive Carriers" ( 1896) ; "Romance of Gilbert 
Holmes" (1900) ; "The Air P)rake" (1901) ; 
"Building and Repairing Railways" (1901). 

Samuel Ellsworth Kiser. — Born Ship- 
pensville. Pa., February 2, 1862; educated 
in Pennsylvania and Ohio; editorial writer 
"Chicago Record-Herald." 

Author: "Budd Wilkins at the Show" 

(1898) ; "Georgie" (1890) : "Love Sonnets 
of an Office Boy" ( 1902) ; "Ballads of the 
Busy Days" (1903): "Charles, the Chauf- 
feur" (1905). 

Loren Laertes Knox. — Born at Morris- 
ville, N. Y., January 8, 181 1; educated at 
Cazenovia (X. Y. ) Seminary, and \Ves- 
leyan University ( Middletown, Conn.); 
Professor of Greek in Lawrence University. 
Appleton, \Vis. ; died at Evaiiston, January 
18, 1901. 

Author: "Evangelical Rationalism" 

John Harper Lang. — P.orn in Ohio, De- 
cember, 1856; educated at Tuebingen, 
Wuerzburg and Breslau, Germany ; mem- 
ber of several scientific societies ; Professor 
of Chemistry in j\Iedical School, North- 
western University, since 1881. 

Author: "Elements of General Chem- 
istry" (1898); "A Text Book of Wine 
Analysis" (1900) ; "Laboratory Manual of 
Physiological Chemistry" (1894). 

William C Levere: "Imperial America" 

(1899) ; "Twixt Greek and Barb" (1900). 

Arthur Wilde Little. — Episcopal clergy- 

Author: "Reasons for Being a Church- 
man" ( 1886) ; "The Times and Teaching of 
John Wesley"; "The Intellectual Life of the 
Priest" : "The Character of Washington" ; 
"The Maintenance of the Church Idea." 

Charles Joseph Little. — Born in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., September 21, 1840; graduated 
at University of Pennsylvania, 1861 ; Pro- 
fessor in Dickinson College, 1874-85 ; at 
Syracuse University, 1885-91 ; President 
(jarrett Biblical Institute since 1891. 

Author: Comprehensive History of 
America" (1896). 

William Sinclair Lord. — Born in Syca- 
more, Illinois, August 24, 1863. 

Author: "Verses" (1883); "Beads of 
Morning" (1888); "Blue and Gold" 
( 1896) ; "Jingle and Jangle" ( 1899). 

Mrs. Catherine Waugh McCulloch. — 
Born in Ransomville, Niagara County, 
N. Y., June 4, 1862; educated in Illinois; 
graduated from L'nion College of Law, 
Chicago, 1886; practiced law in Rockford, 
Illinois, 1886-90, since which time she has 
been engaged in the practice of law in Chi- 

Author: "Mr. Lex; or, the Legal Status 
of Mother and Child" (1902). 

William Smythe Babcock Matthews. — 
Born in Loudon, N. H., May 8, 1837; edu- 
cated in New Hampshire ; studied music 
in Boston ; practical teacher of music since 
1853; since 1867 has been living in Chi- 
cago; in 1891 established and has since 
been editor of "Music" (a magazine). 

Author: "How to Understand Music" 
(2 v., 1880 and 1888) ; "Primer of I\Iusi- 
cal forms" {1890) ; "Music and its Ideals" 
(T897) ; "Popular History of Music" 
(1891) ; "The Great in Music" — first and 
second series (1900-1902) ; "Dictionary of 
Musical Terms" (1895) ; "The Masters 
and Their Music" (1898). 


Samuel Merwin. — Born in Evanston, Oc- 
tober 6, 1874; educated in Evanston, De- 
troit and Northwestern University. 

Author: "The Short Line War" (with 
H. K. Webster) (1899): "Calumet K." 
I with same) (1901) ; "The Road to Fron- 
tenac" ( 1901 ). 

Mrs. Emily Huntington Miller. — Born in 
Brooklyn. Conn., October 22, 1833; grad- 
uated from Oberlin College, 1857 (A. M.) : 
Editor of "Little Corporal," afterwards 
combined with "St. Nicholas" : Dean of 
Woman's College, Northwestern Cniversi- 
ty, 1891-98. 

.■\uthor: "From Avalon" (poems) 
( 1896) ; "The Royal Road to Fortune" ; 
"The Kirkwood Series" : "Captain Fritz" ; 
"Little Neighbors" : "What Tommy Did" ; 
"The House that Jack Rented": "Songs 
from the Nest" (poems) ( 1894) ; "For the 
Beloved" (poems). 

Wilbur Dick Nesbit. — Born, Nenia, Ohio. 
September 16, 1871 ; educated in public 
schools, Cedarville, Ohio. 

Author: "Trail to Boyland" ( 1904) : 
"Little Henry's Slate" (1903) ; "An Alpha- 
bM of History" (1905). 

Mary Louise Ninde: "We Two Alone in 
Europe" (1886): "William Xavier Ninde: 
a Biography" (1902). 

Mrs. Minerva Brace Norton. — Author: 
"In and Around Berlin" (1889) ; "Service 
in the King's Guard" (1891). 

Simon Nelson Patten. — Born in Illinois, 
May I, 1852; educated in Illinois: took de- 
grees of .\. M. and Ph. D. at University of 
Halle, Germany : studied law in Law School 
Northwestern University : in 1888 elected 
Professor of Political Economy in the 
Wharton School of Finance and Economy, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Author: "Taxation in .American States 
and Cities" ; "Premises of Political Econ- 
omy" ; "The Stabilitv of Prices" ; "Con- 

sumption of Wealth": "Theory of Pros- 
perity" ( 1902). 

Charles ^^'illiam Pearson. — Born in 
Leeds, England, August 7, 1846: graduated 
from the Northwestern University in 187 1, 
and afterwards became professor of Eng- 
lish literature in the same institution : he 
resigned this position in 1902, and became 
pastor of the Unitarian church at Quincy, 
111.: died in England, July 11, 1905. 

.\uthor: "Methodism: a Retrospect and 
(Jutlook: A Poem" ( 1891 ) : "The Carpenter 
Prophet : a Life of Jesus Christ and a Dis- 
cussion of His Ideals" (1902). 

William Frederick Poole. — Born at Sa- 
lem, Mass., December 24, 1821 : died at 
Evanston, March i. 1894: educated in 
Massachusetts : graduated from Yale Col- 
lege in i84<); in 185 1 became Assistant Li- 
brarian of the Boston Athenaeum and, in 
the following year was made Librarian of 
the Mercantile Library of that city — a flour- 
ishing institution subsequently merged into 
the Boston Public Library : in 1853 attended 
the first gathering of librarians ever held 
in the world, Edward Everett Hale and Dr. 
Henry Barnard, of Hartford, being among 
those present : in 1856 returned to Boston 
Athenaeum, where he remained thirteen 
years; in 1873 was called to the Public 
Library of Chicago; in 18S7 took charge 
of the Newberry Library, Chicago; con- 
tributed many papers to the reports pub- 
lished by the LTnited States Bureaus of Edu- 
cation : in 1887 was President of the 
American Historical Association ; in 1882 
received the honorary degree of LL. D. 
from Northwestern University ; died at 
Evanston, ^March i, 1894. 

Author: "Poole's Index to Periodical 
Literature" (with W. I. Fletcher) (4 v.. 
1882-1893) ; "Anti-slavery Opinions before 
the Year 1800" (1873); "Columbus and 
the Finding of the New W'orld" (1892). 

Miner Ravmond. — Born in New York 


City, August 29, 181 1 ; graduated from 
Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Mass., in 
1831 ; instructor in same; LL. D. in 1884; 
Professor of Systematic Theology in Gar- 
rett Biblical Institute, 1864-97 ; died at Ev- 
anston November 25. 1897. 

Author: "Systematic Theology" (3 v., 


Henry Bascom Ridgaway. — Born in Tal- 
bot County JMd., September 7, 1830; gradu- 
ated from Dickinson College (Penn.) in 
1849; Professor of Historical Theology in 
Garrett Biblical Institute in 1882; Presi- 
dent of same in 1884; died March 30, 1895. 

Author: "The Lord's Land." (1876); 
"Life of Alfred Cookman" (1871): "Life 
of Bishop Janes" (1882) ; "Life of Bishop 
Waugh" (1883); "Life of Bishop Simp- 
son" (1885). 

Charles Humphrey Roberts. — Author : 
"Down the 0-hi-o" (1891). 

Henry Wade Rogers. — Born Holland 
Patent, N. Y., October 10, 1853 ; graduated 
from University of Michigan, 1874; 
(A. M. and LL.D. Wesleyan University, 
Conn.) ; admitted to the bar in 1877; Pro- 
fessor of Law in the Law School of the 
University of Michigan, 1883 ; Dean of 
same, 1885-90; President of Northwestern 
University, 1890-1901 ; Chairman of 
Worlds' Congress on Jurisprudence and 
Law Reform, World's Columbian E.xposi- 
tion, Chicago, 1893; General Chairman of 
the Saratoga Conference on the Foreign 
Policy of the United States, 1898; Profes- 
sor of Law in Yale L'niversity, since Sep- 
tember, 1 90 1. 

Author: "Illinois Citations" (1881) ; 
"Law of Expert Testimony" (1883 — 2d 
ed., 1891). 

Robert Dickinson Sheppard. — Born near 
Chicago, 111., July, 23, 1847; graduated at 
Chicago L^niversity in 1869: at Garrett Bib- 
lical Institute 1870 ; Professor of History at 
Northwestern University, 1886 to 1903. 

Author: "Abraham Lincoln" (1903). 

Edwin Llewellyn Shuman. — Born in 
Manor Township, Pa., December 13, 1863; 
educated in Cook County Normal School 
and Englewood High School ; editorial 
writer on "Chicago Journal," 1892-95 ; lit- 
erary editor and editorial writer on "Chica- 
go Tribune," 1895-1901 ; literary editor 
"Chicago Record-Herald," 1901 to date. 

Author: "Steps into Journalism" (1894) ; 
"Practical Journalism" (1903). 

Matthew Simpson. — Born at Cadiz, Ohio, 
June 20, 1811; attended Madison (Pa.) 
College ; became tutor in same ; in 1837 
Professor of Natural Science in Alleghany 
College ; President of Indiana Asbury 
LTniyersity 1839-48: elected Bishop of 
Methodist Episcopal church in 1852 ; Presi- 
dent of Garrett Biblical Institute in 1859; 
died in Philadelphia June 18, 1884. 

Author: "Cyclopaedia of Methodism" 
(1878) ; "One Hundred Years of Method- 
ism" (1876); "Lectures on Preaching" 
(1879) : "Sermons" (1885). 

Alice Bunker Stockham. — Born in Ohio, 
in 1833, of Quaker parentage ; graduated 
from the Eclectic Medical College, Cincin- 
nati ; practiced in Indiana and Chicago ; 
established the Stockham Publishing Com- 
pany, of which she is President, to publish 
her own works and other "advanced" 
books ; was a leader in the introduction of 
"sloyd" in Chicago public schools ; active 
worker for social purity, woman suffrage 
and social reform. 

Author: "Tokology: a Book of Mater- 
nity" (1883) : "Koradine" (1893) : "Karez- 
za" (1896); "Tolstoi: a Man of Peace" 

Charles Macaulay Stuart. — Born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, August 20, 1853 ; grad- 
uated from Kalamazoo College in 1880; 
D. D., Garrett Biblical Institute ; Associate 
editor of the "Michigan Christian .\dvo- 
cate" { 1885-86) ; Assistant editor "North- 



westv-rn Christian Advocate" (1886-96); 
Professor of Sacred Rhetoric in Garrett 
Biblical Institute since 1896. 

Author: "Text of Photogravures of the 
Holy Land" (1890); "Life and Selected 
Writings of Francis Dana Hemenway" 
(with C. F. Bradley and A. W. Patten) 
(1890); "Vision of Christ in the Poet" 
( 1896) ; "Story of the Master Pieces" 

Milton Spenser Terry. — Born Coeymans, 
X. Y., February 22. 1840; educated at Troy 
I'niversity and Yale Divinity School : A. 
M. Wesleyan L'niversity, 1871 ; D. D., same 
institution, 1880: LL. D., Northwestern 
University, 1895 • Professor in Garrett Bib- 
lical Institute, Evanston, since 1885. 

Author: "Commentary on the Old Tes- 
tament" (1875): "Biblical Hermeneutics" 
(1883): "The Sibylline Oracles" (1890); 
"Rambles in the Old World" (1894); 
"Biblical Apocalyptics"' (1898). 

David Decamp Thompson. — Born April 
29, 1852, at Cincinnati, Ohio; graduated at 
Ohio Wesleyan University ; editor of 
"Xorthwestem Christian Advocate" since 

Author: "Abraham Lincoln"; "John 
Wesley as a Social Reformer." 

Edward Thomson. — Born at Portsea. 
England, October 12, 1810; came to Amer- 
ica with his parents in 1818 ; graduated 
from the medical department of the LTniver- 
sity of Pennsylvania ; in charge of Xorwalk 
(Ohio) Seminary, 1838-43; elected Bishop 
of Methodist Episcopal Church in 1864; 
died March 22. 1870. 

Author: "Evidences of Revealed Re- 
ligion" ; "Moral and Religious Essays" 
(3 vols.) ; "Oriental Missions" (2 vols.). 

Charles Burton Thwing. — Born at Ther- 
esa. X. Y., March 4, i860; graduated from 
Xorthwestern L'niversity. 1888; Ph. D., 
Bonn. Germany, 1894; Professor of Phy- 
sics, Knox College, Galesburg, III, since 

Author: "An Elementary Physics, "( 1894). 

Henry Kitchell Webster. — Born in Evan- 
ston, September 7, 1875; graduated from 
Hamilton College, N. Y., 1897, (Ph. M.) ; 
Instructor in Rhetoric Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y. (1897-8). 

Author: "The Short Line War" (with 
Samuel Merwin) (1899); "The Banker 
and the Bear" (1900) ; "Calumet K" (with 
Samuel Merwin) (1901) ; "Roger Drake" 

David Hilton Wheeler. — Born at Ithaca, 
X. Y., November 19, 1829; attended Rock 
River Seminary ; Professor of Greek in 
Cornell College ; U. S. Consul at Genoa, 
Italy, 1861 to 1866; Professor of English 
Literature at Northwestern University, 
1867 to 1875; for a part of this time (1867 
to 1869) being acting president; editor of 
"The :Methodist," 1875 to 1883; President 
of Allegheny College, 1883 to 1892; died 
at Meadville, Pa., June 18, 1902. 

Author: "Brigandage in South Italy" 
(1864) ; "By- Ways of Literature" (1883) ; 
"Our Industrial L'topia." 

Mrs. Irene Grosvenor Wheelock: "Nest- 
lings of Forest and Marsh" (1902). 

John Henry Wigmore. — Born in San 
Francisco, Cal. ; graduated from Harvard 
University with degree of A. B., 1803, LL. 
B., 1887; Professor of Law at Xorthwest- 
ern University from 1893. 

Author: "Materials for the Study of 
Private Law in Old Japan" (1892) ; "The 
Australian Ballot System" (1889); "Six- 
teenth Edition of Greenleaf on Evidence," 
\'o\. 1.(1890); "Treatise on Evidence" (4 
vols., 1904-5). 

Mrs. Caroline McCoy Willard. — Author: 
"Life in Alaska" ( 1884) ; "Kin-da-shon's 
Wife; an Alaskan Story" (1892). 

Frances Elizabeth Willard. — Born Sep- 
tember 28, 1839, at Churchville, near 
Rochester, N. Y. ; graduated from North- 
western University and took degree of A. 
M. from Svracuse Universitv ; in 1862 was 


Professor of Xatural Science at tlie Xorth- 
western Female College, Evanstpn, Illinois ; 
in 1866-67 was Preceptress in the Wesleyan 
Seminary, Lima, N. Y. ; in 1871 was Presi- 
dent of the Women's College of North- 
western University, and Professor of Aes- 
thetics in the University ; in 1874 was ap- 
pointed Corresponding Secretary of the Na- 
tional Women's Christian Temperance 
Union and, in 1879, was made President 
of that body — the largest society ever organ- 
ized, conducted and controlled exclusively 
by women. She traveled extensively in the 
interest of the society and visited every 
State and Territory in the Union ; in 1884 
helped establish the Prohibition Party ; 
originated a petition against the importation 
and manufacture of alcohol and opium, 
which was signed by seven million persons ; 
was editor of the "Chicago Post," the 
"Union Signal," and other journals ; died 
in New York, February 18, 1898. 

Author: "Nineteen Beautiful Years" 
(1863) ; "Hints and Help in Temperance 
Work" (1875) : "Women and Temper- 
ance" (1883); "How to Win" (1886); 
"Woman in the Pulpit" ( 1888) ; "Glimpses 
of Fifty Years" : "The Autobiography of an 
American Woman." 

Josiah Flynt Willard. — Born in Appleton, 
Wisconsin, January 23, 1869; educated in 
Berlin University (1890-95). 

Author: "Tramping with Tramps" 
(1899) ; "Powers that Prey" (with Francis 
Walton) (1900); "Notes of an Itinerant 
Policeman" (1900); "World of Graft" 
( 1900 ) . 

S. R. Winchell. — Author: "Latin Prose 
Composition" {1875): "Lessons in Greek 
Syntax" (1886). 

Erwin E. Wood. — Born at Plainfield, 111., 
February 6, 1848 ; student at Northwestern 
University and Garrett Biblical Institute, 
1864 to 1869; engaged in editorial work in 
Chicago and New York. 

Author: "Epigraph Album" (i88o). 

Abraiu \'an Eps Young. — Born in She- 
boygan, Wisconsin, June 5, 1853: grad- 
uated from the University of Michigan in 
1875; Fellow in Chemistry, Johns Hopkins 
University ; Assistant in Chemistry, Har- 
vard University ; Professor in Chemistry 
at Northwestern University since 1885. 

Author: "The Elementary Principles of 
Chemistry" (1901) ;"Suggestions to Teach- 
ers, Designed to accompany the Elementary 
Principles of Chemistry" (1901). 

Jane Eggleston Zimmerman. — Author : 
"Gray Heads on Green Shoulders." 

Charles Zueblin. — Born in Pendleton, In- 
diana, May 4, 1866 ; graduated from North- 
western L^niversity in 1887, and from Yale 
in 1889 ; founded Northwestern University 
Settlement, 1892 : was the first Secretary 
of the Chicago Society for University Ex- 
tension, 1892 ; Secretary of Class Study 
Division of the University Extension De- 
partment of the University of Chicago, 
1892 : member of various municipal, politi- 
cal and social science leagues: associate 
Professor of Sociology in the University of 
Chicago since 1896. 

Author: "American Municipal Prog- 
ress" (1902)- 

The general character of the works of 
the authors given above is shown in the fol- 
lowing classification, arranged in the order 
given in "Dewey's Manual of Classifica- 

Bibliography 4(= i-5 percent) 

Political Economy and Law ■ 26 (^ lo.o " ) 

Philology ---.--- 14 (= 5.4 " ) 

Science '■ 51 (= 19-5 " > 

Art and Music 9 (= 3 4 " ) 

Fiction, Essays and Poetry - 103 (=39.5 " ) 

Biography 25 (= 9.6 " ) 

History -'--.- - ■ - 29 (= 11. i " ) 

Total 261 (= loo.o 

Among the works thus fortuitously 
brought together as those of Evanston 
authors, we find a wide range of author- 
ship, from the comics of Nesbit and Kiser 
to the profundity of Raymond's "Systematic 



Theology" and Poole's "Index to Periodical 
Literature." -\s usual in a general line of 
literary productions, the Fiction. Essays and 
Poetry in the above table form about 40 
per cent of the whole, corresponding in a 
general way with the proportion observed 
in the circulation of a public library. Sci- 
ence, Political Economy and Physiology, 
taken together, make up about 35 per cent ; 
and when the 25 per cent of the remainder 
is shown as History, Biography and the 
Fine Arts, the solid and serious character 
given to the whole is sufficiently apparent. 
From this may be inferred a high general 
average of culture and learning among the 
writers. The works mentioned in the above 
list are not confined to the English lan- 
guage, for here we find the productions of 
Hatfield and Gray in German : and it is like- 
ly, if the search had been more thorough, 
there would have appeared others in 

tongues far remote from our beloved ver- 
nacular. Had it been a part of the plan of 
this chapter to enumerate the contributions 
to periodical literature and to the printed 
proceedings of learned societies, the intel- 
lectual activities of the writers who now 
make their dwelling place in Evanston or 
have done so at some time in the past, would 
have shown a much more extended range 
and increase in number. 

Macaulay said that "one shelfful of 
European books was worth more than the 
whole native literature of India." Here is 
presented what may be the equivalent of a 
"sheWul" and even more, and it is a satis- 
faction to find this weighty characterization 
of Macaulay thus fairly applied to the pro- 
tluctions emanating from one community 
among all the great numbers of centers of 
intelligence to be found in our country. 



(By MAKV B. LINDSAY, Librariiili) 

Ezvustoii's First Library — Major Mulford, 
the "Gentleman Pioneer of Evanston" — 
Sotne Specimens of His Library — First 
Sunday School Library — Private Libra- 
ries of Today — Unique Collection of Cii- 
rios^History of Evanston Free Public 
Library — Edivard Eggleston Prime 
Mover in Its Founding — First Step in 
Organication — Later History and Grozcth 
— Roll of Librarians and Other Officers 
— Cataloguing and Library Extension — 
Internal Management and Conditions — 
Site for a Library Building Secured in 

The first collection of books brought to- 
gether in Evanston was, without doubt, that 
of the private library of the late Major Ed- 
ward H. Mulford, who came here in 1835 
and settled on the Ridge road. The old Kirk 
mansion on Ridge Avenue, we are told, con- 
tains within itself a part of Major Mul- 
ford's old home, the first place occupied 
by him in what was at a later date called 
"Ridgeville." The later home of the family 
was the homestead which still stands on the 
corner of Ridge and Mulford Avenues. 
This place, with its background of wooded 
grove, its grounds fragrant with flowers, 
facing Ridge road, whose avenue of oaks 
extended to the Rogers Park line, was one 
of the most picturesque of the early homes 
of the place. 

Major Mulford was called the "gentle- 
man pioneer of Evanston," because it was 
rare in those early days to possess much ed- 
ucation or to own a library. Of the size of 
this library we have no exact data. Mrs. 
Pliny Brown of Chicago, Major Mulford's 
granddaughter, says her earliest recollec- 
tion is of three large book cases full of 

Major Mulford died March 5, 1878, and 
the books, with the rest of the property, 
were divided among the members of the 
family. Many of these books are retained 
by Mrs. Pliny Brown, who kindly fur- 
nished a list of them. Of these some of the 
interesting early editions are: 

"John Quincy Adams," by W. H. Sew- 
ard. Derby, 1849. 

Macaulay's "History of England." Har- 
per, 1849. (ist Amer. ed.) 

"Life and Writings of Dr. Chalmers." 
Harper, 1849-52. 

"Washington's Agricultural Correspond- 
ence." by I'^ranklin Kniglit. 1847. 

"Louis the Fourteenth and the Court of 
France, in the Seventeenth Century," by 
Miss Pardee, Harper, 1847. 

"The Near and Heavenly Horizon ; Re- 
marks on Ecclesiastical History," by John 
Jastin. Holbourn, 1752. 

A notable book of local interest is "Wau- 
bun ; or, The Early Day in the Northwest," 
by Mrs. John H. Kinzie of Chicago, pub- 



lished in 1856. Of this book the "London 
Athenaeum" of that date said : "Written in 
perfectly simple, unpretending style, but 
with a keen perception of humor and a 
genuine love of adventure, which makes it 
very fascinating to read." 

The old family Bible is dated 1813, the 
year of Major Mulford's marriage. 

Among Major Mulford"s books left in 
trust of later tenants of the old home- 
stead, are a number of school-books, many 
of which bear interesting autographs and 
notes made by members of the family. We 
are indebted to Mr. Francis J. McAssey 
for many descriptive notes upon these 
books. In Lindley Murray's English Read- 
er, Lexington, Ky., 1824, the poem by 
Wordsworth, the "Pet Lamb," is marked 
(apparently in Major Mulford's handwrit- 
ing), to the effect that this poem was 
"learned by Ann at the age of seven years 
for her father, who was to pay her 23 
cents." The names also occur of E. H. 
Mulford, George G. Mulford, James John- 
son Mulford; Anna Mulford, Monticello 
Female Seminary ; Mary Mulford, Kemper 
Hall, Kenosha, Vvis. 

The autograph of William S. Gibbs, Chi- 
cago High School, is found in Hilliard's 
First Reader, Boston, 1857. 

Among other school books used in those 
early days was "Abercrombie's Intellectual 
Philosophy," Boston, 1841 ; "Porter's An- 
alysis," Andover, 1828: "Newman's Rhet- 
oric," Andover, 1839. "Comstock's Philos- 
ophy," New York, is inscribed as belonging 
to William Orr "Junor," "Covington Pres- 
byterian Collegiate Institute." 

An animated school-room correspond- 
ence had evidently been conducted upon 
the fly-leaves at intervals during the study 
of philosophy, between the owner and a 
rival in regard to their affections for one 
C. Lindley. who is described as "anjellick." 
It is interesting to speculate who "Bill" 

r)rr and his rival, "John Mc." were, and 
what finally became of their beautiful "Aliss 
C. Lindlev," all of whom "went to school to 
Mister Heir." 

We note the contents of "Specimens of 
.\merican Poetry," arranged by Samuel 
Kettell, Boston, 1829; Whittier, Richard 
Henry Dana and George Bancroft are each 
represented by one poem. Longfellow by 
three, Bryant by nine and John G. C. Brain- 
ard by ten. Whittier is spoken of in a 
biographical sketch as "one of the most 
vouthful of our poets, and his verses show 
a more than common maturity of power 
. . . the editor of the 'American Manu- 
facturer,' a newspaper of Boston." 

"Hoyle's Games," New York, 1829, con- 
tains, among other games, "A Practical 
Treatise on the Game of Goff, or Golf," 
showing that golf was played "according to 
Hoyle" even in those early days. 

The following quotation is found written 
on the last page of Chesterfield's "Men and 
Manners," New York, 1831 : "To do jus- 
tice, to love mercy, and to walk humbly 
with thy God," signed "E. H. Mulford" — 
this quotation, evidently, as the present 
owner of the book observes, "describing a 
Christian gentleman better, to the Major's 
mind, than the whole book he had finished 

"Thomas Jefferson's Manual of Par- 
liamentary Rules," Philadelphia, 1853, is 
another book worthy of note. "The New 
York Book," New York, Geo. Dearborn, 
publisher, 1837, compiled from poetical 
writings of natives of New York State, 
contains "An Address to Black Hawk," 
evidently inspired by witnessing Black 
Hawk led captive through some eastern 
city. This book contains the autograph of 
Mrs. Bertha Gibbs. 

Another contribution to the history of 
New York is "Rochester and Western New 
York." by Henry O'Reilly, Rochester, 1838, 




containing maps and illustrations of the 
citv, also steel engravings of Colonel 
Rochester, after whom the city (Rochester) 
was named, and Mncent Matthews, the 
first lawyer admitted to the bar of Ontario 
County, then (1790) comprising all that 
part of the State west of Seneca Lake. 
This book also covers fully the develop- 
ment of the Erie Canal and early railroad 
projects. Henry O'Reilly, the author of this 
book, is said to have edited the first news- 
paper published west of New York City. 

The "Musical Carcanet." New York. 
1832, contains the words and music of "the 
most admired popular songs arranged for 
the voice, flute and violin." In a collection 
of poems, entitled "Elegant Extracts," is 
included a poem called "The Lighthouse." 
credited to Tom Moore, which is not to be 
found in any of the current editions of 
^loore's works. 

Perhaps the most interesting book, in its 
bearing on local history, is "Laws of Illi- 
nois," published at \"andalia in 1833 — that 
city being at that time the capital of the 
State. This book is now the property of 
the Evanston Historical Society. It is espe- 
cially interesting from the fact that Major 
Mulford was a Justice of the Peace, and is 
said to have held the first court in Cook 
County — which would not be at all sur- 
prising when we consider that, in 1833, 
Chicago had only twenty-nine voters, com- 
prising the entire adult male population in 
the election of that year. This book prob- 
ably furnished Justice Mulford all the legal 
lore necessary to the settlement of all liti- 
gation arising from cattle breaking down 
fences, etc., in what is now the City of Ev- 
anston. Another book, now in possession 
of the Evanston Historical Society, is Dr. 
Isaac Mulford's "History of New Jersey," 
1845. The author was a brother of Major 
Mulford. and the book bears the names of 
"Isaac Mulford" and "E. H. Mulford, 

Ridgeville, 111." "Scott's Lessons," a school 
book, published in 1823 and bearing the 
autograph of E. H. Mulford, was also pre- 
sented to the Evanston Historical Society. 

An example of the progress of science of 
that day is furnished in "Bigelow's Tech- 
nology," published in 1815. and especially 
interesting from the fact that its author 
deemed it incomprehensible that the steam 
engine could ever be improved beyond its 
capacity at that time. 

Among the works in the line of fiction 
current in the first few years of Major Mul- 
ford's residence in Evanston may be men- 
tioned : Beaconsfield's "Young Duke," 1831. 
and "\'ivian Grey." 1826; Cooper's "Home- 
ward Bound," Philadelphia, 1838. One of 
the novels of a later date is "The Schoen- 
berg-Cotta Family." by Mrs. Charles, 1863. 

First Sunday School Library. — Close- 
ly allied with the history of this first Ev- 
anston library was the first Sunday School 
Library. This Sunday School, which was 
the seed from which sprang the present 
First ]\Iethodist Sunday School, was start- 
ed at the old Mulford place and afterward 
moved to the log school-house which stood 
on the corner of Greenleaf Street and the 
Ridge. Mr. Abraham WigelswoTth was 
then the Superintendent. Mrs. Kate Hag- 
arty, now of Ravenswood, then Mrs. Ed- 
ward Mulford, who was at one time Super- 
intendent, librarian and choir leader, 
brought with her from the East, about 1854, 
a collection of fifty books, which she pre- 
sented to this Sunday School, thus found- 
ing the first Sunday School Library in Ev- 

Private Libraries of Today. — The 
library belonging to Dr. Daniel Bonbright. 
Dean of the College of Liberal Arts, North- 
western University, is without doubt the 
oldest of the existing private libraries of 
Evanston. Dr. Bonbright, who came to Ev- 
anston in i8^T, is the oldest member of the 


Faculty of Northwestern University ; his 
library has grown up in connection with his 
chair of instruction in the Latin language 
and literature, and naturally its most im- 
portant scope is in that direction. 

Notable among the early libraries of Ev- 
anston may be mentioned that of the late 
Rev. Francis D. Hemenway, D.D., who 
came here in 1857 as Principal of the Pre- 
paratory Department of Garrett Biblical 
Institute and later became Professor in the 
Institute. He was Librarian of the Insti- 
tute for many years and until his death in 
1884. Dr. Hemenway was a member of 
the sub-committee to revise the Methodist 
Hymn Book in 1876, and during this work 
he gathered about 200 volumes on hymnol- 
ogy. This remarkable collection was pre- 
sented to Garrett Biblical Institute in 189 1 
by his son. Henry B. Hemenway, M. D. 
About seventy-five volumes, once a part of 
this early library, are now in the possession 
of the Evanston Free Public Library, hav- 
ing been presented by Dr. H. B. Hemen- 

Besides possessing the remainder of his 
father's library, Dr. Henry B. Hemenway 
has a collection numbering about 600 vol- 
umes, more than one-half of which are 
medical works. This library contains the 
following quaint old volumes: "The Cruci- 
fied Jesus : or. A Full Account of the Na- 
ture, Design and Benefits of the Lord's 
Supper." by Anthony Harneck, D.D.. pub- 
lished by Lowndes in London, 1700; an ex- 
tract from Mr. Law's "Serious Call to the 
Holy Life," by Rev. John Wesley, Phila- 
delphia, 1803; "Rhetorical Reader, with 
Rhetorical Exercises," by Ebenezer Porter, 
D.D., New York, 1835 — a very popular 
reader some sixty years ago and probably 
the first work published on oratory : a very 
early medical work, "Nine Commentaries 
L^pon Fevers and Two Epistles Concerning 
the Smallpox," London, 1730; a rare old 

book entitled, "Some of the Beauties of 
Free Masonry," by Joshua Bradley, 1816, 
has quite a history, having been left by an 
American soldier at the home of Mrs. Hem- 
enway 's grandmother, at Matamoras, Mex- 
ico. It bears its early owner's signature, 
John R. Bowdish, 1822. 

Among other early Evanstonians, whose 
libraries were a source of inspiration to the 
youth of that day, may be mentioned the 
following : 

Judge Harvey B. Hurd, who came to Ev- 
anston in 1855, and whose library was un- 
fortunately destroyed by fire in recent 

Rev. Henry Bannister, D.D., who lived 
and taught in Evanston twenty-seven years, 
coming here in 1856. 

Dr. Oliver Marcy, who became Professor 
of Natural History in Northwestern Uni- 
versity in 1862, and left at his death, in 
1899, a well selected library. 

Mr. L. H. Boutell, who came to Evanston 
in 1865 and was identified with the foun- 
ding of the Public Library. His private li- 
brary was a carefully selected, scholarly 

Edward Eggleston, who came here in 
1866 as editor of the "Little Corporal," and 
whose private library had such an important 
part in the initial steps that led to the found- 
ing of the Free Public Library. 

Probably the largest and most valuable 
private collection of books in Evanston is 
that belonging to Mrs. Charles J. Morse, 
whose library of about 10,200 volumes con- 
sists of three departments : (a) Profession- 
al Engineering: (b) General Literature; 
(c) Art, with especial reference to Oriental 
Art (Japan. China and India). 

The Art Collection serves to trace the 
history of Oriental Art from India into 
China, from China into Japan, and its de- 
velopment in each country. The collection 
of books in English, French and German, 


relating to the History, Religions, Arts 
and Industries, etc.. of Japan, China, 
India, Ceylon and other Buddhist countries, 
is more complete than any similar collec- 
tion to be found in any of the large libraries 
of Chicago. 

Supplementing the above library is a col- 
lection of (a) "The Art: or. Illustrated 
Books of Japan," and (b) "The Art, Liter- 
ature and History of Art of China." The 
former is an attempt to form a complete 
collection of the art and illustrated books of 
Japan from the beginning of their publi- 
cation, about 1608, to the present time, so 
far as they were of value to art. This col- 
lection of about 700 titles is representative 
and probably more complete than any in 
this country or in Europe, the similar de- 
partment in the Bibliotheque Nationale of 
Paris containing, in 1900, only 581 titles. 

The Chinese books consist of some 5,000 
volumes, containing nearly the complete lit- 
erature of the art of painting in China, as 
well as Encyclopedias, Histories, the Clas- 
sics, Essays and Belles-Lettres. In this de- 
partment is found the largest encyclopedia 
ever published in any country, consisting of 
1,628 volumes, profusely illustrated. 

One of the largest of the private collec- 
tions in Evanston is that of Dr. Robert D. 
Sheppard, whose library, occupying a beau- 
tiful room on the east side of his home, 
facing the lake, contains about 5,000 vol- 
umes. Dr. Sheppard has made special col- 
lections of English and American history 
and economics. 

Mr. Walter Lee Brown's library, of about 
4.000 volumes, contains many sets of the 
earlier authors of England and America 
and few of the present. It consists largely 
of first editions of Cooper, Hawthorne, Irv- 
ing and Poe, and contains special collec- 
tions of the various editions of the "Medita- 
tions of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus" and 
White's "Natural History and Antiquities 

of Selborne." Mr. Brown has also made 
a special collection of "Chap Books," most 
of which were published during the eigh- 
teenth century, one being dated as earlv as 

Mr. Frank M. Elliott has a library of 
about 2,200 volumes, consisting of standard 
books in fiction and miscellaneous classes. 
Mr. Elliott also has made a valuable collec- 
tion of works on Lincoln and Illinois, and 
Mrs. Elliott has a useful musical library. 

The library of Mr. Charles Cleveland, of 
about 1,600 volumes, is one of the most 
valuable private collections in Evanston. 
Most of the volumes are large paper and de 
luxe editions, and represent not only the 
highest typographical excellence, but the 
most artistic examples of book-binding in 
existence, forming a collection which is 
probably not equaled in this respect by any 
in the West. Among these fine bindings are 
specimens of the art of Cobden-Sanderson, 
Riviere, Zaehnsdorf, Cockrell, Roger de 
Coverley, Tout, Prideaux, ChamboUe- 
Durer, Mercier, Ritter, Michel, David, Jolv 
and Lortic. 

Of the more notable works may be men- 
tioned : A majority of the Kelmscott Press 
publications ; a full set of Caxton Club pub- 
lications ; full set of Eugene Field's first 
editions and presentation copies ; Fiske's 
"History of the United States," extra il- 
lustrated ; Shakespeare's Works, sixteen 
volumes, extra illustrated; de luxe edi- 
tions of Hawthorne and Emerson and first 
edition of Ruskin's Works. Many, of the 
volumes in this library have appeared in 
loan exhibitions, both in Chicago and in 

The late J. H. Kedzie's library consists 
of some 600 volumes of standard authors, 
with a special collection of scientific works, 
notably on astronomy, in which subject Mr. 
Kedzie had made special research. 

The Orrington Lunt Library of North- 



western University and the Garrett Bib- 
lical Institute Library, both of which are 
so densely identified with the early history 
of Evanston. will be found described in the 
chapter devoted to the history of those in- 

The Margaret C. Way Memorial Library 
was presented to the Woman's Educational 
Aid Association by Mrs. Kate V. McMuUen 
in memory of her mother. Mrs. Margaret 
C. Way, who was for eighteen years a 
member of this Association. This library, 
which contains about 400 volumes, is for 
the special use and benefit of the students 
and teachers who reside at the College Cot- 
tage, now known as Pearsons Hall. 

The Evanston Township High School 
has a good working library of some 1,600 
volumes. The graded schools are also pro- 
vided with reference libraries. 

Collection of Curios. — A collection 
— not of books, but of equal value in point 
of historic interest — is that of Honorable 
George S. Knapp, who has gathered to- 
gether what is probably one of the most re- 
markable collections of historic and scien- 
tific curios in the country. Mr. Knapp was 
the general manager of the Columbian Lib- 
erty Bell, which was one of the most inter- 
esting exhibits of the World's Columbian 
Exposition in Chicago of 1893, and to the 
making of which the pennies of 250.000 
children were contributed, together with 
many historic pieces of metal, identified 
with various struggles for liberty. The 
most remarkable of these relics was that 
contributed by Mrs. Roger A. Pryor. of 
New York, which was formed of two bul- 
lets — one from the North and one from the 
South — which met in the air and so imbed- 
ded themselves into each other as to form 
a solid mass and assume the shape of the 
letter "U." typical of the Union of to-da>-. 

Many things pertaining to the bell are 
still in Mr. Knapp's possession, the most 

interesting being the "International Rope," 
which was used by representatives of all 
nations in ringing the bell on "Chicago 
Day," 1803. The idea, which is a unique 
one, was conceived by Mr. Knapp. The 
rope, which is fifty-four feet long, is made 
of materials from all nations of the earth. 
The central strand, consisting of a piece of 
rawhide contributed by the L'nited States, 
is covered by strands from the other na- 
tions, the whole being wTapped with the 
"red, white and blue." The first contribu- 
tion to this rope was from Queen Victoria — 
a skein of linen thread spun by her own 
hand. The last was a piece of a meteor. 
Thus, as the owner says of it, "Heaven and 
earth helped to make it." 

The Columbian Peace Plow was made 
from the relics, mostly swords and bayo- 
nets, which could not be used in making the 
Liberty Bell. On the beam of the plow are 
the words, "And they shall beat their 
swords into ploughshares, and their spears 
into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift 
sword against nation, neither shall they 
learn war any more." 

Another interesting reminder of the 
World's Fair is the beautiful American flag 
— the official flag of the Exposition — which 
was made of American silk, spim from co- 
coons by women of twenty-six States of the 
Union. This flag was dedicated to the wo- 
men of America at the opening of the Wo- 
man's Building in 1893, and was presented 
to the Board of Lady Managers by Mr. G. 
S. Knapp and his son, G. M. Knapp, and 
was then presented back to them by that 
board. The staflf is made of cherry and in- 
laid with pieces of wood furnished by the 
World's Fair Commissioners from each 
State and Territory in the L'nion, each piece 
being of great historical value. 

.\mong the Revolutionary relics in this 
collection may be mentioned the following: 
Piece of Paul Jones' flag, the first to be sa- 



luted by a foreign power; sword used at 
Bunker Hill by Mr. Knapp's great-grand- 
father; lanterns used by Washington's 
body guard ; blunderbuss taken from the 
boat from which the tea was thrown over- 
board in Boston harbor. This eighteenth 
century gun is a wicked looking piece, 
which bears on its large mouth the words, 
"Happy is he that escapes me." 

Relics of a later historic period are : Cup 
of white china used by Lincoln ; cigar-hold- 
er used by Grant ; gavel composed of a 
picket from the late President McKinley's 
fence at Canton (given to the owner by Mr. 
McKinley himself) and a piece of the plank 
on which he stood at his inauguration ; a 
Confederate flag found in a bale of cotton 
on board a ship which arrived in Liverpool, 
England, in 1864, after having run the 
blockade of New Orleans ; an American 
flag carried by Mr. Knapp through the 
campaigns of Grant, Garfield, Blaine, Har- 
rison and McKinley ; a piece of an old fort 
at San Juan, in the capture of which some 
of our own Evanston troops assisted ; a col- 
lection of swords and daggers used by the 
Filipinos in the late war, and on which the 
stains of blood still show, in spite of clean- 
ing and polishing; a bow used by Black 
Hawk : a "Rob Roy" pistol from Sir Walter 
Scott's collection : a revolver carried by 
Robert E. Lee in the Civil War. 

Among relics of a local interest may be 
mentioned: A carved stafif made of wood 
from the old City Hall, which stood on the 
present site of the Rookery Building, Chi- 
cago ; a frame made from the steps of the 
old Ogden House, which stood on the pres- 
ent site of the Xewberry Library ; the new- 
el-post of the Ogden house. The first two 
were carved by Mr. Knapp, who has done 
several pieces of very intricate carving with 
?. pen-knife, notable among which is a series 
of frames held together by links, emblemat- 
ic of events in the historv of the world — 

the whole cut with a pen-knife from one 
solid piece of black walnut, the links being 
cut without disjoining. Xot the least inter- 
esting in this unique collection is a piece of 
the first water-pipe laid in the City of Chi- 
cago, as well as samples of every kind of 
pipe used there since that time. 

Evanston Free Public Library. — 
The Evanston Free Public Library had its 
origin in a plan to form "The Evanston 
Sabbath School L'nion Library" in Febru- 
ary, 1870. For the inception o< the idea of 
such a library, however, we must go back 
to 1867 or 1868, when Dr. Edward Eggles- 
ton, then Superintendent of the First Meth- 
odist Sunday School, formed a class of boys 
who met at his house, which stood until re- 
cent years at 1017 Davis Street. This class, 
which was not confined to boys of any one 
church, held a brief religious meeting, aft- 
er which they were invited freely into Dr. 
Eggleston's library and allowed to choose 
books for their home reading. We quote 
from an article in "The Index" of Decem- 
ber 18, 1897, by Dr. Henry B. Hemenway, 
who, describing this class, speaks of Dr. 
Eggleston as the "Father of the Public Li- 
brary" : 

"My mental picture of Edward Eggleston 
generally shows him in the half hour after 
the meeting. He sits in a large, easy chair, 
his heavy brown hair pushed back, and his 
face lit up as he looks first to one, then to 
another of his hearers. A boy sits on each 
knee, another on each arm of the chair, one 
or two more hang on its back, while the 
rest get close to his feet on the floor, or on 
low stools. Then he told us stories — stories 
of his boyhood, or of the frontier. Some of 
them have since been printed. Before we 
parted he took us into the little library and 
helped us to select books for our week's 
reading. He did not object to books of ad- 
venture for spice, but I remember that he 
tried to instill into our minds a taste for 



books of more value, like Abbott's histories. 
The class grew until he had to move it into 
the Kindergarten building, which he had 
built for his sister in the yard east of the 
house. He added to his library, but it was 
too small. Then he began to appeal to some 
of our old citizens, L. L. Greenleaf among 
others, for the forming of a public library." 

The impetus thus given resulted in the 
realization of Dr. Eggleston's cherished 
plan, and although his name is not found in 
the records of the library, he having moved 
to Brooklyn just about that time, yet there 
is no doubt that the beloved author of 
"Roxy" and the "Hoosier Schoolmaster" 
and many other books dear to young and 
old, was the inspiration of the present Pub- 
lic Library. 

The first organization was formed at the 
residence of William T. Shepherd, 1738 
Chicago Avenue, by the following named 
persons: L. L. Greenleaf, Rev. M. G. 
Clarke, Dr. E. O. Haven, A. L. Winne, 
William P. Kimball, William T. Shepherd. 
The next recorded meeting was held August 
26, 1870, at the residence of William T. 
Shepherd. Those present at this meeting 
were: L. L. Greenleaf, A. L. Winne. Rev. 
E. N. Packard, H. C. Tillinghast and Wil- 
liam T. Shepherd. At this meeting it was 
voted that the name of the Association be 
"The Evanston Library Association," the 
plan for a Union Sabbath School Library 
not being feasible. A committee which was 
appointed to draft by-laws and a constitu- 
tion consisted of Rev. E. N. Packard, Dr. 
J. S. Jewell and William T. Shepherd. On 
October 18, 1870, this constitution was 
adopted at a meeting held in the Methodist 
Church, Dr. E. O. Haven, chairman, and 
E. S. Taylor, Secretary. This constitution 
provided that the name of the Association 
be "The Evanston Library Association" ; 
that the object be "to establish and main- 
tain a public library and reading room, and 

in connection with this, by all suitable 
means to awaken a desire for sound knowl- 
edge and a correct taste, and to provide for 
the gratification of the same among all 
classes of the community." 

Two classes of membership were pro- 
vided for, viz. : Ordinary and Life — the first 
being open to all residents of Evanston upon 
the payment of $5.00 per annum. The sec- 
ond was open to residents of Evanston 
upon the payment of $30.00 for gentle- 
men and $20.00 for ladies. Annual meet- 
ings of the Association and monthly meet- 
ings of its Board of Directors were pro- 

The Nominating Committee who selected 
the first Board of Officers consisted of Gen- 
eral (afterwards Governor) John L. Bever- 
idge, Messrs. E. R. Paul, j\Ierri!l Ladd, 
Samuel Greene and Ambrose Foster. The 
following officers were elected : President, 
L. L. Greenleaf; Vice-President, H. G. 
Powers ; Corresponding Secretary, Charles 
Randolph ; Recording Secretary, Samuel 
Greene : Treasurer, Lyman J. Gage ; Di- 
rectors, Rev. E. O. Haven, D.D. ; Ambrose 
Foster, Andrew Shuman, L. H. Boutell, J. 
S. Jewell, M. D., and J. H. Kedzie. 

On October 25th at a meeting of the 
Board of Directors at the residence of H. 
G. Powers, the first Committees were ap- 
pointed as follows: Books and Periodicals. 
L. H. Boutell, Andrew Shuman, Dr. E. O. 
Haven ; Rooms and Furnishing, Samuel 
Greene, J. H. Kedzie, H. G. Powers and 
L. L. Greenleaf; Finance, H. G. Powers, 
Ambrose Foster, L. J. Gage and L. L. 
Greenleaf ; Lectures, Dr. J. S. Jewell, 
Charles Randolph and L. H. Boutell. 

Besides fees from members, many dona- 
tions of money were made by friends of the 
enterprise, the largest of which was $575 
from L. L. Greenleaf. Some revenue was 
also derived, later, from lectures and from 
rent of the Association rooms, ^'aluable 




donations of books were made by H. G. 
Powers, Andrew Shuman, J. S. Jewell. L. 
J. Gage and others. 

On December 3. 1870, the Book Commit- 
tee were authorized to purchase books to 
the amount of $1,000. Rooms were secured 
on the second floor of Dr. W. S. Scott's 
building, now numbered 613 Davis Street, 
and the Library was formally opened on 
February 9, 187 1. The Association was 
organized as a body corporate under the 
laws of the State of Illinois on February 2;^. 
187 1. At this time a Constitution was 
adopted, which was practically the same as 
that adopted by the Association October 18, 
1870. The first monthly report of the 
Library showed one hundred Life and .An- 
nual members, thirty-three weekly sub- 
scribers, ninety books in circulation. 

On October 29, 1872 a Committee con- 
sisting of Messrs. L. L. Greenleaf, L. H. 
Boutell and J. S. Page were appointed to 
see what measures were needed to bring 
about the transfer of the Library to the 
town. Through the efforts df this Com- 
mittee the matter was brought to a vote 
of the people at the Spring election, and in 
April, 1873, the citizens of the Village of 
Evanston, without dissent, voted for a two- 
mill tax for a free public library, under the 
provisions of the Illinois Library Law, which 
was passed in March, 1872. The Trustees 
of the Village of Evanston thereupon ap- 
pointed as Directors of the Free Public 
Library, Messrs. L. H. Boutell, J. S. Jewell. 
O. E.' Willard, J. H. Kedzie. Samuel 
Greene, E. S. Taylor, Andrew Shuman, L. 
L. Greenleaf and Thomas Freeman. 

On May 22, 1873, the Evanston Library 
Association authorized the Trustees to 
transfer the books and other property of the 
Association to the Directors of the Free 
Public Library of the \'illage of Evanston, 
upon condition that the same be forever kept 
as a Free Public Librarv for the use of the 

inhabitants of the village, and upon the 
further condition that said Directors as- 
sume the indebtedness of the Association. 
In accordance with these instructions the 
913 volumes, and other property belonging 
to the Association, were transferred by the 
Trustees on July 3, 1873. The first meet- 
ing of the Board of Directors of the Free 
Library of the Village of Evanston was 
held at the Library rooms on June 21, 1873. 
The ballot for officers resulted in the choice 
of J. H. Kedzie for President and Samuel 
Greene for Secretary. In April, 1889, the 
Library was moved to the lower floor of 
Anton Block's building, 522 and 524 Sher- 
man Avenue. Upon the erection of the 
new City Hall in 1892, rooms on the second 
floor were assigned to the Public Library. 
These rooms were planned and adapted to 
the needs of the Library under the direction 
of N. C. Gridley, the President of the 
Board, and in April, 1893, the Library was 
removed to these rooms in the City Hall, its 
present quarters. Thus began a period of 
greater growth and expansion. The yearly 
accessions of books which, for the twenty- 
one years since its foundation, had averaged 
465 volumes per year, now ranged from 
1,142 volumes added in 1893, to 2,907 vol- 
umes added in 1897. This impulse toward 
a larger purchase of books was given 
through the generosity of John R. Lindgren, 
who, during the year 1891-92, turned over 
to the Library for a book fund, his salary 
as City Treasurer, amounting to $1,502.36. 

Officers and Directors.— J. H. Kedzie, 
the first President of the Free Public Li- 
brary Board, was succeeded by L. H. Bou- 
tell in .\pril, 1877. Mr. Boutell, who, as we 
have recorded, was identified with the first 
Board of Directors of the Library Associa- 
tion, continued in faithful service as a mem- 
ber of the Board and of the Book Commit- 
tee for twentv-nine years until nis death, 
January 16, 1899. In May, 1882, N. C. 



Gridley was elected to the office of Presi- 
dent, which he held until his resignation, in 
June, 1895, after twenty years membership 
upon the Board, executing as President not 
only the duties of this office, but much of 
the work incident to the purchase of books, 
etc., usually devolving upon the librarian. 
To the many years of active service of these 
two gentlemen, is due, in large part, the 
successful growth of the library and the 
careful selection of books which formed the 
foundation of a collection well balanced in 
all departments. 

Mr. J. W. Thompson, who was appointed 
a member of the Board in June, 1890, has 
been, since June, 1895, its faithful and 
efficient presiding officer. The first Secre- 
tary, Samuel Greene, served from October, 
1870, to November, 1873. The successors 
to this office have been as follows: E. S. 
Taylor, H. M. Bannister, N. C. Gridley, H. 
G. Lunt, J. S. Currey and Wm. S. Lord, the 
last three named having served for eight 
years each, Mr. Lord still holding this 

Charles A. Rogers is the oldest in service 
of the present Board of Directors, having 
served continuously since 1876. The re- 
maining members of the present Board, not 
before mentioned are: J. Seymour Currey, 
Vice-President ; Richard C. Lake, Charles 
G. Neely. Fred W. Nichols, George W. 
Paullin, Walter Lee Brown (resigned). 

Librarians. — ^Ir. Thomas J. Kellam 
was the first librarian, serving from Jan- 
uary to March, 1871. The compensation 
of the Librarian was fixed at $5 per week, 
this amount being understood to cover all 
expense incurred in the care of the room. 
Mr. Kellam was succeeded by Miss Mary 
E. Greene, who held the position until 
March, 1872, when Miss L. H. Newman 
was elected, and was retained by the Free 
Library Board, thus becoming the first 
Librarian of the Free Public Librarv. 

Those succeeding to this position have been 
as follows: 

Miss Nellie A. Lathrop, October, 1875, 
to September, 1876. 

Miss L. H. Bannister, September, 1876, 
to November, 1880. 

Miss Lizzie R. Hunt, November, 1880, to 
September, 1882. 

Miss Ada L. Fairfield, September, 1882, 
to September, 1883. 

Miss Anna P. Lord, September, 1883, to 
November, 1888. 

Miss Laura R. Richards, November, 
1888, to May, 1891. 

Miss Mary S. Morse, May, 1891, to Oc- 
tober, 1 89 1. 

Miss May Van Benschoten, October, 
1 89 1, to June, 1894. 

In December, 1893, it was resolved by 
the Board that the increasing work of the 
Librarv required the services of a trained 
librarian. In accordance with this resolu- 
tion, the present Librarian, Miss Mary B. 
Lindsay, was appointed and entered upon 
her duties, June i. 18114. 

Classification and Cataloguing. — In 
1896 the simple classification under which 
the books were arranged was found to be 
inadequate to the growth of the Library, 
and the work of reclassifying the Library 
under the Dewey Decimal system was be- 
gun in March of that year, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. George E. Wire, late of the 
Newberry Library, and formerly identified 
with this Library as First Assistant Libra- 
rian. Miss Mary E. Gale was employed 
to make the card catalogue. This work was 
completed in December, 1896, having been 
accomplished without closing the library or 
materially interfering with its use. The 
first printed catalogue was published in De- 
cember, 1873, and included a historical 
sketch of the Library for the three years 
since its organization. Later catalogues 
were published in 1877, 1887, 1889 and 


1892. An "Annotated Finding List of Fic- 
tion, Books for Young People and Selected 
Lists" was published in 1897. The card 
catalogue, which is in dictionary form, 
under names of authors, titles and subjects, 
is kept up to date by a trained cataloguer, 
and thus takes the place of a printed cat- 
alogue, with continuous supplements. Bul- 
letins of new books are published quarterly 
during the year and distributed free to 

Library Extension. — One of the chief 
means of promoting and extending the 
work of the Library on broader lines was 
inaugurated in March, 1896, when, in com- 
pliance with a request from F. W. Nichols, 
Superintendent of School District No. 2, 
about 100 books were loaned to the schools 
in that district to be circulated under the 
direction of the teachers. In the following 
year a system of separate school libraries 
was adopted. These school libraries of 
about one hundred books each were sent in 
turn to the schools farthest removed from 
the library, including all the school districts. 
One of these libraries was the gift of Mr. 
Richard C. Lake, of the Board of Direc- 
tors. This circulation of books through the 
schools, besides giving the children the ben- 
efit of a careful selection of books, has been 
an efifectual means of bringing into touch 
with the library the families of those chil- 
dren, who, residing in the remoter parts of 
the city, were otherwise not acquainted with 
the library and its privileges. A graded 
and annotated list of the 500 books in the 
school libraries, compiled by the Reference 
Librarian, has just been published. In Oc- 
tober, 1897, the work for children was made 
a part of the work of the Reference Libra- 
rian and further co-operation of the library 
with the school was made possible by her 
visits to the schools and conference with the 

A "Children's Corner" was established in 

the reading room of the library in October, 

1898, and here, even in its crowded quar- 
ters, is seen something of what might be ac- 
complished in this very important line of 
library work, in a building equipped with a 
separate children's room. A Children's 
Library League was organized January 26, 

1899, with the object of promoting among 
the young people a better care of the books 
and other property of the library and the 
cultivation of a taste for the best books. 

Reference Department. — The Reference 
Department of about 900 volumes is said to 
be better equipped than most libraries of its 
size. The usefulness of this Department 
was greatly enhanced in October, 1897, 
when the position of Assistant Librarian for 
Reference and Children's work was created. 
The placing of this department in charge of 
a trained assistant has made possible a 
much larger work by the preparation of ref- 
erence lists on special subjects for clubs and 
for individuals, and by bringing to young 
people and adults a better knowledge of the 
various reference books and their use. 

As a means of further extension of the 
library's usefulness and of increasing_knowl- 
edge of its methods and work among the 
citizens, an annual "Library Day" was in- 
augurated on December 10, 1897. This an- 
nual event has taken the form of a reception 
or "open house," day at the library, during 
which books were not circulated, but the 
stafif and Directors served as a reception 
committee and explained the various de- 
partments and methods of work. Special 
exhibits of books and curios, loaned by 
friends of the library, added to the interest 
of the occasion. The twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary of the opening of the Free Public 
Library was celebrated in this way on Oc- 
tober 13, 1898. The crowded condition of 
the library rooms has made it necessary for 
the past two years to abandon, temporarily, 
this popular annual feature. 


Hours. — The Library was open from 3 
p. m. to 9 p. ni., every day, except Sundays 
and holidays, until October, 187 1, when the 
great Chicago fire made it necessary to cur- 
tail expenses. The hours were therefore 
limited at that time to Saturday afternoons 
and evenings, from 2 to 4 and from 7 to 9. 
In 1873 the hours were extended to three 
afternoons and evenings of the week. In 
April, 1893, the patronage of the library 
warranted its opening every day except 
Sunday from 2 to 9 o'clock p. m. In De- 
cember, 1895, the hours for opening were 
made i p. m. to 9 p. m. daily and from 
9 a. m. to 9 p. m. Saturdays. Beginning 
March 15, 1897, the present hours were 
inaugurated, viz: 9 a. m. to 9 p. m., daily, 
and in January, 1901, the plan of holiday 
and Sunday opening was inaugurated — the 
reading room being open on those days 
from 2 p. m. until 6 p. m. 

Privileges, Etc. — Since the organization 
of the Free Public Library, membership has 
been free to all residents of Evanston upon 
the furnishing of written guaranty. The 
family card, good for three books and the 
individual card good for one book, were 
exchanged in August, 1896, for individual 
cards issued to each resident, without limit 
of age, allowing two books on each card. 
A fee of fifty cents per month, or $2.50 per 
year, gives the privileges of the library to 
non-residents. Non-resident students were 
at first allowed the use of the library for 
reference; in October, 1896, the privilege 
of drawing books from the library was 
granted to them. Since September, 1898. 
the public have been admitted to the shelves 
as far as practicable with the limited room. 

Staff. — On August 29, 1895, the matter 
of employment of Librarian and stafif of 
assistants was placed under the jurisdiction 
of the Civil Service Commission. The 
Stafif at present (1905) consists of the fol- 
lowing : Mary B. Lindsay, Librarian ; 

Elizabeth P. Clarke, Reference Librarian; 
Cora M. Hill, Superintendent Circulating 
Department; Gertrude L. Brown, Cat- 
aloguer ; Bertha S. Bliss, Arthur H. Knox, 
Eddv S. Brandt, Assistants: \Vm. E. Lee, 

From the 913 volumes which formed the 
nucleus of the Free Public Library in 1873, 
the number has grown to about 30.000 vol- 
umes — an average growth of about 1,000 
volumes per year. From the small begin- 
ning represented by about 9,000 books cir- 
culated during its first year, the circula- 
tion has grown to 1 14.551 volumes, which 
went into the homes and the schools for 
the year ending June i, 1901. The annual 
income of the library has risen from twelve 
hundred to about ten thousand dollars. 
The purchase of books, which in 1874 
amounted to $260, has, for the last ten 
vears, averaged about $2,000 per year, the 
book purchases for the year igoo-oi being 
2,557 volumes, amounting to $2,459.49. 

It has been the aim of the Public Library 
to keep in touch with the larger library in- 
terests of the country. To this end the 
Library has, in recent years, been repre- 
sented at the meetings of the American 
Library Association and the Illinois State 
Library Association, President J. W. 
Thompson serving for a term as President 
of the latter Association. In February, 
1898, an Inter-State Library Conference 
was held in Evanston, which was attended 
by some 170 delegates, eleven States being 
represented. A number of citizens gener- 
ously aided the Public and University Libra- 
ries in the entertainment of this conference. 

Library Building.— On May 31, 188-i. 
the need for more room becoming apparent, 
Mr. Holmes Hoge was appointed "a com- 
mittee of one to consult with Mr. Deering, 
about the erection of a library building 
suitable for the necessities of the people 
of the village." The annual report of the 



same date contained an appeal to the citi- 
zens of Evanston to provide a building for 
the Library. In April, 1887, Mr. William 
Deering offered $5,000 toward the erection 
of a library building, following which a cir- 
cular letter was issued signed by the Presi- 
dent of the Board, urging that a generous 
response be given to the Committee who 
would call upon the citizens for further sub- 
scriptions. After earnest efforts made to 
raise the required amount, the plan was 
abandoned in Tune, 1887, owing to the 
slight encouragement given by the citizens. 

During the next ten years, though no 
action was taken, the question was often 
discussed by the Board, and endeavors 
made to create sentiment toward obtaining 
a building. In December, 1897, Mr. 
Charles F. Grey, of Evanston, offered $10,- 
000 toward a $100,000 building. A com- 
mittee from the Board was appointed to 
confer with Mr. Grey and to take up the 
matter of a new building. Though there 
were no offers toward the remaining $100,- 
000, yet the Board felt confident that the 
required amount would be forthcoming, and 
efforts were continued toward securing a 
suitable site. In October, 1898, a commit- 
tee was appointed to ascertain possible con- 
sent of property owners abutting on the 
City Park in case the City would grant per- 
mission to place the library building there. 
This committee canvassed the matter and 
reported almost unanimous refusal on the 
part of property owners to consent to hav- 
ing the park used as a site. 

In June, 1899, resolutions were adopted 
by the Board asking the City Council to 
appropriate $35,000 for a site for the Li- 
brary. These resolutions were referred by 
the Council to the Judiciary Committee in 
consultation with the Corporation Counsel. 
The appropriation was not granted. In 
January, 1900, Mr. C. F. Grey offered to 
give $100,000 for a library building, pro- 

vided a site should be furnished, cleared of 
buildings, free of cost or incumbrance, and 
the premises after purchase removed from 
the tax list. A committee from the Board 
was appointed to raise funds for the pur- 
chase of a site. Anticipating the securing 
of the amount necessary for the building, 
the Board had previously made efforts to 
secure the property facing east on Chicago 
Avenue, extending north from the Baptist 
church to Grove Street, but efforts to obtain 
options on all of this property failed, and 
before the money could be secured that 
part of this property on the corner of Grove 
Street was sold to the Christian Science 
Church. Options were then obtained on the 
property facing west on Chicago Avenue, 
extending from the alley south to Grove 

In June, 1900. the Site Committee issued 
a circular letter to citizens of Evanston call- 
ing a meeting of citizens to consider ways 
and means of raising the needed funds to 
obtain a site. This meeting was held July 
6, 1900, in the City Council chamber, and it 
was voted to attempt to raise the required 
amount on the voluntary assessment plan, 
and a committee of citizens was chosen to 
act with a committee from the Library 
Board in spreading and collecting the as- 
sessment. An equal per cent of each tax- 
payer was determined according to the tax 
lists and notices were sent them stating 
amount of share of each. Notices were also 
sent to non-tax-payers, asking for a per- 
centage of their income. In response to this 
voluntary assessment, there was received 
$2,709.85 in cash from one hundred and 
twenty people. Pledges were received from 
forty-one people aggregating $2,116.80. 
The total amount necessary to purchase a 
suitable site in a central location was about 
$40,000. Realizing that this plan had failed, 
the money was returned to the donors and 



a final report made by tlie Treasurer of ihe 
fund, Rev. V. Clatworthy. in August, 

In the meantime another attempt was 
made tovvard securing the City Park. This 
movement was started by Rev. J. H. Boyd. 
D. D., who interested a number of citizens 
in the matter and announced the subject 
for discussion at his "Conversazione," De- 
cember 13, 1900, at the First Presbyterian 
church. This was made a public meeting, 
and the subject was fully discussed and 
resolutions were passed requesting the 
Library Board to ascertain whether the 
Park could be secured under the law, and to 
endeavor to secure consents of abutting 
property owners and the preferences of the 
legal voters of Evanston as to the site for 
the Library. A special committee was ap- 
pointed from the Library Board, and made 
a careful canvass of the' property owners 
abutting on the Park, but they were obliged 
to report in February, igor, that they had 
been unable to obtain consent of all the 
owners. Though many who had formerl\- 
objected now consented, yet a few adhered 
to the opinion that their property would 
be largely damaged by the use of any part 
of the park for the purpose contemplated. 
January 31, 1901, Mr. J. C. Shaffer sug- 
gested the probability of securing a site on 
Chicago Avenue between Church and Davis 
Streets. A Committee was appointed to act 
with ]\Ir. Shaffer towards securing this 

On April 6, 1901, following upon the 
passage of a State law giving to cities the 
power to levy a tax for the purpose of pur- 
chasing sites for public library buildings, 
the Board of Directors passed resolutions 
determining to purchase a site, the esti- 
mated cost of which was $45,000, the collec- 
tion of such cost to be spread over a period 
of fifteen years. A copy of these resolu- 
tions was sent to the Citv Council and 

approved by them, but it was subsequently 
found that the City of Evanston was already 
indebted to its full legal limit ; hence such 
action of the Council was found illegal and 
was rescinded. 

In May. 1901, the Site Committee re- 
ported pledges received to the amount of 
$12,000. In June, 1901, Mr. Joseph M. 
Lyons was authorized to raise subscriptions 
to the site fund at a compensation of one 
per cent, conditional upon his raising a sum 
in addition to that already subscribed suffi- 
cient to pay for the site. Although pledges 
to the amount of $17,000 were secured, this 
enterprise also resulted in failure. After 
various other unsuccessful attempts, in 
June, 1904. the effort to secure a site was 
crowned with success, through the pur- 
chase of one b\- the city at the corner of 
Orrington Avenue and Church Street at 
a cost of $31,600.00. 

A glance at the history of the library 
movement throughout the country shows 
the wonderful possibilities of the work of 
the public library in educating the masses, 
and thus making for a higher citizenship. 

The Management of our Public Library 
is still confident that, in due time, some 
solution of our site problem will be reached, 
and Evanston 's Public Library will not be 
long hampered by lack of room from at- 
taining to that larger educational work 
toward which, during its twenty-nine years 
of history, it has steadily been advanc- 

The movement for a new building for the 
Public Library culminated in the offer of 
]\Ir. Andrew Carnegie to provide $50,000 
towards the cost of such a building. This 
was supplemented by a bond issue of the 
City of Evanston of $31,600, for the site at 
the north-east corner of Church Street and 
Orrington Ave., and $25,000 towards the 
cost of the building. This, with some other 




funds at the disposal of the Library Board, 
will enable the authorities to erect a build- 
ing to cost approximately $100,000. 

The corner-stone of this new building 
was laid on June 2. 1906. A box was in- 
closed in the corner-stone containing a wTit- 
ten account of the efforts made to provide 
for the new building, reports, photographs 
of the various persons connected with the 
librarv and the city administration, news- 

papers of the day, and various mementoes. 
The general design of the building is pure 
classic, fronting on Orrington Avenue, 
constructed of steel framework with Bed- 
ford stone in the exterior walls, and with a 
portico supported by Grecian columns. 
The capacity of the space for books is 
double that needed for the present collec- 
tion, thus making ample provision for fu- 
ture growth. 




First Step in the Organizatiott of a Uni- 
versity Library — President Foster's Gift 
— Advance of Fifty Years — The Green- 
leaf Library — University Library is 
Made a Depository for Government Pub- 
lications — Recent Notable Donations — 
Orrington Liint Library Building is De- 
dicated in 1804 — T^^^^ Orrington Lunt 
Library Fund — Internal Administration 
— List of Those who have Served as Li- 
brarians — Libraries of Garrett Biblical 
Institute and Professional Schools. 

The Xorthwestern University Library is 
an integral part of the institution whose 
name it bears. The beginnings of the Li- 
brary were small and unheralded ; its 
growth has been gradual, but constant and 
substantial. The earliest mention of a li- 
brary in the L'niversity records occurs in 
the minutes of the annual meeting of the 
Board of Trustees, June, 1856, this being 
the first meeting after the University was 
opened to students. The report of the Fac- 
ulty then submitted touched on the question 
of a library. This led to the appointment 
of a committee that made the following 
report: "The Committee on Library rec- 
ommends that the Executive Committee be 
authorized to expend one thousand dollars 
in the purchase of books for the commence- 
ment of a library during the present year, 
and that the same pmount be set apart from 

year to year, for additions thereto, the 
catalogue to be selected under the direction 
of the Faculty." 

A little later President Foster gave his 
first year's salary for the purchase of 
books ; and in December, 1856, the Financial 
Agent was authorized to fit up a room in the 
University building to accommodate the Li- 
brary. In June, 1857, the librarian report- 
ed 1 ,977 volumes and 37 pamphlets ; these 
volumes, with a few exceptions, having 
been selected and purchased by President 
Foster. The annual meetings of 1857 and 
1858 suspended the action taken in 1856 
making an annual appropriation of one 
thousand dollars for books. In i860, 675 
volumes, chiefly philosophical and histori- 
cal, were purchased from President Fos- 
ter's library. In 1868, a printed catalogue 
of the library, prepared by Charles K. Ban- 
nister, '69, was published; a summary 
of the entries in this slight, green-covered 
pamphlet shows that the library then con- 
tained about 3,000 volumes. In June, 1870, 
the librarian reported 3,635 volumes ; twen- 
ty years later there were 23,279 volumes, 
and April 30, 1903. there are 51.658 vol- 
umes and 35.000 pamphlets. 

The first great addition to the library 
came through the gift of Mr. Luther L. 
Greenleaf. Negotiations, begun in 1869 in 
Berlin with the heirs of Johann Schulze, 
Ph. D., a member of the Prussian Minis- 



try of Public Instruction, resulted in secur- 
ing for the University the valuable library 
of this eminent German scholar and publi- 
cist. In recognition of Mr. Greenleafs 
liberality the collection is known as the 
Greenleaf Library. It contains 11,246 vol- 
umes, and a very large number of unbound 
dissertations and other monographs, the 
publications of universities and learned so- 
cieties. It includes a collection of the 
Greek and Latin classics, with the subsidi- 
ary literature, remarkable for its range and 
completeness. There are also choice selec- 
tions of works in history, philosophy, and 
other leading subjects. 

In 1874, the library of the late Prof. 
Henry S. Noyes, containing 1,500 well 
chosen volumes, was purchased by the L'ni- 
versity for the library. In 1878, Mr. Wil- 
liam Deering and the Hon. Lyman J. Gage 
bought and presented a portion of the li- 
brary of the late Oliver A. Willard, chiefly 
volumes of State and local history and po- 
litical science. 

In 1895, Mrs. R. W. Patterson gave 
nearly 500 volumes, largely biblical and 
philosophical, from the library of her hus- 
band, the late Rev. R. W. Patterson, D. D. 

In 1896, the joint gifts of friends enabled 
the library to purchase a complete set of 
the Hansard Parliamentary Debates. In 
1898, similar gifts secured complete sets of 
the Reports of the L^nited States Supreme 
Court and of the Illinois Supreme Court, 
and also created a fund of $1,850 for the 
purchase of the later editions of the Greek 
and Latin classics, supplementing the 
Greenleaf collection of earlier date. 

Another gift received in 1898 was the li- 
brary of German authors (2,533 volumes) 
collected by Geheimer Regierungsrath 
Schneider, of Schleswig, Germany. It in- 
cludes many first and second editions, and 
some early Reformation prints. Gifts from 
leading German citizens of Chicago, se- 

cured bv the late Assistant Professor Cohn, 
made possible the purchase of this collec- 

In 1900, Dr. Herbert F. Fisk obtained 
for the Academy a supplementary library 
of over 500 volumes. In the same year Mr. 
Xorman W. Harris gave $750 for the pur- 
chase of books on political economy ; Mrs. 
Oliver Marcy gave selected volumes from 
the scientific library of her husband, the late 
Dr. Oliver Marcy, Professor of Geology; 
and Mrs. Henry Cohn presented valuable 
works from the linguistic library of her 
husband, the late Henry Cohn, Assistant 
Professor of German. 

A generous donor to the library is the 
United States Government. The library 
was designated as a depository of govern- 
ment publications by Senator John A. Lo- 
gan. May 26, 1876. In April, 1903, its col- 
lection of these documents numbers 6,740 
volumes and 10,154 pamphlets. In addi- 
tion to these, some 3,000 volumes of the 
official publications of States and cities have 
been collected. 

In 1870, the Librarian's report gave the 
list of periodicals regularly received, com- 
prising 39 titles ; in 1890, this list contained 
105 titles, and in 1903, 320 titles. 

The hours of opening in 1870, according 
to the record, were four hours each week- 
day afternoon. These hours have been 
gradually extended in response to greater 
demands, until in 1903 the library is open 
thirteen hours each day for si.x days a 
week, during the college year. Early re- 
ports mention appreciative use of the li- 
brary. Records of later years show a 
marked increase in its use along all lines 
— an increase that quite outstrips the 
growth of the library, as well as the advance 
in the number of students. 

The library's first habitation was a room 
in the building now called Old College. 
In December, 1869, it was transferred to 

/y.AA' o- SCCOMJ3 n.oQ/i 




rooms in the new University Hall. In 
August, 1894, came another migration, this 
time to the Orrington Lunt Library Build- 
ing. As early as 1859 a prudent Trustee 
urged the necessity of a fireproof library 
building: in 1885 the need was emphasized 
in the report of the Committee on Library, 
and. in 1891, the subject was prominent in 
the President's report. July 22. 1891, Mr. 
Orrington Lunt, \'ice-President of the 
Board of Trustees, signified his readiness 
to give $50,000 toward a library building. 
As an addition to this generous gift, $15,- 
000 was contributed in varying sums by 
other friends of the Universitj''. Among 
these contributions was a gift of $5,000 
made by Mrs. Robert M. Hatfield as a me- 
morial of her husband, the late Rev. Rob- 
ert M. Hatfield, D. D.. for years a Trustee 
of the L'niversity. The amount thus given 
through personal beneficence was raised to 
$100,000 by an appropriation from the 
funds of the L'niversity. 

The building is situated on the L'niversi- 
ty campus at Evanston, facing Sheridan 
Road, and covering an area of 73 by 162 
feet. It is planned so that future additions 
may be made without sacrificing exterior 
effect or interior convenience. The outer 
walls are of buflf Bedford limestone, the 
roof is red conosera tile. The building is 
constructed on the slow-burning, or prac- 
tically fireproof, system, sometimes called 
mill-construction. The style of the build- 
ing is an adaptation of the Italian Renais- 
sance ; its outlines are simple with little 
ornamentation, but the whole is harmonious 
and pleasing. The large semi-circular 
porch is supported by Ionic columns ; on 
the frieze, in raised lettering, is the inscrip- 
tion, "Orrington Lunt Library." 

On either side of the entrance are cloak- 
rooms ; a broad oak staircase leads to the 
second floor, which provides an assembly 
room seating 500 persons, art rooms and 
seminar rooms. The third story, extending 

only over the central portion of the build- 
ing, is devoted to offices and recitation 
rooms. The basement, well lighted and 
thoroughly furnished, contains among 
others a large document room, seminar 
rooms, work rooms, and toilet rooms. 

The first, or main, story is devoted en- 
tirely to library uses; in one wing is the 
reading room and in the center and in the 
other wing is the book room, the two being 
separated by the delivery desk and card 
catalogue cases. The windows are large 
and placed so that all light comes from 
above. All the wood-work and furnish- 
ings of this floor are of polished red oak. 
The reading room seats 120 persons. All 
the stories are connected with the book 
room by a book-lift and speaking tube. In 
a central extension of the building, as 
shown in the ground plan, are the Libra- 
rian's room and the cataloguing room. The 
heating is by steam from a detached sta- 
tion and the lighting is by gas and electri- 
city. The architect is William A. Otis, of 

The Orrington Lunt Library was dedi- 
cated, September 26, 1894. In the after- 
noon in the assembly room of the building, 
the exercises of formal opening were held. 
The program was as follows : invocation by 
the Rev!^ Franklin W. Fisk, D. D., LL. D., 
President of Chicago Theological Semin- 
ary: address of presentation by Mr. Or- 
rington Lunt : address of acceptance by 
President Henry Wade Rogers, LL. D. : 
dedication ode, by Mrs. Emily Huntington 
Miller: address by Charles Kendall Adams, 
LL. D., President of the University of Wis- 
consin. In the evening, in the First Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, a public address on 
"The Development of the Library" was de- 
livered by the late Justin Winsor, LL. D., 
Librarian of Harvard University. 

Various gifts of books and money have 
already been noted. It remains to mention 
the Orrington Lunt endowment property. 



In 1865 Mr. Lunt conveyed to the Univer- 
sity 157 acres of land in North Evanston, 
thereby cancelling certain subscriptions 
previously made, and designating the gen- 
erous remainder as a permanent endow- 
ment. Three years later this was set apart 
bv the Board of Trustees as the foundation 
for a library, and named the Orrington 
Lunt Library fund. At an early date, a 
portion of the land was sold, expensive im- 
provements have since been made on the 
property ; its present valuation is $90,000. 
When the property becomes productive, it 
is expected to yield an increasing income 
for the purchase of books. 

The details of the administration of the 
library are too technical for presentation 
here. The present system is the result of 
gradual growth and development along the 
lines shown to be important by the great 
library movement of the last twenty-five 
years. During the earlier years, some one 
of the professors was appointed librarian ; 
among those who acted in this capacity 
were W. D. Godman, David H. Wheeler, 
Louis Kistler and Charles W. Pearson. In 
1875-76 the Rev. W. H. Daniels served as 
librarian. For the following ten years the 
name of Horace G. Lunt appeared in the 
catalogue as Librarian. During the last 
two of these years, George E. Wire v\as 
Assistant Librarian. No one now bears 
the title of Librarian, but Miss Lodilla 
Ambrose, Ph. M., has been Assistant Li- 
brarian since January i, 1888. Aside from 
student assistants, the present staff are: 
Miss Olinia M. Mattison, Ph. B., First As- 
sistant since September, 1898; Miss Fran- 
ces C. Pierce, Ph. B., Assistant in the read- 
ing room since September, 1901, and Miss 
Adaline M. Baker, B. L. S., cataloguer 
since September, 1902. A committee on 
the library, from their own number, reports 
annually to the Board of Trustees on the 
state of the library. The Library Commit- 
tee of the faculty co-operates with the As- 

sistant Librarian in the administration of 
the library. Of this important committee, 
the late Dr. Daniel Bonbright was, for many 
years, the Chairman, and the library owes 
much to his careful oversight. 

The library of the Garrett Biblical Insti- 
tute, numbering 16,260 volumes and 2,200 
pamphlets, is also on the campus, and is 
open to all students. 

The Dearborn Observatory has an as- 
tronomical library of about 1,000 volumes 
and 1,000 pamphlets. 

The professional schools, located in Chi- 
cago, have special libraries as follows: 

Volumes Pamphlets 

Medical School 3,252 5,200* 

Law School 6,789 No report 

School of Pharmacy 810 No report 

Dental School ....'. 2,452 2,000* 


The several collections of books belong- 
ing to the University make a total of 65,- 
961 volumes and 43.200 pamphlets. 

The Library of the Law School has made 
large gains in the current year, 1903. It 
has completed its sets of the Reports and 
compiled statutes of all of the States, and 
has added about 500 volumes of text-books 
and treatises. Two large gifts have been 
received but are not yet enumerated. The 
Hon. Elbert H. Gary, class of 1867 in the 
Law School, has presented a collection of 
the judicial decisions and leading law jour- 
nals of eight European countries, namely: 
Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, 
Holland, Belgium, Spain, Italy. This gift 
contains about 2,500 volumes. The late 
Charles C. Bonney gave to the University 
Library some 400 volumes from his own 
law library. 

Thus has the library progressed from 
small beginnings to days of greater things. 
With a generous endowment property in- 
creasing in value, and with the fostering 
management of the great L'niversity, of 
which it is so vital a part, the rapid growth 
of the library is a thine assured. 




The Xczi'spapcr as a Xccessity — Introduc- 
tion and Grozcth of Local Journals — The 
"Suburban Idea," The "Evanston Index" 
and Other Early Papers — Story of the 
"Evanston Press" — Advent of the Daily — • 
The Chicago Printer's Strike of 1898 — 
Temperance Organ — College Journals — 
A "Frat." and "Barb." Advertising Con- 
test — Quarterly and Monthly Publica- 
tions — High Standard of Evanston 

In an intellectual community the news- 
paper is a necessity rather than a luxury. 
It is an index to the character of Evanston 
that, despite its proximity to a great city, 
it has been the home of several strong and 
able periodicals, the beginnings of one of 
these dating several decades back. In re- 
cent years, when the competition with met- 
ropolitan papers has become keener than 
ever, with a large stafif of local reporters 
representing the great dailies of our neigh- 
boring city, the local papers have not only 
survived, but have increased in usefulness 
and prospered in material things. 

It is the purpose of this chapter to deal 
especially with the publications which have 
made a marked impress on the civic, social, 
educational and business life of Evanston. 
To give a history of every publication 
which has appeared in the city w-ould re- 
quire a volume rather than a chapter, for 

there is scarcely one of the very numerous 
literary organizations, social clubs, and re- 
ligious societies, which has not, from time 
to time, fathered a small magazine or jour- 
nal, the existence of which w-as ephemeral 
and yet which served its purpose for the 
brief period it lived. Due attention will be 
given to the more important of these in 
this article. The newspaper which will for- 
ever possess the honor of being the pioneer 
of Evanston journalistic enterprise was 
"The Suburban Idea." It first appeared in 
1864 and continued one year. Its editor 
and publisher was Rev. Nathan Sheppard, 
who. after his removal from Evanston some 
years later, became famous as the author 
of a number of well-known books, the 
most widely circulated of which was, "How 
To Speak in Public." Mr. Sheppard was a 
man of superior literary attainments, and 
the tone of "The Suburban Idea" was al- 
ways high. It was published weekly, had 
four pages and four columns. During its 
short life it served a useful purpose to the 
little village, and cultivated the desire for 
a local newspaper of high grade which was 
to be so amply met by its successor. 

In any history of Evanston, the second 
of June. 1872, ought to figure as one of the 
most important dates, for it was on this 
day the first number of "The Evanston In- 
dex" appeared. Seldom has a paper be- 
come part and parcel of a community, of 


its homes, its oi^cial life, its every activity, 
as this paper has been in the thirty-two 
years it has been published. The credit for 
the founding of "The Index" belongs to 
i\Ir. Alfred L. Sewell. Mr. Sewell, togeth- 
er with Air. John E. Miller, had been pub- 
lishing "The Little Corporal." a paper for 
youth, which attained national circulation. 
Mrs. Emily Huntington Aliller was the edi- 
tor of "The Little Corporal." Mr. Sewell 
saw the possibilities of a village newspaper 
from a business standpoint, and that the 
commercial reasons which were his inspira- 
tion for the venture were satisfied, an in- 
spection of the advertising columns of the 
little sheet will show. That it was a little 
sheet, the interesting files on exhibition at 
"The Index" are proof , for by actual meas- 
urement each of the four pages was but 
15 by 20 Jo inches. When the first number 
of "The Inde.x" appeared the Village of 
Evanston did not contain a printing estab- 
lishment large enough to handle such a 
publication, despite its tiny dimensions. 
Each week Mr. Sewell would take the 
"copy" to Chicago, and there the paper was 
printed at first. Later in the year, after 
Air. Sewell had disposed of his Chicago es- 
tablishment, the paper was printed by the 
Chicago Newspaper Union. When "The 
Index" was a year old, Mr. Sewell opened 
a printing office in Evanston, and from that 
time "The Index" has known no home 
either for editorial room or publishing of- 
fice, save that in the city it has served. In 
November. 1875. Air. John A. Childs, who 
had been connected with the paper from the 
first, and Air. David Cavan bought all of 
Air. Sewell's interest in the paper and two 
years and two months later, in January, 
Air. Childs became the sole proprietor by 
purchasing the interest held by Air. Cavan. 
It was just before the sale of "The In- 
dex" to Cavan & Childs that "The Evans- 
ton Herald" appeared : but in the spring of 

1876 it was amalgamated with "The In- 
dex." For some time the latter paper was 
published in a building which stood on 
Davis Street, one door west of where the 
present Century building stands. A fire 
broke out one night and threatened to de- 
stroy the plant. When the good citizens 
realized that danger threatened their family 
paper, they rushed to the rescue, and dump- 
ing the type into buckets, they triumphant- 
ly carried it to safety. The humor of this 
incident will best be appreciated by those 
who are familiar with the printing business. 
The entire building at 526 Davis Street is 
now given up to the"Index"plant. The three 
floors are filled with the latest and finest 
make of presses, while several linotypes are 
kept busy on twenty-four hour runs, all the 
year round. It is not too much to say of 
"The Index," as it now appears, that it is 
the handsomest weekly newspaper in the 
L'nited States. Since 1903 Mr. Albert H. 
Bowman has been associated with Air. 
Childs in its publication, and is now Sec- 
retary and Treasurer of the corporation of 
which Air. Childs is President. 

The story of "The Evanston Press," its 
conception, evolution and present day pop- 
ularity, is of exceeding interest. The mod- 
ern novelists who are finding the back- 
ground for their stories in business life, 
could write many interesting pages in re- 
counting the incidents which surround the 
growth, struggles, and triumphs of "The 
Press" during its upward progress to its 
present career. The first number of "The 
Evanston Press" appeared January 5, 1889. 
Enterprising at the start, it was fortunate 
enough to secure the services of Aliss 
Frances E. Willard, who contributed, week- 
ly for a year, a chapter under the caption, 
"An Old Timer's Story of Evanston." This 
series of reminiscences attracted wide at- 
tention and, before the third issue of the 
paper appeared, it had over one thousand 



paid subscribers. The founders of "The 
Press" were two young men, both fresh 
from college. Mr. Robert O. A'andercook 
and Mr. Edwin L. Shuman. The latter 
withdrew after one year, but Mr. Vander- 
cook has continued to manage and publish 
the paper, with the exception of one year, 
since its first appearance. In telling of 
the beginnings of "The Evanston Press" 
?ilr. \'andercook goes back twenty-five 
years and gives a glimpse of an Evanston 
boyhood of rare interest, for it brings a 
picture to many of experiences along the 
same line. Mr. \"andercook, in telling of 
the little seed that was planted, says: "It 
came about like this. Big brother traded 
a boyish knick-knack for a little toy print- 
ing press. The younger brother was very 
envious of the toy and longed to possess it. 
Big brother said he would sell it for $1.50. 
The small boy said he w-ould take it, but he 
didn't have an\- money, but would pay for 
it in a week. The §1.50 was paid from the 
earnings of the printing press within the 
time named. As fast as other money was 
earned it was added to the outfit. The lit- 
tle toy was soon discarded for a more prac- 
tical machine. That in its turn was dis- 
carded for others, until at the time of leav- 
ing high school, about $500 had been in- 
vested in a printing plant. All was earned 
except one item of $40, which was a pres- 
ent toward a new press." 

From this first start, so vividly depicted, 
came "The High School Budget," and 
though it lived but a year, Mr. Vandercook 
considers the experience gained but one 
more step toward the ultimate goal, "The 
Evanston Press." The corporation which 
first published "The Press" was known as 
The University Press Company. Mr. \'an- 
dercook tells the story of this publishing 
company in the following words, "It was 
at the end of the sophomore year wlien 
.good old Dr. Cummings, the President of 

the University, called one of the founders 
of what was then known as The University 
Press, and gave him the kindliest words of 
fatherly advice. The good old Doctor said, 
T hear you have just formed a University 
Press Company and have spent considera- 
ble money for type and equipment. I want 
to warn you to go slow. You know noth- 
ing, or practically nothing, of the printing 
trade. What little experience you have had 
may have been all right along lines you 
were pursuing, but I am fearful that 
branching out will only result in failure to 
yourself and disappointment to your 
friends !' Some people called it obstinacy, 
some perseverance, that caused disregard of 
Dr. Cummings' advice, but in later years it 
seems to us it was as much obstinacy as 
perseverance. Much additional equipment 
was added to the little printing plant and 
the University Press Company, capital 
stock $1,000, was fully organized and in- 
corporated under the laws of the State of 
Illinois, H. H. C. Miller, attorney. The 
University Trustees, in order to assist the 
new corporation, gave it office room, jani- 
tor's service, light and fuel free. The plant 
was set up in the basement of the gymna- 
sium building. Here four or five students 
earned their v,-ay while in college by setting 
type on "The Northwestern," the college 
paper and the college catalogue, and a 
number of others also earned a large share 
of their college expenses. This was the 
■quid pro quo' why the university fur- 
nished what it did." 

It was not until "The Evanston Press" 
had been published two years that the name 
of the corporation was changed to the Ev- 
anston Press Company. For si.x years, 
"The Press" was published in the Simpson 
Market Building on the south-east corner 
of Fountain Square. The next five years 
it was located in the. Park building, between 
the Davis Street depots. Since 1900 "The 



Press" has occupied the three story brick 
building at 609 Davis Street, and there it 
has had the most successful period of its 
life. Mr. Robert O. Vandercook continues 
to retain the financial and editorial control, 
and the outlook is, that this publication will 
continue for years to come to give valuable 
service to the cause of honorable journalism 
and integrity in civic affairs. 

An interesting incident in the history of 
"The Index" and "The Press" is that at 
one time they became dailies and were sold 
on the streets of Chicago as such. It was 
during the Spanish-American War. There 
was a strike in the mechanical department 
of the Chicago dailies, and all of them had 
suspended publication. The great sea 
fight at Santiago was fought and the peo- 
ple of Chicago were mad for news. For 
several days the cry of "Index!" "Press!" 
sounded on the city streets, instead of the 
familiar names the people were wont to 
hear. "The Press" became so enterprising 
that it published three editions a day. It 
secured a special correspondent at Wash- 
ington and still preserves in its office the 
telegram it received announcing the de- 
struction of Cervera's fleet. 

Evanston for a brief period had a regular 
daily paper. It was called "The Evanston 
Daily News," and was published by Milton 
A. Smith, who came to Evanston from An- 
niston, Ala., to establish the paper. At An- 
niston Mr. Smith had been the successful 
publisher of "The Hot Blast," but the peo- 
ple of Evanston did not regard his scheme 
with favor and the life of the daily was 
short, the first number appearing in No- 
vember, 1897, and the last in February, 
1898. The paper had eight pages, half of 
which were devoted to news from through- 
out the country. As this was plate matter 
and was considerably later than the date 
when the same matter appeared in the Chi- 

cago dailies, it was not an overwhelmingly 
popular feature. 

Old-timers in Evanston remember two 
publications which flourished many years 
ago. Just after the Chicago fire of 1871, 
Mr. L. C. Pitner issued "The Real Estate 
News." It had no regular time of publi- 
cation, but appeared at intervals for two 
years. It had four pages and these were 
filled with real estate advertisements and lo- 
cal news items. The other of the two was 
"The Lake Breeze." It was published 
monthly during 1875 ^Y Harry W. Taylor. 
Miss Frances E. Willard wrote a serial 
story entitled "Miriam," which appeared 
in "The Lake Breeze." 

William Duffell was editor and publish- 
er of "The Evanston Citizen," a weekly 
newspaper, the first number of which was 
issued November 3, 1882. It was a strong 
advocate of the prohibition cause and it 
was a popular paper during its life. The 
last number appeared the last week in De- 
cember, 1 89 1. 

Since December, 1903, Evanston has 
been the publication headquarters of "The 
L'nion Signal," the national organ of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 
This weekly publication with its large cir- 
culation, has brought new fame to Evans- 
ton as the home of important periodicals. 
Together with "The Union Signal" is fos- 
tered "The Crusader Monthly," a child's 
paper, published by the temperance work- 

Northwestern University has been the 
home of many publications, the best known 
of which has been and is "The Northwest- 
ern." which is now published tri-weekly. 
"The Northwestern" is the successor of 
two college papers, "The Tripod" and "The 
Vidette," which united in January, 1881, 
and adopted the now familiar name. "The 
Tripod" was a monthly and first appeared 
January, 1871. It was published by the lit- 



erary societies of the university. It was 
a twelve-page, three-column magazine. 
"The \"idette"' was a semi-monthly and its 
publishers were the entire student body. 
When "The Xorthwestern" first appeared 
it was published semi-monthly. 

In 1890 a college war broke out between 
the fraternity and non-fraternity students 
of the university. "The Northwestern" 
was controlled by the fraternity students, 
and their rivals, wishing an organ of their 
own, established "The Northwestern 
World." The first number appeared Octo- 
ber 17, 1890, and it was published weekly 
during the college year until June, 1892. 
Its demise was caused by its last elected 
editor becoming a fraternity member. An 
amusing phase of the struggle for advertis- 
ing patronage between the two journals has 
been told in the college novel, " 'Twixt 
Greek and Barb," which is devoted to the 
story of college life at Northwestern. The 
contest was such a unique feature of jour- 
nalistic adventure that we quote the story 
as it appears in the book. The genesis of 
the contest is first told as follows : 

"The big Sophomore grinned blandly at 
his friends as he said, 'If you howling man- 
iacs will be cool, calm and collected for a 
brief space of time, I'll tell you something 
interesting. Harburton has told you that 
I have been getting 'ads' for the new paper. 
Tedlon, the dry-goods man, does as much 
advertising as any merchant on Davis 
Street. I called on him today, and he de- 
clared that he would be able to advertise in 
only one of the two papers. I made a tre- 
mendous stagger to get his business, but 
the old man was foxy, and declared that he 
wanted to find out which paper would do 
him the most good. In the next issue of 
both papers, he will advertise a special sale 
for Saturday. In "The Northwestern" he 
will advertise underwear, and in "The New 
World," kid gloves. The advertisement 

bringing in the greatest returns will win 
for its paper his advertising for the vear. 
The sale will begin at eight o'clock in the 
morning, and will close at five in the after- 
noon. Now, fellows, here is a chance to let 
your patriotism wax warm. The fraterni- 
ties know of the offer, and they intend to 
land that advertising contract for their 
sheet. Every mother's son and daughter 
of the Greeks will stock up with enough 
underwear to last them the rest of their 
lives. This will be the first clash, and we 
must draw first blood. Everyone of us 
ought to buy enough gloves to cover the 
fingers of an octopus. Each fellow must 
make himself a committee of one, and gel 
all his friends to buy their season's supply 
of gloves next Saturday, and above all buy 
them at Tedlon's. These fraternity people 
must learn that we mean business. 'It's 
war to the knife, the knife to the hilt and 
the hilt to the heart.' 

"Keg's speech aroused the enthusiasm of 
the crowd. The contest arranged by the 
shrewd merchant furnished the rival fac- 
tions a tangible basis upon which to begin 
the struggle for supremacy. When the 
meeting adjourned, the crowd poured down 
the stairway with many suggestions of 
method and prophecies of victory." 

The result of the fight between the fac- 
tions in this queer journalistic war is told 
in another chapter as follows: 

"The sole topic at the breakfast table was 
the contest to take place that day between 
the frats and the barbs for Tedlon's ad- 
vertising. Excitement ran high in univer- 
sity circles, and both sides were as full of 
prophecies as politicians at election time. 
After finishing breakfast, Steve and Leslie 
started for Tedlon's, where the sale was to 
commence at eight o'clock. It was a few 
minutes before the hour when they arrived 
there, and they found a long line of stu- 
dents waiting for the doors to open. At 


eight o'clock, Mr. Tedlon appeared and 
throwing back the doors, welcomed them 
in with a gesture. The struggle had be- 
gun. The tirst man to buy a pair of gloves 
w^as the veteran captain of the Life Saving 
Crew, who said that, being a barb himself, 
he would have to stand by the cause. The 
fraternity men and women came in force, 
and, as each left with great packages of 
goods, the eyes of the proprietor glistened. 
At noon the contest seemed about even. 
There had been more barbs who had made 
purchases than Greeks, but the latter had 
purchased greater amounts, and Harney 
Dale, who was acting as one of the manag- 
ers for the frats, declared that they were 
sure to win. Later in the afternoon as he 
stood on the edge of the w^alk before the 
store, he cried, "Great Scotland, we are un- 
done.' The sight that brought forth ihis 
exclamation was a long line of "bibs," who 
were approaching. It was known that the 
sympathies of the Heck Hallites had been 
enlisted by the Barbarians, but the fraterni- 
ty men had hoped that the "theologs' would 
simply lend their moral influence to the 
foe. Now that they saw them approaching, 
led by Jack Williams, who had rounded 
them up with the skill of a veteran politi- 
cian, they were seized for the first time 
with the fear of defeat. There were more 
than a hundred 'bibs' in line, and, from the 
looks on their faces, it was evident tliev 
meant business. 

"Harney stepped in front of Jack and de- 
manded, 'Say, old man, are you going 'to 
ring in the whole Methodist conference on 

" 'Just watch my smoke,' said Jack, 
winking, as he steered the first of the crowd 
into the store. 

" 'Oh, Lord ! Rennick.' whispered Har- 
ney to his friend, 'what shall we do?' 

'■ "Bless me, if I know.' was Tom's rep'y, 
Tm afraid they've got us on the hip.' 

■■ "Can't v>e turn in a fire alarm.' asked 
Harney, "and tell them that Heck Hall is 
burning to the ground?' 

"' 'Why not set it afire?' suggested Tom, 
"What a sweet revenge that would be.' 

■" "Stop fooling, and let's get our think- 
ing caps on, or we are done for.' 

■' "Well, then,' said Rennick. "they've 
brought down Heck Hall ; we might go 
up and bring down the fair flowers cf Wil- 
lard Hall.' "^ 

" "Why, half of them have been here al- 
ready,' said Harney, 'but Pll go up and see 
Laura Merrill, and have her try to persuade 
the rest of the girls to come to our rescue, 
while you go and hunt the fellows and tell 
them that they must come and buy again.' 

" 'Buy again! Why half the fellows who 
have been playing this game, have gone 
broke now, but it's all for the cause, and 
ni see what I can get them to do.' 

"Harney' and Tom gathered all the fra- 
ternity folk that they could find, and sent 
them to bring the needed aid. A strong 
rally was made, and the hopes of the 
Greeks began to rise once more. Five 
o'clock came at last. 

" "W'e've won." cried Jack Williams. 

" "We've won,' cried Harney Hale. 

'" "You both deserve to win,' cried Air. 
Tedlon, rubbing his hands together with 
joy. It had been the greatest day for sales 
in the history of the store. No matter who 
else had won, Air. Tedlon, was certainly a 
winner by a large majority. 

"It was a brief matter for the sales of the 
day to be counted up, and the beaming 
face of Air. Tedlon again appeared at the 
door. The street was blocked with stu- 
dents — Greeks, barbs, "bibs," "preps' and 
"co-eds," all anxious to hear the announce- 

"Air. Tedlon waved his hand to silence 
the cheers. "Dear friends," he said. "I will 
not keep you in suspense. The contest has 




been won by the friends of the Xorthwest- 
ern World.' If the Barbarians, when they 
sacked Athens, had uttered such a cry as 
then went up to the heavens, it is no wonder 
the inhabitants were stricken with terror. 
The latter-day Greeks, at least, fled as pre- 
cipitously, and left the field to the victori- 
ous enemy." 

Numbered with other college publica- 
tions are "The Northwestern University 
Record," a quarterly edited by a joint com- 
mittee from the faculties ; "The Euphron- 
ian," published by the Euphronian Literary 
Society ; "The Academian, " the organ of 
the students of Northwestern Academy, 
and "The Northwestern Magazine," a liter- 
ary magazine which appeared for one col- 
lege year, that of 1903-04. 

Among the papers of general circulation 
which are now published in Evanston, are: 
"Correct English," a magazine dealing with 
the intricacies of the language, appearing 
monthly and published and edited by Mrs. 
Josephine Turck Baker ; "The National 

Stenographer," a monthly published and 
edited by C. H. Rush. Our colored citi- 
zens are represented by the "North Shore 
Colored American," the editor of which is 
Francis Stewart and the publisher W. H. 
Twiggs. This is not the first periodical 
which the colored citizens have had. Dur- 
ing the year 1889, "The Afro-American 
Budget," a monthly magazine, attracted 
favorable attention. 

"The Day," a weekly, appeared during 
1904. It survived a short time. Its editors 
and publishers were Wesley Stanger and 
Charles \'an Patten. "The Noon," a mag- 
azine of selected poetry, made its initial 
appearance in October, 1900, and continued 
for two years. William S. Lord was edi- 
tor and publisher. 

Lpoking back over this list of publica- 
tions, representing the aspirations, interests 
and progress of the community, Evanston 
has reason to take pride to herself. The 
standard has always been high ; the ideal, 
the best. 




(by henrt bixby hemenway, m. ] 

Primitive Health Conditions — Freedom 
from Malarial Diseases — Some Old- 
Time Physicians — Sketch of Dr. John 
Evans — Drs. Ludlam, IVeller and Blaney 
—Dr. N. S. Daz'is the Nestor of Medical 
Education — An Early Drug Store — 
Sketches of Later Day Physicians — Drs. 
Webster, Bannister, Burchmore, Bray- 
ton, Bond, Phillips, Haven, Hemenzvay, 
Kaufman, and others — Evanston Phy- 
sicians' Club. 

When ;\Iarc Anthony said: 

he clearly was not speaking of physicians. 
If any of them ever made mistakes, those 
errors have been covered with the daisies 
of charity and hidden by the snow of ob- 
livion, while their good deeds continue to 
grow and multiply as the years pass by. 

Evanston is itself a memorial to the med- 
ical profession. It is called in honor of a 
distinguished member of a former faculty 
of Rush Medical college. Its principal 
business street was named after the Nestor 
of the American Medical Association. The 
old village depended upon the Northwest- 
ern University for its existence. The first 
subscription for starting the University 
bore obligations to the amount of $20,600, 
and of this amount $5,500 was subscribed 

by Drs. John Evans, N. S. Davis and Wil- 
liam Justice. Of the amount actually paid 
in on this subscription physicians gave over 
one-third. A regular practitioner of medi- 
cine has been the chief executive of the 
village ; another was Postmaster, and doc- 
tors have borne their share of the work of 
education, and other public service. 

Early Health Conditions. — Before 1855 
there was no doctor residing in Ridgeville, 
as the place was then called. Then, as 
now, this was a particularly healthy section. 
Whereas, Chicago, and the ground south 
of the river, was only eight feet above the 
lake, here it was three times as high, and 
drainage was correspondingly better. B. 
F. Hill said to the writer that he never 
knew of a case of fever and ague occurring 
in those early days, along this north shore 
and east of the North Branch. The early 
settlers were familiar with the use of bone- 
set for malarial fevers, rue for worms, lo- 
belia for fevers, butterfly weed for pleurisy, 
tansy, camomile, safifron and other herbs. 
They knew how to use poultices and the 
wet pack, as well as other home remedies. 
Many of the better educated had such 
books as "Beach's American Practice." 
Seldom was a physician sent for to attend 
any one here. Alonzo Burroughs, who 
lived then in the campus at what is now the 
edge of the lake opposite Memorial hall. 



never had the assistance of a physician 
in his house until after the birth of his sev- 
enth child. I find that, for a time, a young 
doctor by the name of Smith lived with 
the Dennis family near the present Gage 
place on the shore in Wilmette. Dr. John 
Kennicott. who lived at Xorthfield, cov- 
ered this territory in his ■■dri\e." Dr. 
Hofifman in Niles practiced amony our 
German citizens. 

Dr. John Evans, from whom the place 
has its name, was born at Waynesville, O.. 
March 9, 18 14, of Quaker ancestry. His 
parents at one time lived in South Carolina, 
but they were obliged to emigrate on ac- 
count of abolition sentiments. In Ohio his 
father continued the manufacture of tools 
for which the family had been somewhat 
noted for three generations. John was 
graduated from Clermont Academy and, in 
1836, having received his medical degree, 
he began the practice of medicine along the 
Illinois River. Later he settled in Attica, 
Ind. While there he began the agitation 
which resulted in the establishment of the 
first State Insane Asylum at Indianapolis, 
of which he was appointed the first Super- 
intendent. In 1845 he moved to Chicago 
and took the chair of midwifery in Rush 
Medical College, which he held for ten 
years. He also edited the "Xorthwestern 
Medical Journal" He inherited a taste 
for business and gradually devoted more 
attention to secular affairs. He aided 
largely in building the Chicago and Fort 
Wayne Railroad. He secured for them 
their terminal facilities in Chicago. As 
was before stated, he took an active part 
in starting the Northwestern L'niversity, 
and he was the President of its Board of 
Trustees for forty-two years. 

In 1855 he built and moved into his Ev- 
anston home. It was a Gothic cottage 
which has since been moved to 13 17 Chi- 
cago Avenue. It still retains many of its 

older decorations, but it has lost some of 
the original Gothic beauty by the substitu- 
tion of clapboards for battens. Originally 
it stood facing south on Clark Street in the 
middle of the block from Hinman to Jud- 
son Avenue. It was surrounded with a 
white picket fence, the east half of the 
block being a rolling lawn, while the Hin- 
man Avenue side was given up to flowers 
and shrubs, among which gravel walks 
wound in geometric designs. Behind the 
house was the Gothic barn (now the resi- 
dence of Sandy Trent. Xo. 18 15 Benson 
Avenue), the hot-beds and vegetable gar- 
den, and further back the modest cot- 
tage of the doctor's man, Mike Cavenaugh. 
I have described this, my old playground, 
as a type of the better homes of the village. 

In 1862 Dr. Evans became Governor of 
Colorado, and was never here much of the 
time afterward, though the family home 
was nominally here until 1867. From '63 
to '65 the house was occupied by Luther 
L. Greenleaf. While in Evanston the Doc- 
tor practiced little, chiefly in consultation. 
Of his deeds in politics and railroad build- 
ing we have nothing here to say further 
than that, to him more than to any other 
one man, does Colorado owe her present 
prosperity. As a student and practitioner 
of medicine he was literally in the front 
rank. In opposition to the prevailing opin- 
ion of the profession of that time, he af- 
firmed, in the 'forties, the contagiousness of 
cholera, and yet, as late as 1862, his wife 
rode in a carriage with the casket contain- 
ing a victim of scarlet fever, and on re- 
turning home took her little Alargaret upon 
her knee. The result was another little 
grave in Rose Hill. 

While teaching in Chicago he spent 
much time perfecting an extractor which 
he had invented. He was quite proud of 
his results and showed the instrument to his 
class. One of the students obtained a 



patent on it. Dr. Evans, instead of attempt- 
ing to have the patent set aside, so thor- 
oughly condemned the patenting of any 
professional article, and so perfectly 
showed forth every possible objection to 
the use of that particular instrument that, 
today, there are very few living who ever 
have lieard of it. Dr. Evans died in Den- 
ver. Colo., July 3, 1807. 

Dr. James W. Ludlam. — After Dr. 
Evans, Orrington Lunt and others had 
completed the purchase of the Evanston 
farm for the University, they stopped to 
water their horses at the tavern kept by 
Major ]\Iulford. This tavern was a por- 
tion of the building since know-n as the 
James S. Kirk home, and is now used by 
tlie Sisters of St. Francis as a hospital. Ms- 
iting the Major at the time were Dr. and 
Mrs. Jacob Watson Ludlam. They had 
come West to see their sons Reuben and 
James, who had located in Chicago. After 
talking with the university folks. Dr. Lud- 
lam became impressed with the future of 
the town and purchased of the Major ten 
acres of land on the west side of Ridge 
.\ venue. He built there his first Evanston 
house just south of Oakton Avenue. The 
locust trees that he planted show the loca- 
tion of the house which was burned some 
twenty years ago. When Dr. Ludlam 
found that the new town would not be near 
the old settleiTient, he first purchased the 
southeast corner of Hinman Avenue and 
Clark Street, opposite Dr. Evans, which he 
later exchanged for the present site of the 
Evanston Club. Here he erected the house 
since moved to 1206 Hinman Avenue, and 
now occupied by his children. Jacob \\'at- 
son, Jr., and Miss "Mollie." 

Dr. Ludlam was born at Camden, X. J., 
Xovember 28, 1807. He graduated from 
the l^niversity of Pennsylvania, and prac- 
ticed at Deerfield, X. J., until he came to 
Evanston, March 31, 18^^. He died here 

July II, 1859, and his body was the first 
interred in Rose Hill. With the exception 
of Dr. lilanew Dr. Ludlam was probably 
the most thoroughly educated man in the 
profession among the early settlers. In 
those days it was not unusual for a man to 
begin practicing after from three to six 
months' study, but Dr. Ludlam took three 
years, and as long as he lived in the East 
it was his custom to frequently spend a 
month at one of the schools of medicine. 
Tall in stature and polished in manner, he 
was an ideal physician. 

The Ludlam family were not an unim- 
portant part of the social life of the burgh. 
C)f Reuben, the oldest son, who later be- 
came President of the State Board of 
Health, the old Doctor said to one of the 
then old settlers: "I have a boy practicing 
in Chicago: I have this satisfaction about 
him, that he will never kill any one with 
his medicines." Reuben remained in Chi- 
cago, but James, or Major, as he has since 
been known, went with the Evanston boys 
— General Beveridge, Major Russell, Lieu- 
tenant Harry Pearsons and otliers — into the 
Eighth Illinois Cavalry. .A.nd 'Miss Mol- 
ly!' I remember hearing one of the young 
ladies remark one day after a wedding: 
"Xow. Molly Ludham has been a brides- 
maid seven times, and that is a sign that 
she never will be married." She never has. 
For many years she taught in the old Ben- 
son Avenue School, and she did her work 

Evanston's Second Physician. — The sec- 
ond physician to locate here was Fayette 
!\Iontrose Weller, who came in the summer 
of 1855, and settled on Ridge Avenue op- 
posite the present site of the Academy of 
the \'isitation. His ancestors were early 
settlers of Xew England from liavaria, 
Holland, Scotland and England. He was 
born at Sardinia, X. Y., .\pril 13, 1825. He 
first studied for the ministry, but changed 



his mind and graduated from the medical 
department of the University of Michigan 
in 1854. His first wife, Marie Antoinette 
Hypolite, died in Evanston in 1858. Three 
years later he married Philena M., the eld- 
est daughter of George M. Huntoon, one 
of the earliest settlers of Ridgeville. Dr. 
Weller was for three or four years the 
village Postmaster, using the Max Hahn 
building, which stood at 619 Davis Street. 
Here he kept the second drug store opened 
in the village, though it could not have 
been as attractive as the colored lights and 
soda fountains are at present, for it did not 
impress itself upon the memories of the 
girls of the day. When Ed. Clifford be- 
came Postmaster, Dr. Weller sold to him 
the drugs which he moved into the little 
store, No. 16 10 Chicago Avenue. Dr. 
Weller was a thick-set, dark-complexioned 
man, of medium height and a good practi- 
tioner. In 1865 Dr. Weller sold his prac- 
tice to Dr. Ira B. Geier, but he returned to 
Evanston in the 'seventies for a short time. 
In 1878 he moved to Chicago, where he died 
at the age of 70. 

Dr. Blaney. — James \'. Z. Blaney was 
born at Newcastle. Delaware, May i, 1820, 
into a family known for its refinement and 
education, with ample means to provide a 
thorough education. The son was gradu- 
ated from Princeton College when eighteen 
and, as soon as he reached his majority, he 
received the degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from Jefferson Medical College. In 1842- 
43 he was on duty at Jefferson Barracks, 
St. Louis. A year later he located in Chi- 
cago, and became Professor of Chemistry 
at Rush. He also edited the "Northwestern 
Medical Journal." In 1857 he added to his 
other work the chair of Chemistry in the 
University and moved to Evanston. He 
built and occupied the house which recent- 
ly gave place to Mayor Patten's new one 
on Ridge Avenue. As with Dr. Evans, Dr. 

Blaney's Evanston practice was chiefly 
consulting. At the outbreak of the war 
Dr. Blaney was ordered East as Medical 
Inspector, and never returned to Evanston 
to reside. Later he was returned to Chi- 
cago as Medical Purveyor, and at the close 
of the war he was mustered out as a Lieu- 
tenant Colonel. He died in Chicago, De- 
cember II, 1874. 

After the death of Dr. Ludlam, Dr. J. H. 
Hobbs, a recent graduate from Rush, made 
a short sojourn in our midst. About the 
same time a dapper little graduate from the 
University of Pennsylvania, in the class of 
'54. made his appearance. He wore eye- 
glasses — the only ones in town, perhaps. 
He was a perfect gentleman, and the admi- 
ration of all the young ladies. He started 
the first baseball club in the village. But 
William A'arian was also a man of skill. 
He was the nephew of one of America's 
best surgeons — Washington Atlee — and at 
the beginning of the war he became a 
Brigade Surgeon. On one occasion, on 
reaching a new post, he was at once ar- 
rested as a spy, being mistaken for a Con- 
federate General whom he strongly re- 
sembled. At the close of the war he settled 
in Titusville, Pennsylvania, where he is 
now an honored member of the profession. 

I am told that in '61 there was a woman 
physician living in the house on the campus 
formerly occupied by Alonzo Burroughs, 
but she was probably not a graduate. At 
the same time there was a Dr. Barker living 
opposite the old Methodist church, corner 
of Orrington and Church Streets. He 
served in the army and after the war he 
settled in Wisconsin. 

Ira B. Geier, a brother of Mrs. ^lary F. 
Haskins. came in '65. He was a bachelor, 
and at the last lived in a cottage which he 
built on the northeast corner of Benson 
Avenue and Davis Street. He was a native 
of Central New York. He was a verv 



well informed physician, but he never had 
a large practice. He lacked the decision, 
energy and backbone which are necessary 
for the work. A slight indisposition always 
caused him to fear his coming dissolution. 
On the other hand, he was an enthusiastic 
Mason, and was the real founder of Evans 
Lodge, for the first two years acting, and 
the next real. Worshipful Master of the 
lodge. He moved to Florida in 1872. 

Dr. Leonidas P. Hamline, son of Bishop 
Hamline of the Methodist Church, was 
born at Zanesville, O., August 13, 1828. 
He graduated at Castleton Medical College, 
\'t. He moved to Evanston with his family 
in 1865, and built the residence now occu- 
pied by his daughter, Mrs. T. S. Creighton. 
at 1722 Judson Avenue. There he died 
January 22, 1897. During his early days in 
Evanston Dr. Hamline did most of the sur- 
gery performed here and saw an occasional 
sick patient, but he had practically retired 
from practice when he came here. 

Later Physicians. — Dr. Washington S. 
Scott came to Evanston March i, 1865. 
Born near Wellsburg, Brooke County, \'t., 
he went to college at Meadville, Pa. He re- 
ceived his medical education in Philadel- 
phia, Cincinnati and New Orleans. Before 
coming to Evanston he practiced for some 
time in Iowa. He was not in active practice 
long here, but sold out to Dr. Poole in 
1867. He threw all his energy into busi- 
ness. He started a drug store at 613 Davis 
street, almost on the same spot on which a 
man by the name of Donovan started the 
first store several years earlier ; but, where- 
as Donovan soon went out of business. Dr. 
Scott's is still in existence, two doors west, 
now under the ownership of Hill & Lefifing- 
well. Dr. Scott w^as a Democrat, but not 
ofTensively so. Naturally a Southern sym- 
pathizer, few ever heard him say it. He 
put forth his best thought in the interest 
of Evanston. He built the* first brick busi- 

ness block in town, 611 and 613 Davis 
Street, and the first public hall. He built 
the first building intended for a postofifice, 
and the first Masonic temple. He died at 
the age of 70, in Springfield, 111., June 25, 

Dr. Isaac Poole was born in Halifax, 
Plymouth County, Mass., July 26, 1837. 
He was graduated in medicine from 
the Berkshire Medical College, Pittsfield 
Mass., in November, 1862. For tw'o 
years he was interne at the Kings 
County, N. Y.. Hospital. For two 
years he served as a Surgeon in the United 
States Navy. He came to Evanston in 
February, 1867, and has practiced here ever 
since. He is now the oldest physician in 
Evanston. and the oldest in the practice of 
medicine. He is of revolutionary and of 
Puritan descent. His grandfather, John 
Poole, was a minute man during the entire 
War of Independence. He is also descended 
from Dr. Samuel Fuller, the physician of 
the Mayflower. 

James Stewart Jewell was born at Galena, 
111., September 8, 1837. He was graduated 
from the Chicago Medical College in i860. 
He was Professor of Anatomy in the same 
institution from 1864 to 1869, and of Ner- 
vous Diseases during the later years of his 
life. In 1870 he received the honorary de- 
gree of A. M. from Northwestern Univer- 
sity. He died in Chicago, April 18, 1887. 

Dr. Jewell was naturally a brilliant man. 
He was a most entertaining lecturer and 
conversationalist. He was a linguist of 
more than ordinary ability. Soon after he 
came to Evanston. about 1868, he started a 
Bible class in the Methodist Sunday-school, 
then under the superintendence of Ed- 
ward Eggleston. The class grew rapidly, 
and it was soon postponed until after the 
regular session of the school for two rea- 
sons : first, that they might have more 
room ; and second, that members of other 



churches might attend. So popular was he 
that the old Methodist church, then the 
largest auditorium in the village, was filletl 
every week. He illustrated his lectures 
with large charcoal sketches and maps of 
his own drawing. So interested did he be- 
come that he started to write a book on the 
Life and Travels of St. Paul, and with that 
in view, he took a party of Evanston young 
men to Palestine in 1870. In his party was 
Frederick Huse, later a doctor of medicine. 
The book was never finished. He became 
interested in psychology, and through that 
he began a closer study of the nervous sys- 
tem. This led to a study of the diseases of 
the nervous system, to which he limited his 
later practice. He started a "Journal of 
Xervous Diseases," and left a partially 
completed work upon this subject, but death 
overtook him in the midst of his labor. 
I have heard them tell how he first appeared 
in the medical school, a tall, awkward boy, 
wearing blue- jeans trousers. I have heard 
him narrate about his weary work in coun- 
try practice before he came to Evanston, 
often sleeping as he rode upon his horse's 
back, awakening with a start as he uncon- 
sciously ducked his head to avoid an over- 
hanging branch. He killed himself by over- 
work, and a disregard of the very rules 
which he so well taught us. 

James Henry Etheridge, the son of a phy- 
sician, was born in Johnsville, N. Y., March 
20, 1845. After studying at Ann Arbor 
he graduated from Rush Medical College in 
1868, and settled in Evanston. His sister 
was the wife of Lyman J. Gage, who then 
lived on Hinman Avenue. After practicing 
here for a year and a half. Dr. Etheridge 
married Harriet, the daughter of H. G. 
Powers, and, in 1870, went to Europe for 
further study. When he returned he settled 
in Chicago, where he died in 1891, having 
been a professor in his alma mater for thirt\- 

It is not probable that any man has ex- 
erteil a more powerful influence upon the 
medical profession of the United States than 
my old preceptor, Dr. Nathan Smith Davis. 
The Davis family lived opposite the First 
Methodist church from 1871 to 1881, and 
it had been the doctor's expectation to spend 
here the remainder of his life, but the un- 
timel)- death of his son Frank changed his 

The Nestor of Medical Education. — N: 
S. Davis, the youngest of seven children, 
was born on a farm which his father had 
cleared at Greene, N. Y.. Jan. 9, 1817. This 
son, after attending Cazenovia Seminary, 
began the study of medicine in 1831 with 
Dr. Daniel Clark, at Smithville Flats. Ac- 
cording to custom the boy lived with his 
preceptor, taking care of his horses and 
doing other work. In 1837, before he was 
of age, he graduated with honor from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, at Fair- 
field, X. Y. His thesis was upon animal 
temperature. While in college he boarded 
himself much of the time. He settled first 
at \'ienna, X. Y., and then at Binghamton, 
where, for a time, he had as an associate. 
Dr. A. B. Palmer, later the Dean of the 
Medical Department at Ann Arbor. In 
1847 Dr. Davis became a professor in the 
College of Physiciansand Surgeons in Xew 
York City. Two years later he came to 
Chicago as a Professor of Practice in Rush 
Medical College. Dr. Davis early began 
to advocate a more systematic course in the 
study of medicine, and in 1859, he started 
the Chicago Medical College, now owned 
by the Northwestern University. This was 
the first medical school in this country to in- 
sist upon a graded course of three years' 
study. Harvard being the second, more than 
a decade later. Chiefly at his own expense 
he started a hospital in the old Lake House, 
which later became Mercy Hospital. In 
honor of Dr. Davis the American Medical 


Association, several years ago, had a medal 
struck, thus recognizing him as its founder. 
It was his pen that drew up the code of 
ethics which still governs that body. 

Dr. Davis was a clear thinker and forcible 
speaker. He was tireless in his original 
investigations. He did his share of editor- 
ial work, the last being upon the "Journal of 
the American Medical Association." Dr. 
Davis always took a most active part in 
sanitary matters. In Chicago and in Evan- 
ston, by popular lectures and constant agita- 
tion, he did much toward the establishment 
of public water supply and sewerage sys- 
tems. There was a time in Chicago when 
he was spoken of as "Pope Davis," because 
of his influence over the Irish people. This 
influence was noted in the dark days of the 
Civil War, when recruits were badly wanted 
but were slow to come. Then Dr. Davis, 
standing on the court house steps, so elo- 
quently pleaded with them that large num- 
bers came forward to enlist. 

Dr. Davis was one of the first physicians 
to decry the use of alcohol as medicine, and 
later, through his efforts, the Washington- 
ian Home was started in Chicago for the 
care of inebriates. 

Dr. Davis was alwavs an active member 
of the Methodist Church, and while he lived 
in Evanston he seldom was absent from the 
morning or evening service, and as regular 
as the hour for Sunday-school, you might 
see him walk down the middld aisle to his 
Bible class. For two or three years he was 
President of the Board of Village Trustees. 
On one occasion a Trustee sent in a bill for 
hotel and livery entertainment of some 
visitors to the village. Dr. Davis cast it 
aside with the remark that such matters 
were private and should not be paid from 
village funds. "I think we should pay the 
bill," said one of the Trustees, indicating 
thereby a dissent from the decision of the 
chair. "AH right." said Dr. Davis, putting 

his hand into his pocket, "I'll give five 
dollars, what will you give?" "One." was 
the feeble reply. 

Dr. Davis was always the poor man"s 
friend. On one occasion a lady brought her 
daughter to the doctor, insisting that 
she wanted him to give her special atten- 
tion, and she was willing to pay whatever 
he asked. The Doctor's head was bent over 
as he listened to her. Then he replied: 
"'Sly fee is one dollar. I give my best care 
to every patient, the poor as well as the 
rich. I cannot do more in your case." 

The son of Bishop Whitehouse once came 
to consult Dr. Davis. He was dressed in 
the height of fashion. The office girl gave 
him a number and requested him to take 
a seat : but, looking with scorn upon the 
long line of working people ahead of him, 
he rapped at the private door. He explained 
to the Doctor that he wished to consult him. 
"Take a seat," was the reply. "Probably 
you do not know who I am," said the young 
man. "I am the son of Bishop White- 
house." "Take two seats," responded Dr. 
Davis, as he turned to hear the troubles of 

The Doctor's advice to his students as to 
treatment was, "First determine what is 
wrong. Then find the cause and remove 
'it. Lastly determine what in your judg- 
ment is the best remedy to be used in the 
case and use it." I have often heard him 
tell with a twinkle in his eye how he once 
sent to an eclectic physician for some simple 
remedy for one case and of his neighbor's 
boastful pride over the fact. Dr. Davis re- 
ceived the honorary degrees of A. M., and 
LL. D. from Northwestern University. He 
died June i6, 1904. 

An Early Drug Store. — In the early 
'seventies Dr. T. S. Blackburn, a native of 
Canada and graduate from Ann Arbor, 
opened a drug store in the brick building 
east of the Central Street station of the 


Northwestern Road. The North Evanston 
practice was cUvided between Drs. Black- 
burn and Jenks, both of whom are now 

In the late 'seventies there appeared in 
the village a fine looking gentleman, of 
middle age, who promised to cut a wide 
swath in the local profession. Whence he 
came or where he studied I have not found. 
His name was Trimble. In a short time 
he had upon his list the names of several 
prominent families, but an unfortunate 
series of fatal accidents discouraged him 
and he sought the balmy air of Florida, 
followed by a threat of shooting if ever he 
were seen in town again. 

Latter Day Physicians. — Dr. Edward 
H. Webster was born of old Puritan stock 
at Wells River, Vt., in 185 1. He traces his 
ancestry in this country to the middle of the 
seventeenth century. In 1867 the family 
moved to Evanston, where the father was 
known for his generosity to the poor. Ed- 
ward attended the university and was a 
member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. He 
graduated from the Chicago Medical Col- 
lege in 1877, and has been located in Evan- 
ston since '79. In his later student days, 
and for two years following, he was in 
charge of the infirmary of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railway in Chicago, and 
ever since he has been the District Surgeon 
of that company. 

Henry Martyn Bannister, son of Profes- 
sor Henry Bannister, D. D., of the old Insti- 
tute faculty, was born at Cazenovia, N. Y., 
July 25, 1844. The family came to Evanston 
in 1856. Here the son received his degree of 
A. M. From 1864 to 1873 he was con- 
nected with the Smithsonion Institute, at 
Washington. He was badly frozen, separ- 
ated from his companions and nearly lost 
his life, while on the exploring expedition 
sent out by the Government before we pur- 
chased .\laska. He was graduated from the 

medical department of Columbia University 
in 1871. For some years he was a physician 
at the Kankakee Asylum, but during much 
of his professional career he has been en- 
gaged in medical journalism. He is now 
on the staff of the "Journal of the American 
Medical Association."' 

Gustav A. Fischer, born in 1846, came 
here about 1875. He was graduated from the 
University of Prague, Austria, in 1871. He 
now resides in Chicago. John J. Scheuber 
came here from Switzerland about the same 
time. He had quite a practice among the 
Germans. He treated cancer with plasters, 
and had a diphtheria cure which still has 
some reputation. He married a sister of J. 
H. Stephen, the genial manager of Muno's 
bakery. Dr. Scheuber died in Joliet, in 
1900, at the age of 64. 

John H. Burchmore was born November 
12. 1849, i" Salem, Mass., where his family 
had resided since before the Revolution. He 
was graduated from the medical school of 
Harvard University in 1875, and, after serv- 
ing as interne in the Massachusetts General 
Hospital and resident physician in the 
Boston Lying-in Hospital, in 1877 he lo- 
cated in what was then North Evanston. 
He married a daughter of John W. Stewart, 
one of the most prominent residents there. 

Dr. Sarah H. Brayton was born in Eng- 
land in 1849. She was graduated in medi- 
cine by the New York Free Medical Col- 
lege for Women, in the spring of 1875. In 
1883 she settled in Evanston. 

Thomas Sheldon Bond, the son of a Con- 
gregational minister, was born at Lee, 
Mass., December 14, 1842. He graduated 
from Amherst College with the degree of 
A. M., in 1863. and taught at Lake Forest. 
In 1867 he graduated from the Chicago 
Medical College and the next year received 
a like degree from the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of New York. From i860 
to 1874 he was demonstrator of anatomy 



and from 1874 to 1879. Professor of Anat- 
omy in Chicago Medical College. He then 
retired to private life and, in 1882 moved 
to Evanston, where he died December 4, 
1895. Dr. Bond was as fine an anatomist 
as there was in Chicago, and a most excel- 
lent teacher. 

William A. Phillips, son of William B. 
Phillips, was born in Chicago, January 18, 
1861. His genealogy in this country 
reaches back to George Phillips, who came 
to Salem, Mass., in 1632. In 1870 the fam- 
ily moved to Evanston. Here the son re- 
ceived the degree of Ph. B. He studied in 
the Northwestern Medical School, and in 
1887 received the degree of M. D. from 
Harvard. After spending a year at \ienna 
he settled in Evanston. For a time he was 
lecturer on comparati\-e anatomy in the 
University. He is an enthusiastic student 
of anthropology, and his valuable collec- 
tion is one of the attractions of the Univer- 
sity Museum. 

Otis Erastus Haven, the eldest son of 
Bishop E. O. Haven, once President of 
the University, was born in New York City, 
July 2, 1849. I^Ie \^"^s graduated as an 
A. B. from Ann Arbor, in 1870, and went 
to Iowa to teach. In 1873 ^^ received his 
master's degree, and came to Evanston as 
Superintendent of the Public Schools. Then 
he studied medicine while teaching, and was 
graduated from Rush in 1882. He spent 
some months in New York Hospital and 
then opened an office here. He was at 
once elected a member of the Board of Ed- 
ucation and served until his death, February 
3, 1888. His professional career had been 
short, but he was universally beloved as a 
man and physician. 

Henry Bixby Hemenway was born at 
Montpelier, \'t.. December 20, 1856. He 
traces his family in Salem, Mass., back as 
far as iC)^6. He came to Evanston in 
September, 1857, where his father became 

professor in the Theological School. He 
received the degrees of A. B. and A. M. 
from the University, and was licensed to 
practice in 1880 by State examination. He 
was graduated from Chicago Medical Col- 
lege in 1 88 1 and located at Kalamazoo, 
Mich. While there he was City Health Of- 
ficer, Secretary of Board of United States 
Examining Surgeons, Division Surgeon of 
the Michigan Central and of the Grand Rap- 
ids & Indiana Railways, and held offices in 
the local and State Medical Societies. In the 
fall of 1890 he returned to Evanston. He 
taught one year in Rush College and gave 
a course of lectures at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons in 1900, during the 
illness of Professor Carter. He is the 
Surgeon of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul and the Chicago & Milwaukee electric 

Gustav W. Kaufman was born in Han- 
over. Germany, in i860. He was educated 
in the German Gymnasium and School of 
Pharmacy. In 1881 he came to America 
and engaged in the drug business in St. 
Louis. He was graduated from the St. 
Louis College of Pharmacy in 1886, and 
four years later received the doctor's degree 
from the St. Louis College of Physicians 
and Surgeons. He settled in Evanston in 

Lack of space prevents more than the 
mere mention of Dr. Gray, a copy of Jewell, 
who conducted a small private asylum here 
in the 'eighties ; of Bentz, who at one time 
lived in North Evanston and moved to 
Wheeling : of O. T. Maxson, who graduated 
from Rush in 1849, and came to South 
Evanston in '84, taking great interest in 
that village ; he died in '95, as did also 
Hawley, after a short residence here; or 
Leonard, also of the south wards; of Ly- 
ford, who came in the 'eighties, and re- 
turned to Port Byron ; of Stewart, who 
was killed by the cars in '93 ; of Josiah 



Jones, who gave up the Health Conimission- 
ership to dig gold in the Klondike ; of 
Drs. y. Mueller, Bernard Miller, Frazier 
and Kimmet, returned to Chicago ; of W. A. 
Palmer, removed to Minnesota, and Ivaats, 
returned to England ; of Harriet Wolfe, who 
became a Goodrich and retired from prac- 
tice ; of Wilder, who married Marie Huse. 
and died in Iowa ; of Harding, who married 
Mary Clififord. an old resident, and in 91 
returned to Evanston from Goshen ; of Da- 
kin, an Evanston boy, who graduated from 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in '90, 
and came back two years later; of Bjork- 
man. who died in 1903 ; of Harder, Stock- 
ley, Baird, Balderston, Mars, East, the 
McEwens, Clyde, who came here since 
1890, and the various specialists who have 
resided here : such as Ridlon, the leading 
orthopedic surgeon of the W' est ; Dodd, 
the eye surgeon; Ballenger and Walters, 
the laryngologists ; Pusey and Andrews, 
all of whom now reside in Evanston. 
William R. Parks, our present Commis- 

sioner of Health, was born in Milwaukee in 
1869. He received the degrees of Ph. B. 
and Ph. M. from Northwestern University, 
and in 1893 graduated from Rush Medical 
College. After two years in the Presby- 
terian Hospital he returned to Evanston to 

In 1883 a Medical Society was organized 
by some of the more recent settlers in the 
profession in Evanston. It was known as 
the Physicians' Club. Its meetings were held 
at the Avenue House. Its Officers were Dr. 
Hemenway, President ; Kaufman, \'ice- 
President ; and Palmer, Secretary and 
Treasurer. At the close of the year the or- 
ganization was a thing of the past. 

In 1902 one of the first branches organ- 
ized of the Chicago Medical Society was 
established in Evanston. Its membership 
is not limited to Evanston, but it includes 
resident physicians of the North Shore to 
the County line. In the effort to unify the 
profession, this society opens its doors to all 
reputable practitioners. 




First Case of Homoeopathic Treatment in 
Evanston — Successful Results — Early 
Homoeopathic Physicians — Dr. Haivkes 
First Local Practitioner — He is Follo-a'cd 
by Dr. C. D. Fairbanks— Sketch of Dr. 
Oscar H. .Mann — His Prominence in 
Local Educational, Official and Social Re- 
lations—Founding of the Ez'anston Hos- 
pital—Doctors Marcy. Clapp and Fuller 
— Roll of the Later Physicians and Sur- 

About 1854 a child living in the neighbor- 
hood of the Mulford tavern was taken sick 
one night, and the family feared that she 
could not live till morning. There was no 
doctor nearer than Chicago, and it was not 
likely that one could be obtained before 
the next day, too late to save the patient. 
It was ascertained that the wife of one of 
the early settlers then stopping at the 
tavern had a case of homoeopathic rem- 
edies. The gentleman did not believe in 
that mode of treatment, but his wife did. 
As she was ill, the husband took the case 
of pills in one hand and a manual of prac- 
tice in the other, and went to the patient's 
relief. He knew little, if any, of the signs of 
disease, but lie sat by the bed and studied the 
book. He said, in telling of the incident, 
that while he was not very hopeful of do- 
ing good, he felt sure that he would do no 

harm. In the morning the patient was suf- 
ficiently recovered so that it was not con- 
sidered necessary to send for a physician. 
So far as known, this was the first record of 
homoeopathic treatment in Evanston. 

Many of the early residents were ac- 
customed to this method before they came 
to Evanston. It was not uncommon to find 
a copy of Small's "Manual of Homceopathic 
Practice" on the book shelf, or s'ome other 
book for family use, and the more common 
remedies were kept on hand, even by those 
who were accustomed to employ the old 
school doctors. The simplicity of the sys- 
tem, the ease with which it could be used, 
and the freedom from harmful results, 
recommended it. . 

Homoeopathy in Evanston has always had 
the support of many of the best educated 
people in the village, and among the earlier 
residents were many strong believers in the 
new school. Doctors Adam Miller, J. 
Nicholas Cooke, Reuben Ludlam, and 
other Chicago practitioners, made frequent 
professional trips to the village. 

First Resident Practitioner. — At that 
early time there were few homoeopathic 
schools. Alost of the practitioners were 
graduates of the old school who had be- 
come dissatisfied with the heroic treatment 
then in vogue, and so had taken refuge in 
this more simple system. Many of them 



however did not adhere strictly to the law 
of similars. In 1856 one of this style came 
and settled in the village. His name was 
Havvkes. So far as the writer has been 
able to find, he was not related to Prof. \V. 
J. Hawkes who came later, though they 
have often been confounded with each 
other. This man was in some way related 
by marriage to Dr. Moses Gunn, one of 
the foremost surgeons of half a century 
ago in Chicago, and to Mr. Gould, who 
long occupied the position of clerk at Rush 
Medical College. He was also a distant 
connection of the Judson family, and for 
his use Rev. Philo Judson had erected the 
commodious house which was removed to 
give place to the Young Men's Christian 
Association building in 1898. Dr. Hawkes 
remained only a year. 

From that time until the middle "sixties 
there was no resident homoeopathic physi- 
cian. Dr. C. D. Fairbanks lived in Evan- 
ston about 1865. Little is known of him. 
All who knew him spoke well of him, both 
as a man and as a physician. It is said 
that he moved from our midst to Engle- 
wood, but this is uncertain. 

Dr. Oscar H. Mann. — In 1866 Oscar 
H. Mann took the place vacated in the com- 
munity by Dr. Fairbanks. Dr. Mann w-as 
born at Providence, R. I., November 24, 
1835. His great-grandfather was an of- 
ficer in the American Revolution. The 
doctor received his earlier medical educa- 
tion in New York City, and began prac- 
ticing. He received the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine from Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege. Chicago, March. 1866. Afterward he 
came to Evanston where he was for many 
years a prominent factor in the life of the 
village, socially and politically. For about 
three years he lectured on Chemistry and 
Hygiene at the Northwestern Female Col- 
lege, which was familiarly called the Jones 
College from its founder and Principal. Dr. 

Mann was one of the prime movers, and the 
first President of the Evanston Social Club, 
the first organization of the kind in our 
midst. L'nder its auspices w-ere held 
theatricals, dances, and card parties. At 
this time it is hard to realize with what 
horror such an organization was then gen- 
erally regarded. It occupied the rooms now 
devoted to the Odd Fellows, 604 Davis 
Street. Dr. Mann served as Township, and 
\'illage Trustee. He was the last Presi- 
dent of the village, and the first Alayor of 
the city. Under his administration the old 
\ illage of South Evanston, which was or- 
ganized because its residents did not wish 
to be taxed for a general water supply, was 
merged with Evanston, in order to get the 
benefit of our superior water system. The 
present City Hall was erected with rooms 
for the Police and Fire Departments, and 
for the Public Library. His home, once 
the scene of frequent parties, stood where 
the present Mann building now houses the 
Postoffice and Masonic Temple. In 1889 
the house was removed to 811 Cfniversity 
Place, where it now stands. He was one of 
the first officers of the Evanston Com- 
mandery Knights Templar, and served one 
year as President of the State HomcEopathic 
Medical Society. He gradually retired from 
practice, and, on the completion of his ser- 
vice as Mayor, spent some years on his ranch 
at Okobojo, South Dakota, though still re- 
taining his legal residence and interest in 

Dr. M. C. Bragdon. — In the summer of 
1873 Dr. Mann took into partnership a 
young man from Evanston, then fresh from 
his studies in Vienna. Merritt Caldwell 
Bragdon was born at Auburn, N. Y.. Jan- 
uary 6, 1850. His father, Rev. Charles P. 
Bragdon, was sent to Evanston in 1858 as 
the pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The family moved into the house 
which had been built for Dr. Hawkes, on 

2 f 



Orrington Avenue. Here the father died, 
leaving his widow, three boys and two girls. 
Merritt, the second son, was graduated in 
1870 from the Northwestern University, 
served as a clerk in the State Senate, studied 
in Chicago Medical College, and finally, in 
1873, was graduated from the Hahnemann 
Aledical College and Hospital of Philadel- 
phia. After some months spent in foreign 
study, he entered upon his duties in Dr. 
Mann's office. He is a trustee of his 
father's church, and a member of the Uni- 
versity Board of Trustees. He has devoted 
his attention to the practice of his profes- 
sion. He is a member of the State and 
National Homoeopathic Medical Societies. 
His chief public service in the community 
was the establishment of the Evanston Hos- 
pital, of which he is now one of the staflf 
of physicians. Seeing the need for such an 
institution, he urged it upon one of his 
patrons, Mrs. Rebecca Butler, and his old 
neighbor, Mrs. Marie Huse Wilder — now 
Mrs. Daniel Kidder — and those ladies 
undertook its organization. Beginning in a 
small way, it has steadily grown until now 
it is one of the most modern, well equipped 
and best managed hospitals in America. 

Dr. Anson L. Marcy. — After Dr. Brag- 
don left the office of Dr. Mann, Anson L. 
Marcy took his place. Dr. Marcy was a 
nephew of Prof. Oliver Marcy, of the Uni- 
versity, and a classmate of Dr. Bragdon in 
the Hahnemann Aledical College of Phil- 
adelphia, where he received his Doctor's 
degree in 1873. ^"^^ came here originall\- 
as a student in the Academy and University, 
though he did not graduate. In his student 
days he was an expert taxidermist, and 
there are still many evidences of his skill to 
be found in the University Museum. After 
graduating in medicine he settled in Dakota, 
but having made a matrimonial alliance with 
the daughter of 'Squire Curry, he was 
drawn back to this village. He is now prac- 
ticing in Richmond, \'a. 

Dr. Clapp. — Eben Pratt Clapp, the son 
of one of the oldest homoeopathic practi- 
tioners in the State, Dr. Ela H. Clapp, was 
born at Rome, III, March 10, 1859. The 
family came to Evanston to educate the 
son, and he was graduated from the North- 
western University in 1881. He was grad- 
uated from the Hahnemann Medical College 
of Chicago in 1882, and after studying in 
Europe, settled in Evanston, where he has 
since practiced. For si.x years he served 
as an efficient Commissioner of Health for 
the City of Evanston. He is a member of 
the staff of physicians at the Evanston Hos- 
pital. He has now retired from active 
practice and spends his winters in Cali- 

Dr. Ela H. Clapp was the second hom- 
cepathic physician to settle in Illinois 
He first studied in Cincinnati and began 
practice in Ohio, and later, after pr^ticing 
for some years, he went to Cleveland for 
special study. After leaving Ohio he set- 
tled in Central Illinois. Having retired 
from active work he came to Evanston 
in 1874. His home overlooked the lake, 
and stood at the northwest corner of Church 
Street and Judson Avenue. Though not 
engaged in practice in Evanston, his posi- 
tion among the profession of the State en- 
titles him to recognition here. He died 
April 12, 1888. of paralysis. 

Later Homoeopathic Physicians. — Har- 
ry Parsons was the son of an Evanston mer- 
chant. The family lived in the northern 
part of the village. Harry was graduated 
from Hahnemann Medical College of Chi- 
cago in 1880. He practiced in Evanston 
after graduation, but later moved to Ravens- 
wood, where he is now enjoying an active 

Prof. William J. Hawkes, a native of 
Pensylvania, came here in the 'eighties, 
but returned to Chicago, and later removed 
to Southern California. He was graduated 
from the Hahneniami Medical College of 



Philadelphia, in 1867. During his residence 
here, Dr. Hawkes continued to occupy the 
chair of Materia IMedica in Chicago Hah- 
nemann College. He was a man of good 
address, genial, well posted in his profes- 
sion, and successful in practice ; yet for 
some reason he never took root in our soil. 

Dr. Allen Benjamin Clayton came to 
Evanston in 1885, and was the only one of 
our homoeopathic practitioners to die while 
practicing here. He was born January 26, 
1849, at Aylmer. Ontario. His preliminary 
education was obtained in the schools of 
Aylmer and Saint Thomas. He received 
his medical training in the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons at Toronto, and in 
the Hahnemann Medical College of Chi- 
cago, '^eing graduated from the latter 
school in 1869. He settled first in Chatham. 
Ontario, moving thence to Marinette, ^^'is. 
He came to Evanston in 1885. He was a 
gentleman of fine literary tastes, affable in 
manner, and at one time he had a lucrative 
practice. His father had wished him to 
enter the legal profession, but this was not 
to his liking. He died in Chicago, of rectal 
cancer, September 13, 1900. 

Eugene E. Shutterly was born at Can- 
nonsburg. Pa., January 2, 1862, He came 
to Evanston in 1877. He studied in the 
Academy, graduating in 1886. He then 
entered the Hahnemann Medical College of 
Chicago, from which he was graduated in 
1888. He immediately began practice in 
Evanston. He has also served the city as 
its Commissioner of Health, conducting the 
office with satisfaction to all concerned. 
He is a member of the staff of physicians 
at the Evanston Hospital. 

Mary F. McCrillis was the first woman 
homoeopathic physician to settle among us. 
She was born in Xew Hampshire in 1856. 
of Xew England parentage. She was grad- 
uated from the Boston University School 
of Medicine in 1882. She came to Evanston 

in 1888, and has since that time been 
engaged here in general practice. She is 
a member of the stafT of Physicians at the 
Evanston Hospital. Quiet and unobtrusive 
in manner, and well versed in her profes-. 
sion, she has proved a worthy member of 
the fraternity. 

Frances B. \Mlkins, a graduate of the 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago 
in 1876, has several times resided in Evan- 
ston. Her husband, John M. Wilkins, re- 
ceived his M. D. degree from the Chicago 
National Medical College in 1896. 

Alice B. Stockham, born in Ohio in 1835, 
and graduated from the Chicago Homoeo- 
pathic Medical College in 1882, came to 
Evanston about 1894. Here she did not 
enter general practice, but devoted herself 
to literary and commercial pursuits. She 
was the author of several books and pamph- 
lets, the best known of which are "Tokol- 
ogy" and "The Koradine Letters." 

Charles Gordon Fuller, born at James- 
town, X. Y., April 9, 1856, has resided in 
Evanston over fifteen years. Having re- 
ceived his earl}- education in the schools of 
Jamestown and at Columbia College, he 
entered the Chicago Homoeopathic Medical 
College, graduating in 1880. Later he took 
special studies at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Xew York, at the Xew York 
C )phtha!mic College and Hospital and the 
Xew York Ophthalmic and Aural Institute. 
He is ex-Major and Surgeon of the First 
Regiment Infantry of the Illinois Xational 
Guard, Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to 
several Chicago Hospitals and a member 
of the consulting staff of the Evanston Hos- 
pital. He is also a member of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy, the American 
Homeopathic Ophthalmological, Otological 
and Laryngological Society, ex-Assistant 
Surgeon to Xew York Ophthalmic Hospital, 
Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society, 
England, member of the A. A. A. S. Asso- 



elation, ^Military Surgeons of the United 
States, and the American r^Iicroscopical So- 
ciety. Dr. Fuller's office is in Chicago, 
where he has confined his attention to dis- 
eases of the eye and ear. 

Burton Haseltine graduated from the 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago in 
1896, and, after being associated with Dr. 
Shears of Chicago for two years, came to 
Evanston, limiting his practice to diseases 
of the eye, ear, nose and throat. He is the 
author of numerous monographs. Secretary 
of the State Homceopathic Aledical Asso- 
ciation, member of the National and Chi- 
cago Homoeopathic Societies. Senior Pro- 
fessor of Xose and Throat in his alma 
mater, and attending Eye and Ear Surgeon 
to Cook County Hospital and Home of the 
Friendless. ITe has now removed to Chi- 

Samuel ]\I. Moore, a native of Kentucky, 
and a graduate from the Chicago Homoeo- 
pathic ^ledical College in 1895, and also 
serving as interne at Cook County Hospital, 
came to Evanston in 1897. For several 
years he enjoyed a prosperous hospital prac- 
tice. He was a member of the staff of 
Physicians at the Evanston Hospital, but he 
retired in 1904 to engage in mercantile pur- 
suits. He has now resumed his practice 
in Sheridan Park, 111. 

Guernsey P. Waring was graduated from 
Dunham Medical College in 1897, and is 
a Professor of Materia Medica in the Hah- 
nemann Medical College of Chicago. He is 
a member of the State and National Medical 

Dr. James T. Kent, who received his de- 
grees from the Eclectic School in Cincinnati 
in 187 1, and the Homceopathic College of 
St. Louis in 1884, is now Professor of 
Materia Medica at Hahnemann Medical 
College of Chicago, a member of the State 
and National Homceopathic ]\Iedical Soci- 
eties, and the author of "Kent's Repertorv," 

"Kent's Materia ^Medica," and "Kent's Phil- 

Edwin Id. Pratt was graduated from 
Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago in 
1877. He is the author of a work on Ori- 
ficial Surgery, is known as a successful 
operator and has for many years been one 
of the leading homoeopathic surgeons. He 
has resided in Evanston since 1900. 

Abbie J. Hinkle was born in Philadelphia 
in 1853. There she received her preliminary 
education. After several years spent in 
teaching in the public schools, she turned 
her attention to medicine, being graduated 
from the Hahnemann Medical College of 
Chicago in 1887. She first settled in Chica- 
go. In January, 1895, she located in Evan- 
ston. During her student days she was an 
officer in the college clinical society, and 
more recently she has been a Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Illinois Homceopathic Medical 

Thomas H. \\'inslow. a native of Nor- 
way, was graduated from the Herring Col- 
lege in Chicago in 1896. Since graduation 
he has practiced in Evanston. Having 
taken special work in the branches per- 
taining to diseases of the nose, throat, ear 
and eye, in February, 1904, he moved to 
Oakland, Cal, to practice that specialty. 

Ransom M. Barrows, born in Michigan 
in 1849. is a brother of the late Rev. Dr. 
John H. Barrows, previous to his death 
President of Oberlin College, Ohio. Dr. 
Barrows received his education in his na- 
tive State, being graduated from the Michi- 
gan University Medical School in 1877. In 
1884 he took a degree from the Hahne- 
mann :Medical College of Chicago. After 
several years spent in Chicago he located 
in Evanston in 1901. He moved to Wil- 
mette two years later. 

George F. M. Tyson was born in Chica- 
go, October 30, 1872. He has practiced in 



Evanston since liis graduation from the 
Chicago National Medical College in 1898. 

Frank H. Edwards grew up in Evanston. 
He was born in Irving Park. Cook County, 
November 16, 1871. He was graduated 
from the Evanston High School, and be- 
gan his professional studies under the di- 
rection of Dr. Clayton. In 1895 he was 
graduated from the Chicago Homoeopathic 
Medical College, and began his career at 
Rockford, 111. After three years he re- 
turned to Evanston. In 1902 he received a 
diploma from Rush Medical College. He 
then spent some time studying in Vienna, 
and later with his uncle. Dr. Ira Harris, in 
Tripoli, Syria. He is the author of several 
monographs. He has joined the Christian 

G. F. Barry was born in Chicago, Janu- 
ary 12, 1875. He was graduated from the 
Chicago Manual Training School in 1894, 
and from the Hahnemann Medical College 
and Hospital of Philadelphia in 1902. He 
immediately settled in Evanston. He is a 
member of the Illinois Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal Association and a graduate of the Chi- 
cago Lying-in Hospital. He is a nieniber 
of the staff of Evanston Hospital. 

Dwight M. Clark, who took the practice 
of Dr. Moore, was born at Yellow Springs. 
Ohio. :March 21), 1878. He studied at the 

Alichigan University, was graduated from 
Chicago Homoeopathic Medical College, in 
1 90 1, served as an interne at Cook County 
Hospital, received a diploma from Rush 
Medical in 1903, and came to Evanston in 
January, 1904. He is a member of stafT 
of Evanston Hospital. 

From the foregoing it may be seen that 
the homcEopathic practitioners of the city 
have not been entirely occupied with pri- 
vate afifairs. To members of this profes- 
sion is largely due the praise for the pres- 
ent existence of two of our public build- 
ings, — the City Hall, and the Hospital. 
Two of these doctors have served the city 
well as Commissioners of Health. Aside 
from these, others have done much toward 
the development of the city in a more 
(juiet way. by the improvement of vacant 
property, erecting thereon residences and 
business blocks. Three for years showed 
an interest in the University by maintain- 
ing therein prizes for oratory, declama- 
tion, and scholarship. One is a director in 
one of our banks, and one is a Trustee in 
the University. But beyond all that has 
lieen said, in the quiet e^•ery day work of 
relief of distress and suffering the disci- 
ples of Hahnemann have done their full 




The Evanston Benevolent Society — First 
Steps in Founding a Hospital — Organ- 
ization is Effected in i8gi — First Board 
of officers — Medical Staff — Fund and 
Building Campaign — Enlargement of the 
Institution Projected — Munificent Gift 
of Mrs. Cable — Other Donations — 
The Endoxvment Reaches $50.000 — Ho.;- 
pital of the Present and the Future — In- 
ternal Arrangement and Official Admin- 
istration — List of Principal Donors - — 
Present Officers. 

When the exigencies of life in the grow- 
ing Village of Evanston had made the care 
of its dependent and other sick more and 
more inadequate : when lives had been lost 
in the transportation of the afflicted to 
Chicago, and in insufficient ministration to 
those sought to be cured within the village, 
a movement arose in Evanston to brmg on 
a better day. This movement was not 
based upon an abstract philanthropy. It 
was the ofifspring of the Evanston Benevo- 
lent Society, whose charitable service had. 
for several years, met an appealing emer- 

The Beginning. — The seed of the Ev- 
anston Hospital was planted at a meeting 
of citizens at the Avenue House, November 
17. 1891. Strictly speaking, it was a meet- 
ing of the Evanston Benevolent Associa- 
tion, called to consider the report, on the es- 

tablishment of a hospital in Evanston, of 
a special committee consisting of J.J. 
Parkhurst, Dr. D. R. Dyche, Mrs. Maria 
Huse Wilder and Mrs. Rebecca N. But- 
ler. There were present William Blanch- 
ard. Dr. D. R. Dyche, H. B. Kurd, J. J. 
I'arkhurst, J. AI. Larimer, W. A. Hamil- 
ton, Frank M. Elliot, \V. E. Stockton, 
Mrs. Jane Bishop, Henry A. Pearsons, 
-Mrs. J. M. Larimer, Mrs. Davis, Mrs. 
Frank" M. Elliott, Mrs. Butler, Mrs. Wild- 
er, Mrs. Pearsons and Mrs. Bishop. It was 
agreed that Evanston should have an emer- 
gencv hospital, and there were appointed as 
a committee on. incorporation Mr. Hamil- 
t<in, Mr. Larimer, Dr. D. R. Dyche, Airs. 
Butler, and Mrs. Wilder. The meeting au- 
thorized overtures contemplating assistance 
by the Village Trustees and Board of 
Health ; and from Mr. Parkhurst, on behalf 
of the executive committee of Northwest- 
ern L'niversity, assurance was received of 
the ]irissibility that the University would 
lend financial helji to the enterprise. 

Organization — First Officers. — One 
week after, in the same place, a meeting of 
citizens affirmed the decision of the pre- 
vious meeting that "an emergency hospital 
is a necessity for the village of Evanston." 
Incorporation followed December 2, and 
on December 4, 1891, there was organized 
the Evanston Emergency Hospital. The 
first administration of the institution, now 



in its successor almost unique in its per- 
fections, was entrusted to tlie following 
citizens : 

President — John R. Lindgren ; 

Vice-President — Julia M. Watson ; 

Secretary — Marie Huse Wilder ; 
•Treasurer — Frank E. Lord ; 

Executive Committee — Wni. L'.lanchard, 
J. M. Larimer, John H. Kedzie, F. Stuy- 
vesant Peabody, Frank M. Elliot, Maria 
A. Holabird, Rebecca N. Butler, Marie 
Huse Wilder, and Catherine L Pearsons. 

The hospital organization began its ex- 
istence with sixty-three directors — public- 
spirited and influential, and with a truly 
liberal conception of the mission of the in- 
stitution contemplated. The directors, 
soon afterwards reduced to thirty, were 
elected for service in three classes, sever- 
ally for one, two, and, three years. The 
site chosen for the hospital, after resources 
and proposed service had been considered, 
was on No. 806 Emerson Street. Here 
was bought for $2,800 a lot, 45 by 170 feet, 
bearing an eight-room cottage which was 
duly made suitable for hospital purposes 
at a cost of about $1,500. It was not an 
imposing structure, but well enough adapt- 
ed to the needs of the time, and it was a 
very healthx' acorn. Then fifty feet of ad- 
joining property, costing $1,650, was 
bought, and thus-wise Evanston seemed 
safeguarded for many years. To make 
this unpretentious start in the founding of 
an institution indispensable to Evanston. 
many active people had done much efficient 
work when, at the first annual meeting, No- 
vember I, 1892, the hospital was reported 
in possession of funds amounting to $7,- 
702 — a total composed of subscriptions, 
dues from annual and life members, a dona- 
tion of more than $3,000 from the proceeds 
of a summer kirmess conducted by the Wo- 
man's Club and others, and by a donation of 
$320 from the Apollo Club of Chicago, 

which had sung the "Messiah" in public 
concert in Evanston. 

First Medical Staff.— The hospital was 
opened for service, March 2"], 1893. with 
Miss Emily E. Robinson, matron, and the 
following physicians as a medical staff: 
Isaac Poole, M. D. ; E. H. Webster, M. D. ; 
W. A. Phillips, M. D. ; Sarah H. Brayton, 
M. D.; H. B. Hemenway, M. D.; A. B. 
Clayton, :\I. D. ; M. C. Bragdon, M. D. ; O. 
H. Mann, M. D. : E. P. Clapp, M. D.; 
Mary F. McCrillis, M. D. ; I. \'. Stevens, 
:\I. D.: and S. F. Verbeck, AI. D. The 
hospital recognized all accepted schools of 
medicine and opened its doors to patients 
both paid and free. Month by month the 
management perfected equipment and sys- 
tem, the rate of charge for service in the 
wards being from $5.00 to $10.00, and for 
a private room from $15.00 to $25.00 a 
week. Directing an institution for public 
service, the hospital management in these 
early years looked with justifiable hopes 
toward the city authorities for assistance. 
By no means was it promptly vouchsafed; 
and when the executive committee was in- 
formed at its meeting in June, 1893, that 
it was impossible to get an appropriation 
from the Evanston Common Council, it was 
felt by more than one public-spirited mem- 
ber that the service of the new institution 
to the common weal was receiving but scant 
recognition. None too robust a child was 
the Emergency Hospital at this period. 
Funds were not too plenty, and citizens at 
large were not yet so trained in systematic 
benevolence as to make excessive provision 
for this municipal necessity. So, along 
with the manifold activities of committees 
and directors to keep and improve Evans- 
ton's first refuge for the afflicted, there 
arose discussion about the inauguration of 
the practice of Hospital Sunday. This hap- 
py and profitable way of contributing to 
hospital support in time took hold, and is 



to-dav. in Evanston, as in other cities, a re- 
liable vehicle for large public benevolences. 

Official Board. — At the first annual 
meeting of the hospital corporation. Xo- 
vember 14, 1893, the following officers 
'were elected : 

President — Arthur Crr: 

\^ice-President — Mrs. Rebecca X. But- 

Secretary — Marie Huse Wilder; 

Treasurer — E. B. Ouinlan. 

Mr. Orr subsequently resigning, Hon. 
J. H. Kedzie was elected in his stead. Not 
long after, Mrs. Wilder resigning. Miss 
^lary Harris, February 5, 1894, was elect- 
ed to the secretaryship, and began a period 
of service long, meritorious, and of a char- 
acter that goes not a little unrewarded. 

Raising Funds. — In 1894, reaching 
about for popular ways and means to let 
the public know that a hospital in Evanston 
was up and doing, and that it would wel- 
come all possible support, the institution's 
friends conducted a so-called "magazine 
entertainment" in Bailey's Opera House. 
The entertainment proved a novel and 
sprightly potpourri of "stunts" by home 
talent, and brought into the hospital treas- 
ury $319. But the little hospital was truly 
an emergency institution, itself not infre- 
quently its own chief emergency ; and so 
to meet its needs, its industrious sponsors 
fell upon a venture of considerable magni- 
tude and genuinely artistic attributes. This 
was an open-air performance of Gilbert 
and Sullivan's charming opera, the "Mika- 
do." .\ stage was erected on the vacant 
lot at the northwest corner of Davis Street 
and Judson Avenue, and with clever prin- 
cipals, and equally clever auxiliaries from 
the young people of the village, the opera 
was sung on four successive evenings, in 
July, 1894, and bfefore large and delighted 
audiences. The net proceeds of this very 
praiseworthy entertainment amounted to 
$2,000. Among the efficient managers of 

this enterprise ' were W. J. Fabian. Mrs. 
\Mlliam Holabird, W. L. "Wells. John M. 
Ewen, Mrs. F. A. Hardv. and Frank M. 
Elliot. . 

The Evanston Emergency Hospital was 
now a fact. It was at work. The public 
knew it was at work, and had gratefully 
profited by its ministrations. But it was not 
big enough, complete enough, modern 
enough — in short, it was inadequate. It 
simply would not do. So it was quite in 
order at the annual meeting of the associa- 
tion, November 6, 1894, that the following; 
presented by Henry A. Pearsons should 
have been, as it was, unanimously adopted: 
"Resolved, that it is the sense of this meet- 
ing that the board of directors be request- 
ed to appoint a committee to consider the 
question of procuring a more suitable site, 
and commencing the erection of a more 
suitable building for use of the hospital." 

Plans for Extension. — The committee 
authorized to take up this proposition was 
Frank M. Elliot, \\'illiam Blanchard, Dr. 
Sarah H. Brayton, and Henry A. Pearsons, 
this committee working under the adminis- 
tration of the following new board of of- 
ficers : 

President — Hon. J. H. Kedzie ; 

Mce-President — Mrs. William Holabird; 

Secretary — Miss ]Mary Harris ; 

Treasurer — E. B. Ouinlan. 

The Committee on Building and 
Grounds was shortly re-enforced by one 
consisting of \\'m. H. Bartlett. Dr. Charles 
G. Fuller, and Dr. Sarah H. Brayton, who, 
with broad outlook and knowledge of the 
relation of a hospital to the many-sided 
needs of a growing community, set out to 
determine the scope and functions of the 
proposed institution. On February 11, 
1895, the corporation, desiring to disasso- 
ciate from its name and work anything 
suggestive of an impromptu, transient, or 
tentative character, formally changed its 



name from Evanston Emergency Hospital 
to Evanston Hospital Association. Having 
enlarged its name, it was appropriate that 
the new association should enlarge its 
place of work, and so, on April 13, 1895, 
at a meeting of the Directors to consider 
the report of the committee on a proposed 
new building site, it was unanimously 
ordered that negotiations be opened for the 
purchase of a lot on Ridge Avenue, in the 
University sub-division, 280 feet on Ridge 
Avenue, and extending 600 feet to Girard 
Avenue, for $12,000, the terms being 
$6,500 and the transfer of the existing hos- 
pital property at a valuation of $5,500. A 
committee to raise the necessary money was 
appointed, consisting of Frank M. Elliot, 
John R. Lindgren, and E. H. Buehler. At 
a meeting on May 2d. purchase of the lot 
in question was authorized for the above 
price, a mortgage of $3,500 being ordered 
assumed, and a two years' lease of the 
Emerson Street property made. The build- 
ing site was deemed an exceptionally de- 
sirable acquisition, and its subsequent im- 
provement has been worthy its natural ad- 
vantages. A month later plans for a hos- 
pital building were laid before the executive 
committee by George L. Harvey, architect. 
A Fund and Building Campaign. — A 
building site and building plans meant large 
prospective drafts upon a none too plethoric 
treasury, and the association again tried 
the magic of an open-air opera as a benefit 
performance. Again, under professional 
guidance, social Evanston threw itself at 
the jolly task, and through the agency of 
the opera of "Powhattan," contributed 
$1,800 to the hospital's funds. Again Mr. 
Fabian and assistants received official 
thanks for their happy management of the 
agreeable enterprise. At a meeting of the 
Hospital Directors, July 8, 1895, it was re- 
solved to raise $25,000 for the proposed 
administration building, in addition to 

funds for purchase of site. The new asso- 
ciation year 1895- 1896 was inaugurated 
November 8th by the election of the fol- 
lowing officers : 

President — Frank M. Elliot ; 

\'ice-President — Julia M. Watson; 

Secretary — Miss Mary Harris ; 

Treasurer — E. B. Ouinlan. 

The new administration entered the cam- 
paign for hospital funds by making its 
entire Board of Directors a subscription 
committee. At a meeting of the directors, 
March 30, 1896, the services of Mr. Harvey, 
as an expert in hospital construction, were 
accepted, and the subscriptions to date were 
found to be $12,780: the cost of the pro- 
posed first or administration building was 
estimated at $22,000. and it was determined 
that, to open the new place free of debt, 
there would be needed $26,750. This was 
too expensive and the administration build- 
ing was reduced in size to bring the cost 
within the limits of the fund that could then 
be realized. 

The hospital year of 1896-1897, begin- 
ning with the election of officers November 
10, 1896, was marked with but one change 
among the executive officers, Mr. Quinlan 
yielding to William G. Hoag as Treasurer. 
A rushing stream was to be crossed before 
the hospital should appear, and horses 
would better not be swapped. So Mr. 
Elliot continued President. At this stage 
in the financing of the new hospital project, 
an unusual opening developed to make an 
honest penny. Mr. Uriah Lott, an Evan- 
ston citizen, wishing to dispose of his house- 
hold efifects — and they were of more than 
ordinary elegance — offered to the hospital 
association a liberal percentage of the gross 
receipts of a public sale, should the asso- 
ciation lend the sale its direction and pat- 
ronage. The offer was accepted, and 
through the activity of Mr. Elliot, Miss 
Harris, and Mrs. Charles T- Connell, the 



hospital fund was increased $1,364. This, 
recruited by a contribution of $136 from 
the surplus of a citizens' Fourth of July 
fund, was welcome money in a year when 
much energy and organization were needed 
to raise the building funds to achieve the 
level of the plans proposed, and when in- 
deed curtailment and modification were 
finally pursued. But energy and organ- 
ization on the part of the association, and 
co-operation on the part of Evanstonians 
at large, determined this, the summer of 
1807, to be the hospital's building summer 
the committee in charge being Frank M. 
FJliot, William H. Bartlett, Dr. Sarah H. 
Brayton. Howard Gray, and William B. 
Phillips. When October came, contracts 
for over $15,000 of an authorized expendi- 
ture of $16,000 had been let, an incum- 
brance of $3,500 had been paid, and the 
new and perfect hospital was a no distant 
fact. And. to rush the building fund, there 
came out of the hurly-burly of a football 
game in November, a sturdy little check for 
$210. The association, at the annual meet- 
ing, November 2. 1897, continued its re- 
tiring officers, and fi.xed the endowment of a 
bed in terms of an annual donation of $"300 
or a single donation of $5,000. Subse- 
quently there was determined an important 
matter in executive policy, in a resolution 
that adjoining towns should not be allowed 
to endow beds in the new institution. 

The new hospital building (the adminis- 
tration building) was opened for the recep- 
tion of patients February 8, 1898. The as- 
sociation had a credit balance in bank of 
$2.707 ; and through its executive commit- 
tee it unanimously thanked Dr. Sarah H. 
Brayton for efficient work in procuring the 
proper furnishing of the building without 
cost to the association. 

New Enlargements Projected. — The 
annual meeting of the Evanston Hospital 
Association, assembling at the Avenue 

House, November i, 1898, was a meeting 
of congratulation and a declaration of prog- 
ress in a branch of public service that was 
doing honor to its workers and to all sym- 
pathetic citizens who had lent aid and com- 
fort. The main building of the hospital, 
capable of sheltering as many as eighteen 
patients, was now a monumental fact. As 
complete as it was, its very usefulness 
emphasized its inadequacy, and its friends 
already looked forward to needed exten- 
sions: to wards for contagious, infectious 
and obstetrical cases, and to minor new ac- 
commodations. Noteworthy in the hos- 
pital's new equipment was an ambulance for 
service, a gift of Mrs. John M. Ewen, as 
a thank-ofifering for preservation in an hour 
of great danger; and, to bind it closer to 
the public, the hospital had now the tem- 
porary endowment of four free beds — one 
being supported by the Ladies' Aid Society 
of the Presbyterian Church, two by North- 
western University, and one by Mrs. Wat- 
son, \'ice-President of the association. 
Further sustained on strong shoulders, the 
hospital felt itself to be, by the gratuitous 
service, two months each, of its entire med- 
ical staff. .An abstract from the treasurer's 
report for one year made at this annual 
meeting will suggest the financial career 
of the hospital at this period ; a period, be 
it remembered, marked between 1894 and 
1898 by general strenuous effort in re- 
covery from national panic and depres- 

Subscriptions for building fum! and site: 
1895, $^50: 1896, $4,615: 1897, $11,040; 
1898. $9,513- 

Amount allowed for old hospital, $5,500. 

Expended on new site, $14,691. 

Expended on new building, $17,140. 

Receipts from entertainments, $1,802. 

Receipts from memberships, $500. 

Receipts from donations, $115. 

Receipts from patients' board, $2,ioS. 



Receipts from support of beds. S575. 

Receipts from subscriptions for furnish- 
ing, $1,725. 

Expenses for maintenance, $5,707. 

The association continued for 1898- 1899 
the officers of the previous year. Early in 
1899 the City of Evanston, without specified 
obHgations upon the hospital, made to the 
institution an appropriation of $300. At 
the annual meeting of the association, No- 
vember 7, 1899, the latter prepared for 
the aid and prestige which future donations 
might prove to the institution, by determin- 
ing the privileges which should pertain to 
endowments of various amounts, and fixing 
classification for the same. With renewed 
persistency now appeared the need of a 
contagious ward, as well as of a wing to the 
hospital, and both interests were committed 
to a special committee. Another year the 
association continued its efficient executives 
in office, and strengthened its medical staff 
by the addition of a consulting staff in 
the persons of eminent Chicago specialists — 
Dr. Christian Fenger, Dr. John Ridlon, and 
Dr. Charles Adams. But the year 1900 
brought to Evanston and its hospital a real 
loss in the death of Hugh R. Wilson. \\'hen 
the hospjtal association came to formally 
deplore the death of this stanch friend and 
good citizen, it did so, in part, in the^e 
feeling words: "Resolved, That, in the 
death of ;\Ir. Wilson, the hospital 
loses one of its most active and 
interested supporters. In his readiness to 
assist the suffering ; in his broad-minded and 
judicious charity ; in his kindliness and 
gentleness of action, Mr. Wilson has, at all 
times during his connection with the asso- 
ciation, been a helpful inspiration to those 
who have worked with him. His foresight 
and good judgment, together with his gen- 
erosity of support, have served to advance 
our work in every practical wav." 

Munificent Gifts of 1900. — Institutions, 

like men, must be in the way of opportunity 
if the}- would have fortune knock at their 
door. A rather mysterious notice sum- 
moned to a special meeting the directors of 
the Evanston Hospital Association, March 
19, 1900. When met, F. F. Peabody, 
Chairman of the Finance Committee, threw 
his associates into happy consternation by 
the following remarks : 

"Mrs. Herman D. Cable wishes me to 
say that she will give $25,000 for the erec- 
tion of a needed addition to the hospital to 
be known as the Herman D. Cable Memorial 
Building, and that, if this gift is accepted, 
she will give an additional $25,000 to endow 
a children's ward in the new building." 

We may be sure this gift was accepted, 
and that the thanks, then formally voted 
Mrs. Cable, were deep and sincere : and it is 
also to be recortled that the Directors made 
it their duty to amplify the unexpected op- 
portunity, to enlarge the existing building, 
and to raise, on their own part, an additional 
endowment fund of at least $25,000. 

The hospital year of 1900-1901, inaugu- 
rated by continuance in office of the retiring 
executive officers, was also marked by resig- 
nation from the directorate of Hon. J. H. 
Kedzie, long identified with hospital inter- 
ests, and the election of Mrs. Alice A. 
Cable, whose gift of a memorial building, 
with alterations in the main building, the 
Board now formally voted to realize. The 
}ear 1901 was one of expansion and con- 
struction in hospital interests. From a 
"rummage sale" in January the hospital 
received $1,813. In April Mr. Irwin Rew, 
a public-spirited citizen of Evanston, 
offered — and the oft'er was accepted — to 
equip the hospital with a heating and 
laundry plant at an estimated cost of 
$4,680. In October there was borne in 
upon the hospital management, both by the 
City Board of Health and by the hospital 
staff', the need of an extension in the wav of 




an isolation ward. At the annual meeting, 
November 5th. the retiring officers were 
re-elected, and the very important additions 
to the institutions represented by the gifts 
of Mr. Rew and Mrs. Cable were formally 
acknowledged — the Cable [Memorial Build- 
ing being characterized as completely fur- 
nished and the children's ward endowed in 
memory of Anita Hutchins Cable. 

Endowment Secured. — The association 
began its hospital year of igoi-1902 with 
its same efficient officers, and welcomed 
from another "rummage" sale a donation 
amounting to $1,440. In February the en- 
dowment fund had reached $46,000 of the 
contemplated $50,000: and in April the 
coveted goal was finally attained. As the 
good year closed divers talented amateur 
artists of Evanston contributed as the re- 
ceipts of a performance of the "Rivals," at 
the Country Club, more than $500 to in- 
crease the usefulness of this popular refuge 
of rest and healing. In the history of 
amusements in Evanston this admirable 
presentation of the sterling old comedy will 
prove of long life in local reminiscence. So 
well in hand was the work of the associa- 
tion now coming, that the reduction of the 
floating debt of about $11,000 became an 
achievement to be undertaken until accom- 
plished. Feeling its strength in the substan- 
tial work done, and in the officers whom it 
re-elected for the year 1902-1903, the asso- 
ciation was also brought to know its weak- 
ness when, on April loth, it was confronted 
with the death of Hon. John H. Kedzie, 
and on May 20th of Mr. Dorr A. Kimball. 
In terms of sorrow and appreciation Mr. 
Kedzie was formally lamented as "a friend 
who has met every emergency of the asso- 
ciation's existence with generous words and 
generous deeds" : and, to Mr. Kimball's 
memory, the association offered no mean 
tribute when it declared him "an upright 
business man and honorable citizen of 

Evanston, whose pure life and public spirit 
made him an example for all." When the 
association, at its eleventh annual meeting, 
November 10, 1903, elected its former 
officers, and checked off a reduction of near- 
ly half the floating debt in pledges received, 
the feeling was general that the hospital was 
truly founded and that its beneficiaries, the 
public, would never permit it to decline. 

Hospital of the Present and the Future. 
— When this volume — the story of a re- 
markable American community — shall have 
received more than one supplement, there 
will still be rising on the highest land in 
Evanston — the city itself but a borough 
in a mammoth municipality of 5,000,000 
or 10,000,000 people — a group of buildings 
enveloped in the kindly shade of many trees, 
and looking to be, what it probably will be, 
a haven for the afflicted. What the hospital 
of that day will be to the city of that day 
none knows ; but we do know that the 
Evanston Hospital of today is, to the Ev- 
anston of today, the most complete agencv 
for practical philanthropy that any institu- 
tion of its kintl in the world, with the same 
equi])ment, fulfills. The Evanston Hospital, 
as it stands today — structure, equipment, 
and administration — is briefly this: 

On the summit of Ridge Avenue, No. 
2650, at right angles to the thoroughfare 
and several rods removed, rises the hos- 
pital's administration building. It is of 
stone and vitrified brick, the latter a struc- 
tural material of die highest resistance and 
of good color tone. The building is of 
three stories, with high pitched and tile 
roof. Its architectural style has decorum, 
and suggests repose. An ample porch 
front, with balcony, looks eastward over 
a falling landscape toward the lake, 
a quarter of a mile distant. At right 
angles to this building connected therewith 
by a two-stor}' and basement corridor, rises 
the second of the hospital buildings, the 



memorial gift of Airs. Alice A. Cable. This 
is in architectural keeping with its dignified 
fellow, and the forerunner of others yet to 
rise in stately alignment westward and 
northward to the boundary of the insti- 
tution's property. The following taken 
from the President's report for 1905 is 
interesting : 

"For several years reference has been 
made in our annual reports to the neces- 
sity of providing a maternity hospital, and 
last year particular emphasis was given to 
this subject. In response to this appeal, Air. 
Lucian M. Williams, on behalf of himself, 
his brother and sisters, made known their 
desire to build this hospital, and requested 
the Board of Directors to prepare plans and 
obtain estimates for a most approved and 
scientifically constructed building, to be 
erected as a memorial to their mother, 
Elizabeth Williams. Such plans and esti- 
mates were secured and presented, and the 
sum of $25,000 was promised for this pur- 
pose. It is expected this much needed hos- 
pital will be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy by June i, 1906. The erection of this 
building will be the consummation of a 
hope long deferred. It will be located north 
of the administration building, fronting on 
Ridge Avenue, and will correspond in ma- 
terial and style of architecture with our 
present buildings. There \yill be thirteen 
beds for patients, an operating room with 
dependencies, diet kitchens, children's nur- 
sery, etc. The rooms for private patients 
will be on one floor and those for ward and 
free patients on the other floor. The private 
rooms will be arranged with adjoining bath 
rooms and so planned as to give the utmost 
privacy and comfort. This generous gift 
will open the way for enlarging the char- 
itable work of the Hospital. It is expected 
the income will be augmented by the use 
of the private rooms, and that it will be suf- 
ficient to meet the expenses of this addition- 

al building after the first year. The need ■ 
of this new and thoroughly equipped Hos- 
pital has become more apparent with each 
year. This magnificent gift is, therefore, 
most timely, and will be a valuable addition 
to our present admirably equipped hos- 
pital. This is another instance in which 
generous friends, desiring to perpetuate the 
memory of some beloved member of their 
family, have made it possible to erect a 
building as a memorial that will be con- 
stantly in use for the benefit of the sick and 

This, then, is the main architectural mass 
of the Evanston Hospital. When this sys- 
tem of buildings shall have its complete 
setting of verdure, when its hundreds of 
trees and shrubs, selected and planted with 
design, shall have arisen to enfold it, the 
tourist of the north shore will linger with 
delight in its presence, and the household 
word will become fixed, that the Evanston 
Hospital is a place to behold as well as a 
place to seek new life in. P.ut a hospital 
is what it is within. 

In operating equipment the Evanston 
Hospital is highly efficient. A visiting and 
consulting stafT of the first class, com- 
manding the support of a community of in- 
telligence and wealth, would naturally lead 
this to be secured. Therefore this hospital 
has a special room for the administration of 
anesthetics, whence the patient is wheeled, 
an ample hydraulic elevator being used 
when necessary, to any part of either build- 
ing. The hospital also has a generous re- 
ceiving room hard by a driveway approach- 
ing the connecting corridors from the rear; 
and here, where water may be applied with 
convenience and profusion, an emergency 
case may be prepared for the operating 
table. The operating room, with apparatus 
for water and instrument sterilization ad- 
joining, is placed in a swelling bay with 
top and side lights and north exposure. Its 



table, operating outfit, plumbing, and 
snowy enameled walls tell the story of an 
American warship — the cleanest place in 
the world, and the most effectual instru- 
ment for the purpose for which it is created. 
Supplementing these main factors for per- 
fect operating service are medicine closets 
and lavatories for the professional staff. 

The first and last impression of the do- 
mestic equipment of the Evanston Hospital 
is, that it is scientifically chosen and used : 
that such parts of it as should be dainty and 
feminine are superlatively dainty and fem- 
inine ; and that, through all, spreads the 
genius of reason, cleanliness, and order. 
These various characteristics are generally 
expressed in the exquisite neatness and re- 
finement of the institution's housekeeping : 
in the furnishing of the private rooms ; in 
the simple, restful details of ward furnish- 
ings ; in the ample dining-room for nurses, 
as well as in their ample and beautiful club 
room ; in the home-like sleeping rooms of 
the nurses ; in the practical machinery for 
bathing, cooking, storage : and in the cleri- 
cal service of administration. So much for 
operating equipment, but the right people 
must use it : and so much for domestic fur- 
nishings, but not yet do walls, tools, and 
furnishings make a hospital. There must 
be a soul in the place, a god in the machine. 

Arrangement and Internal Administra- 
tion. — The administration of the Evan- 
ston Hospital is full w'orthy its physical out- 
fit ; and this is so because it stands in every 
way for the high technical and humanita- 
rian standards of the institution's founders. 
With far more eflfort than the average cit- 
izen of Evanston appreciated, the sworn 
friends of the enterprise, now so firmly 
assured, shaped its early fortunes, besought 
donations of money and utilities, showed it 
worthy of confidence and large bequests, 
and finally with such capital built their 
grand work high upon a hill. So it is in the 

nature of things, this hospital being a mon- 
ument to sacrifice, that a strong, wise, and 
tender spirit should vitalize its administra- 
tion. In Miss Annie L. Locke, who has 
been Superintendent eight years, is this 
spirit personified. 

In this sketch of one of Evanston's most 
important institutions, ranking next to the 
municipal departments of police, fire, water, 
and public works, two types of inquiry 
about the place should find satisfaction. 
How good a place is it to get well in ? W'ha; 
about it should interest the tourist and gen- 
eral visitor? To both of these inquiries 
answer has in the main been made : but 
there remain details of equipment and ad- 
ministration that should not go unnoted. 
The first floor of the administration is 
the greater part of the governing depart- 
ment of the hospital. Here is the reception 
parlor for visitors, office and apartm'ents 
for the Superintendent, and rooms for sur- 
gical treatment. Beneath, in the basement, 
is the private dining-room of the Superin- 
tendent, the nurses' dining-room, and an 
extensive culinary equipment. On the sec- 
ond floor are private rooms and semi-private 
wards, occupants of the former enjoying an 
environment and retiracy surpassing that of 
a private home, and occupants of the latter 
being privileged to have a private, as well 
as a hospital, physician. On the third floor 
are rooms for domestic use. Two long 
sunny corridors — enticing haunts for con- 
valescents — unite the administration with 
the Herman D. Cable Memorial Building. 
This latter, in structure, equipment and con- 
tented occupants, is, like its companion, 
something good to see. It is the house of 
the men's ward, the women's and children's 
wards, and the private rooms of the nurses. 
On the first floor, with outlook east and 
south, is the ward for men with seven beds, 
and the ward for women with ten beds. 
The building's southern end is one enor- 



mous bay, furnishing a sun-room annex to 
the women's ward on the first floor, and to 
the children's ward on tlie second. Capa- 
cious and comfortable are these sun-rooms 
—blissful half-way houses to health. The top 
floor shelters, in home-like chambers void 
of the institutional air, the members of the 
ni.rsing stalif, and has space for their large 
and inviting club and lecture room. Char- 
acteristic details of equipment in this build- 
ing are the marble outfittings of the men's 
bath-room, the treadle action plumbing in 
the administration room, the ventilator sys- 
tem by steam exhaust fans, the diet kitchen, 
and the commodious elevator. On every 
floor of the combined buildings are reels 
of hose and extinguishers for emergency 
fire uses. A pumping service auxiliary to 
cit_\- pressure is also supplied. 

An important and complete annex to the 
ward and administration buildings of the 
hospital, is an auxiliary building housing its 
steam-plant and laundry. The heating 
agent of the hospital is hot water circulated 
from boilers in this same building, where 
a reserve set of boilers promise capacity 
sufficient for future additions in the way of 
buildings, which the unoccupied area of the 
present hospital grounds can accommodate. 
The steam laundry, located on the second 
floor of the heat and power plant building, 
is admirably equipped for dispatch and 
perfection of work. Its centrifugal wringer 
and extensive drying compartments include 
apparatus nowhere excelled. The wood fin- 
ishings of the hospital buildings are in oak, 
save where stained or white painted wood is 
used to supplement the more domestic fur- 
nishings of private apartments. 

The grounds of the Evanston Hospital 
have ample space for departmental addi- 
tions; and, it is the hope of its manage- 
ment, that there shall, in the near future, be 
added a pavilion for contagious, and a 
building for private patients — such addi- 

tions taking systematic place along lines 
westward of the Herman D. Cable Memor- 
ial Building and parallel thereto. When 
the time is opportune the buildings will be 

To remind the management of the hos- 
pital's need of a maternity retreat, there 
came one season, to a friendly niche in the 
hospitable structure, a busy home-making 
robin which mothered two broods. This, 
explains the superintendent with a smile, is 
the Evanston Hospital's first maternity 
ward. The hospital in 1899 opened a train- 
ing school for nurses. It has now graduated 
twenty students, all pupils of the selected 
practitioners of Evanston lecturing at the 
hospital, and nearly all. at one time and an- 
other, members of the hospital nursing 
stafl^. In the school at present are thirteen 

Such has been the evolution of the Evan- 
ston Hospital, and such, in the main, is its 
characteristic equipment and administra- 
tion. But for those who will read this 
record in years to come, as well as for 
the prospective beneficiaries and benefac- 
tors of today, still further information about 
this unique place of refuge and health 
should be supplied. And, first, no applicant 
whose condition will not imperil the insti- 
tution is turned from its doors. The chil- 
dren's ward is specially endowed by Mrs. 
Cable for the free use of crippled and sick 
children, and there are also private rooms 
for children. In the women's and men's 
ward a patient may pay as much as $1.00 
a day or nothing. In the semi-private wards 
the charge is $10.00 a week; in the private 
rooms. $15 to $30 per week. It is the in- 
come from the private rooms — and more 
such rooms are needed — that helps supply 
the deficiency in hospital revenue caused, in 
part, by increasing charity work in the gen- 
eral wards. The hospital work of 1905 may 
be expressed as equivalent to 7,561 service 


days given its free and pay patients. Of 
this over 34 per cent was service to free 
patients. The expense of hospital mainte- 
nance in 1905 was $24,182.41, to defray 
which receipts from hospital service con- 
tributed $14,854.11. The paid-in endow- 
ment fund is $50,500. The only indebted- 
ness was incurred for buildings, and this 
has been reduced to $5,010. To operate the 
liospital with its present mechanical equip- 
ment and staff, consisting of Superinten- 
dent, its efficient Assistant Superintendent, 
Miss Edith A. Bird, and fifteen nurses, 
there is needed, from voluntary subscribers 
( aside from material donations, income 
from receipts and endowment income — the 
latter amounting to $2,259) the sum of 
$7,500. .\ free bed in a ward may be per- 
petually endowed for $5,000; a bed and a 
room for $10,000. The hospital has 
eighteen free beds and fifteen rooms. .A. 
gift of $100 or more to the endowment fund 
makes the donor an endowment member, 
or a like sum to the general fund, a life 
member. .\ gift of $10 secures a year's 
membership in the Hospital Association. 
The hospital stands — including the mater- 
nity hospital and 100 feet of land recently 
purchased for $4,250 — as a total invest- 
ment of about $130,000. Since organization 
the hospital has cared for 1,982 patients, 
and, in 1905, 491 people contributed to the 
institution's support. From its start, the 
hospital in every form of favorable pub- 
licity has been upheld by^ the "Evanston 
Press" and the "Evanston Index." 

The administrative policy of the hos- 
pital is, of course, non-sectarian. Its re- 
ceipts from the Protestant churches, on 
Hospital Sunday, February 14, 1905, were 
S4-394-I3- The City of Evanston appro- 
priates yearly to the hospital the sum of 
$300. Free beds are maintained by the 
Presbyterian and Congregational churches, 
and bv Xorthwestern Universitv. The 

medical and surgical attendance is the vol- 
untary and unpaid daily attendance of two 
competent Evanston practitioners, rotating 
in service with associates, composing a total 
volunteer staff of twelve. For consultation 
the resident staff calls upon the most emi- 
nent physicians and surgeons of Chicago. 
The ambulance of the Evanston Hospital, 
is modern, up-to-date, with full equipment, 
and is under the direction of the superin- 

Official Administration. — The affairs of 
the Evanston Hospital are guided by its 
executive officers and thirty Directors, oper- 
ating in twelve committees. In all co-oper- 
ative effort certain people voluntarily take — 
or, are besought to take, and do take — posts 
high and posts humble, but all of laborious 
duty. Hundreds of public-spirited citizens 
united to raise the Evanston Hospital, and 
hundreds continue to unite to make it the 
most attractive and useful place of its scope 
and equipment in the United States. Among 
these hundreds there must be some, even 
more than others, whom circumstances 
have elected to service peculiarly long, tlif- 
ficult and efficient. Of this smaller band 
common consent would approve the men- 
tion of Frank M. Elliot, President ; Julia 
M. Watson, Mce-President ; and Mary 
Harris, Secretary, the association's execu- 
tive officers for eleven consecutive years; 
of F. F. Peabody, Charles R. Webster, 
David R. Forgan, John R. Lindgren, Rol- 
lin A. Keyes, Irwin Rew, William G. Hoag, 
for their service in finance and investment 
committee work ; of William B. Phillips, 
for care of the variegated plant life that 
beautifies the grounds ; of Mrs. Charles J. 
Council, Mrs. Julia M. Watson, Mrs. Vir- 
ginia Creighton, P. R. Shumway and Wil- 
liam B. Phillips for faithful and sym- 
pathetic service on the Executive Commit- 
tee ; of Dr. Sarah H. Brayton, for work 
contributed to the furnishing of the hos- 


pital : of the \'isiting Committee, Mrs. 
James A. Patten, and of E. H. Buehler on 
the Medical Supply Committee. 

List of Donors. — Donors to the funds 
of the Evanston Hospital have been many, 
and at least two sources of income, not 
directly personal, are an interesting illus- 
tration of how an enterprise of this char- 
acter mav profit by public movements 
animated by belief in its merits and faith 
in its future. These two sources are the 
fixed annual institution of Hospital Sunday, 
and the benefit entertainment conducted by 
clubs or by society at large. 

Benefactions have been generally meas- 
ured by the competency of benefactors. 
While many small contributions have been, 
and continue to be, as the breath of life of 
this institution, certain large ones, at crit- 
ical periods, have fixed the lines of its 
growth and the scope of its mission. 

The Endowment Fund of $50,500 was 
contributed by the following Endowment 
Members : I. F. Blackstone, William Liston 
Brown, Mrs. Alice A. Cable, Frank E. 
Lord, James A. Patten, Mrs. Lilly Parker 
Stacey, Thomas L Stacey, Mrs. Julia M. 
\\'atson, Mrs. Hugh R. Wilson, and un- 
named friends in sums of $5,000, 1,500 and 
$2,500. respectively. 

The following Life Members have each 
contributed $100 or more to the hospital : 
M. C. Armour, Mrs. M. C. Armour, C. A. 
Barry, William H. Bartlett. Dr. :\L C. 
Bragdon, Mrs. W. L. Brown, Airs. Edwin 
F. Brown, Mrs. Rebecca N. Butler, Daniel 
H. Burnham, William Blanchard, William 
H. Bartlett, William L. Brown, Rev. 
Charles F. Bradley. E. H. Buehler. Mrs. W. 
B. Bogert, Charles T. Boynton, E. J. Buf- 
fington, Mrs. W. H. Burnet, Mrs. Alice A. 
Cable, David S. Cook, Airs. Louise Condict, 
Mrs. T. S. Creighton, C. P. Coffin, J. J. 
Charles, Ira B. Cook, Charles B. Congdon, 
Charles B. Cleveland, \\'illiam Deering, 

Frank M. Elliot, John M. Ewen, Mrs. John 
M. Ewen, C. w" Elphicke, Mary Fabian, 
W. J. Fabian, D. R. Forgan, Frank P. 
Frazier, J. H. Garaghty, Mrs. P. W. Gates, 
P. W. Gates, Charles F. Grey, Clara Gris- 
wold, A. H. Gross, Mrs. A. H. Gross, Mrs. 
\'irginia Hamline, Mrs. A. J. Harding, F. 
A. Hardy, Mrs. C. H. Hall, E. A. Hill, 
Airs. Janet W. Hubbard, William G. Hoag, 
Mrs. T. C. Hoag, W. H. Jones, Marshall 
M. Kirkman, N. C. Knight. E. S. Lacey, 
Richard C. Lake, John R. Lindgren, 
Thomas Lord, George S. Lord. Frank E. 
Lord, David R. Lewis, P. L. AIcKinney, 
AI. D., Roger B. McMuUen, Mrs. James A. 
Patten, F. F. Peabody, F. S. Peabody, 
H. A. Pearsons, William B. Phillips, Kate 
C. Quinlan, Irwin Rew, George B. Rey- 
nolds, Fleming H. Revell, W. T. Rickards, 
Airs. C. H. Rowe, George Scott, R. L. 
Scott, R. S. Scott, J. E. Scott, Rev. H. P. 
Smyth, J. S. Shaffer, George M. Sargent, 
George Watson Smith, Robert D. Sheppard. 
William E. Stockton, Philip R. Shumway, 
Airs. Lucy D. Shuman, Airs. T. I. Stacey, 
H. C. Tillinghast, Leroy D. Thoman, H. J. 
Wallingford, C. A. Ward. Airs. J. F. Ward, 
Airs. Julia AI. Watson, Alargaret S. Wat- 
son, Alilton H. \\'ilson. Airs. H. R. \\'ilson, 
John E. Wilder, Charles E. Yerkcs. A. X. 

The total cash receipts to the Evanston 
Hospital since its organization have been 
5308,719.00. This sum has been expended 
as follows : 

Buildings and land $128,086 

Endowment Fund 50.500 

Alaintenance for twelve years 130,133 

On May 15, igo6, Mrs. Julia M. Watson died 
suddenly, depriving this association of one of its 
most devoted and valuable members. Mrs. Wat- 
son had been identified with the hospital from the 
beginning, and during these sixteen years had 
becii an officer and active worker in its behalf. 
The hospital was peculiarly near to her heart 
and the object of her special devotion. 

At a special meeting of the E.xecutive Commit- 
tee of the Hospital Association the following me- 
morial paper was adopted : 



"The sudden and, to mortal vision, untimely 
death of Mrs. Julia M. Watson, on the 1.5th inst.. 
has not merely deprived the Evanston Hospital 
.\ssociation of its honored Vice-President, and 
this committee of one of its most active and valu- 
ahle members, but has taken away one who has, 
from the very beginning of the institution to the 
present time, been so closely identified with its 
growth and development, so constant in her unsel- 
fish devotion to its interests and so generous in its 
support, that she had become an essential part of 
its very existence. 

"Her wise counsel, her faithful attention to the 
duties of the various committees upon which she 
has continuously and most efficiently served and 
her strong and inspiring personality, no less than 
her generous gifts have contributed in a very 
large degree to the splendid results that have been 

"To express a proper appreciation of the value 
of such services as she has rendered, and of the 
loss this committee and the association have sus- 
tained is impossible. We can only record our 
profound sense of sorrow in her loss. Its more 
adequate appreciation will not be expressed, but 
will be preserved in the grateful and affectionate 
remembrance which we shall ever cherish in our 

"Fr.\nk M. Elliot. Chairman, 
Wm. G. 
Wm. B. Phillips. 
Philip R. Shumvv.w, 
RoLLiN A. Keyes, 
Irwin Rew, 
Mrs. T. S. Creighton, 
Mrs. C. J. CoNNELL, 
Mr.s. James A. Patten, 
Mary Harris, Secretary." 

Present Officers. — The complete govern- 
ing body of the Hospital As.sociation for 
the year 1906, is as follows: 

General Officers— Frank :\I. Elliot, Pres- 
ident; Julia M. Watson, Vice-President; 
William G. Hoag, Treasurer ; Mary Harris, 
Secretary ; Annie L. Locke, Superinten- 
dent ; Edith A. Bird, Assistant Superin- 

Executive Committee — Frank M. Elliot, 
Chairman; Air. \\'illiam B. Phillips. Mr. 
Philip R. Shumway, Mr. Rollin A. Kexes, 
Mr. Irwin Raw, Mr. William A. Hdag, 
Mrs. Julia M. Watson, Airs. T. S. Creigh- 

ton, Mrs. C. J. Connell, Mrs. James A. 

Finance Committee— Air. Irwin Rew, 
Chairman : Mr. Frank H. Armstrong, Air. 
Charles R. Webster. 

Investment Committee— Air. William G. 
Hoag, Chairman; Air. J. R. Lindgren, Mr. 
Rollin A. Keyes. 

Auditing Committee— Air. Philip R. 
Shumway, Chairman; Mr. W. B. Phillips, 
Air. Clyde AI. Carr. 

House and Grounds Committee — Mr. 
William B. Phillips, Chairman; Air. M. C. 
Armour, Air. Frank P. Frazier. 

Admission Committee — Airs. C. J. Con- 
nell, Chairman ; Airs. James A. Patten, 
Aliss A. L. Locke. 

Supplies Coininittee — Airs. Julia M 
Watson, Chairman ; Airs. W. J. Fabian, 
Airs. Caroline S. Poppenhusen. 

Aledical Supplies Committee — Air. Ed- 
ward H. Buehler, Mr. R. J. Bassett. 

Printing Committee — Mr. Philip R. 
Shumway, Chairman ; Miss Alary Harris, 
Air. William G. Hoag. 

Training School Committee — Airs. Julia 
AI. Watson, Chairman ; Airs. Alice A. 
Cable, Miss Alary Harris. 

Hospital Saturday and Sunday Commit- 
tee — Airs. T. S. Creighton, Chairman; 
Airs. Parke E. Simmons, Mr. C. F. Mar- 

\'isiting and Delicacies Committee — 
Airs. James A. Patten, Chairman ; Mrs. W. 
S. Powers, Mrs. Irwin Rew, Mrs. A. R. 
Barnes, Airs. E. J. Bufifington, Mrs. AI. A. 
Mead, Airs. H. "h. Hoyt, Mrs. John C. 
Spry, Mrs. T. M. Holgate, Mrs. J. H. 
Garaghty, Airs. W. H. Warren, Mrs. James 
W. Howell, Airs. Philip R. Shumway. 

Directors. — Term Expires 1906 — Mr. 
William B. Bogert, Prof. J. H. Gray, Mr. 
William B. Phillips, Airs." W. L. Brown, 
Air. Rollin A. Keyes, Airs. William Hola- 



bird, Mrs. James A. Patten, Mr. Frank :\I. 
Elliot, Mr. E. H. Buehler, Mr. Clyde M. 

Term Expires 1907 — Mrs. H. D. Cable, 
Mr. Philip R. Shumway, Mrs. C. S. Pop- 
penlnisen, Mrs. John C. Spry, Mrs. T. S. 
Creighton, Mr. M. C. Armour, Mr. Irwin 
Rew, Mrs. E. J. Buffington, Mr. R. L. 
Scott, Mr. Charles F. Marlow. 

Term Expires 1908 — Mr. F. P. Frazier, 
Mr. F. F. Peabody, Mr. C. R. Webster, 
Mr. D. R. Forgan, Mr. Robert J. Bassett, 
Mrs. Julia M. Watson, Mrs. C. J. Connell. 
Mrs. Lucy J. Rowe. Mr. William G. Hoag, 
Mr. Frank H. Armstrong. 

Medical Staff.— E. H. Webster, M. D. ; 
W. A. Phillips, M. D. ; William R. Parkes, 
M. D. : P. D. Harding, M. D. : Sarah H. 
Brayton, M. D. ; Frank C. Dakin, M. D.; 
M. C. Bragdon, M. D. ; E. E. Shutterly, 
M. D.; Mary F. McCrillis, M. D.; Dwight 
Clark. M D. : B. C. Stolp, M. D. 

Consulting Staff. — Charles Adams, M. 
D. : C. S. Bigelow, D. D. S. : Frank Billings, 
M. D. : Arthur R. Edwards, M. D. : Charles 
G. Fuller, M. D. ; D. W. Graham, M. D. ; 
Fernand Henrotin. M. D. ; Hugh T. Pat- 
rick, M. D. : John Ridlon, M. D. : Will 
\\'alter, M. D. ; W. S. Alexander, Patholo- 




Evanston as it Existed in 18^6 — Primeval 
Church Music — War Songs — A Com- 
mencement Concert — The Hutchinson 
Family — Jules Lumbard — O. H. Mcrzcin 
Becomes A Choir Leader — Other Xota- 
blc Musicians — E'c'ansto)i's First Musical 
Club — Some Famous Teachers and Per- 
formers — Thomas Concert Class Organ- 
iced — Mrs. Edward IVyman — Musical 
Department of Evanston Woman's Club 
— Women's Clubs as a Factor in Musical 
Training — Evanston Musical Club — 
Maennerchor Organised — Programs — 

Evanston has become such an acknowl- 
edged musical as well as literary center, 
that the tracing of the steps leading up 
to its present high state of development 
affords unusual interest. Let us close our 
eyes and picture to ourselves the town in 
1856. It consisted, as a reliable authority 
informs us, of a few houses : the University 
represented by the old Academy building, 
which then stood on the corner of Davis 
Street and Hinman Avenue; the North- 
western Women's College, further south on 
Chicago Avenue ; the Methodist Church, a 
wooden building which everybody attend- 
ed ; and a general store and postofifice. At 
this stage it is natural that musical interest 
should have centered around the music in 
the church. This, at first, consisted of sing- 

ing by the congregation of old familiar 
hymns. A little later a choir was formed of 
the young people of the church. .led first by 
Mr. Hart P. Danks, who afterwards be- 
came well known as a composer of songs 
and church music. Mrs. Mary Willard 
was a member of this choir, which sang not 
only the hymns and old-fashioned anthems 
for the church service, but was always on 
hand for prayer meetings, lectures, so- 
ciables and even sleigh-rides and picnics. 
Mr. Danks was succeeded as choir-leader 
by Mr. John A. Pearsons. In the war meet- 
ings, held in the old University chapel, the 
choir thrilled its hearers with its rendering 
of patriotic songs. 

The first brass band in the town was or- 
ganized in 1857, and was led by Frank 
Steel, an Evanston boy, who afterwards 
achieved some reputation as bandmaster 
in a New York regiment during tire war. 
About this time Mr. J. B. Merwin — -a dis- 
tant relative of Mr. O. H. Merwin, whose 
notable work for music in Evanston will 
be mentioned later on — succeeded in stir- 
ring up considerable musical enthusiasm 
among the young people. Under his direc- 
tion they gave one or two sacred cantatas, 
wdiich were greatly enjoyed. At commence- 
ment time a concert Vk'as always given in the 
Methodist Church by the music teacher and 
pupils of the \\'omen"s College. This was 
the most pretentious musical event of the 



year for the town. From time to time vari- 
ous musicians from outside gave concerts 
in Evanston. Among these are remember- 
ed the Hutchinson Family and Jules Lum- 
bard, whose singing was very popular dur- 
ing the war. 

In 1869 Mr. O. H. Merwin came to 
Evanston and was made director of the 
choir, a position he held for thirteen years, 
until 1882. The period of Mr. Merwin 's 
activity in 'this work may be said to mark 
the musical transition between the Evan- 
ston of the past and the Evanston of the 
present. During his regime the choir, 
which was made up from the young people 
of the church and students of the Univer- 
sity, numbered from forty to seventy mem- 
bers. Among the names we find many famil- 
iar ones. Miss Ella Prindle, now Mrs. 
Amos W. Patten, was leading soprano for 
eight or ten years ; Mrs. Frank P. Crandon 
and ]\Irs. H. F. Fisk occupied front seats 
in the soprano row, while Professor James 
Taft Hatfield reinforced the tenors. Mr. 
and Mrs. John B. Kirk, Miss Lindgren 
(now Mrs. Nels Simonsen), Mr. and Mrs. 
Inglehart. Miss Nellie Hurd (now Mrs. 
Comstock), the Raymond brothers, Mr. 
Scott Matthews, Miss Pomeroy, and many 
others whose names are well known to old 
Evanstonians, mingled their voices in Mr. 
Merwin's choir. This organization gave 
frequent entertainments for the benefit of 
the church, on which occasion the choir was 
reinforced by all the singers in the town. 
In the spring of 1879 a concert was given 
in which Miss Annie Louise Cary took the 
leading part. The following year "The 
Messiah" was produced with Myron Whit- 
ney as basso. In 1882 Mr. Merwin was 
succeeded by Mr. Locke, director of the 
Music Department of the L^niversity. 

The Evanston Amateur Musical Club. — 
The first important musical club in Evanston 
was the Evanston Amateur Alusical Club, 

a musical and social organization which 
flourished for five years — from 1882 to 
1887. Its founder and presiding genius 
was Miss Nina G. Lunt, to whose perse- 
verance and untiring energy the success of 
the enterprise was due. She started the 
club with fourteen young amateur musi- 
cians as a nucleus. The membership grew 
with such rapidity that it comprised large 
active, associate and honorary lists. The 
last included the names of many prom- 
inent Chicago musicians, notably Mrs. 
Regina Watson (who was always a great 
source of inspiration and help to the club), 
Miss Fannie Root, Miss Amy Fay, Mr. 
Carl Wolfsohn, Mr. Fred W. Root, Mr. 
Emil Liebling and others. For two years 
fortnightly afternoon musicals were given 
during the season at the homes of the mem- 
bers. The programs were furnished large- 
ly by the active members. Frequent even- 
ing recitals by well known artists added 
much to the interest of the association. It 
was finally deemed best to do away with the 
afternoon meetings and have the entertain- 
ments all given in the evening, the programs 
to be furnished by artists of established 
reputation. At the same time the term 
"amateur" was dropped, the name of the 
club appearing as the Evanston Musical 
Club. The list of artists who appeared 
in recitals before this club is a notable 
one. It includes Seeboeck. Amy Fay, 
Carl Wolfsohn, Emil Liebling, Frank 
Root, Mrs. \\'alter \\"ynian. Mme. Carreno, 
Sherwood, Annie Rommeiss, Mrs. May 
Phoenix Cameron. Mme. Hopekirk, Mme. 
Trebelli, Jacobsohn, Musin, Fannie Bloom- 
field Zeisler, The [Mendelssohn Quintette 
Club of Boston, Rummel, Lilli Lehman 
and others. There were also Chamber Con- 
certs given under the direction of ]\Ir. 
William Lewis. 

Church Music. — With the growth of 
Evanston, churches of various denomina- 


tions have sprung up and their choirs have 
added no little to the musical development 
of the town. The Congregational Church 
choir has become noted as a training-ground 
for some of our best known concert sing- 
ers. Among them are Mr. Francis Fisher 
Powers, ^Irs. Minnie Fish Griffin and ]\Irs. 
Alinnie D. ^lethot, who has recently gone 
into opera. The following excerpt is taken 
from an interesting article on "Church 
Music" by Mr. Frank M. Elliot, in which 
he sketches the musical history of the Evan- 
ston Congregational Church: 

"One of the choirs long to be remember- 
ed was, in 1875 and 1876, known as the 
Powers Quartet, composed of Miss Emily 
Powers, Miss Lottie Powers (now Mrs. 
Ullman), Mr. Francis Fisher Powers and 
Mr. Fred Powers. They were all musical 
and their singing was always enjoyed. 

"In 1881, 1882 and 1883 the music was 
under the direction of !Mr. George H. lott. 
This was the first of our paid choirs. ^Ir. 
lott entered upon his duties with enthusi- 
asm, and unquestionably did more to edu- 
cate our people in good sacred music than 
anyone before or since. His selections 
were always of a high order of merit. His 
exactness with the musicians, his fine ap- 
preciation of music, together with the 
superb quality of his voice, gave a render- 
ing that was always satisfactory and help- 
ful to his listeners. The Te Deum became 
one of the most enjoyable of the selections 
given. It was his custom to give a Te 
Deum at every morning service, and this 
feature became so characteristic that his 
choir was known ever after as the 'Te Deum 

"In 1890, 1891 and 1892, the choir com- 
posed of Miss Grace E. Jones, !\Iiss Esther 
A. Pitkin, Mr. Henry Taylor, Jr., and Mr. 
J. P. McGrath. gave an excellent rendering 
of all their music. They were together so 
long that they became accustomed to each 

other's singing. Their ensemble work was, 
perhaps, as good as that of any choir we 
have had. By far the best choir we ever 
had was composed of Mrs. Minnie Fish 
Griffin, Miss Alice Hayes, Mr. Johnston 
and ;Mr. William Richards. Unfortun- 
ately this choir was together only three 
months. Their voices were evenly balanced, 
and all were experienced and artistic sing- 
ers, so that every selection that they under- 
took was sure of proper interpretation. 

"There have been other excellent choirs, 
but, as a rule, one or more of the voices 
were defective. The singers who have 
endeared themselves to our people — and 
who will always be regarded with the high- 
est esteem, both for their musical ability 
and for their sincerity and devotion to their 
work while in the choir — are Miss Owens, 
Miss Carpenter, Mrs. Bartlett, Mrs. Goetz, 
^Irs. Brewer, Mrs. Lamphere, Mrs. Minnie 
D. Methot, Mrs. Stella Lawrence Nara- 
more, Mrs. Grace Jones Taylor, ]\Irs. Esther 
Pitkin-Bartlett, Mrs. Jennie Sugg Carson, 
Mrs. Minnie Fish Griffin, Miss Hayes, Miss 
Sohlberg, Miss Kelley, Mr. George H. 
lott, Mr. Homer F. Stone, Mr. James F. 
Bird, Mr. Charles A. Dew, Mr. Henry 
Taylor, Jr., Air. I. P. [McGrath, Air. William 
Richards, Air. James F. Johnston and Air. 
L. F. Brown. 

"The organists, who, by their association 
with this church, have become a part of its 
history, are J. W. Ludlam, Clarkson Rey- 
nolds Larabee, Arthur Cutler, Prof. W. S. 
B. Mathews, Prof. Oscar Mayo, Miss 
Mollie Ludlam, Miss Lydia S. Harris, R. H. 
L. Watson, L. P. Hoyt, H. D. Atchison, 
Plubert Oldham, W. W. Graves, A. F. 
AlcCarrell, John A. West, Edwin Barnes, 
Irving Proctor, John Alills Alayhew and 
Scott Wheeler." 

In recent years the most marked feature 
of the music of the Congregational Church 


has been the artistic singing of :\Irs. Sanger of 1901 a series of organ concerts was 

Steele given in the First Methodist church by 

St. Mark's (Episcopal) Church has a Professor P. C. Lutkin, Miss Mary Porter 

vested choir, which furnishes the music Pratt, Miss Tina Mae Haines, Air. William 

for the regular service throughout the year E. Zeuch and Mr. A. F. McCarrell. After 

and in addition, usually performs the St. the installation of the new organ especially 

Cecilia Mass at Easter. noteworthy recitals were giveit with the 

In June, 1897, a series of free organ re- following programs : 

Citals was inauguarated in the Presbvter- Toccata and Fugue, D minor Bach 

^ Prof. p. C. Lutkin 

ian Church. These were COntmUed through Anthem— "Praise the Lord" a. Randegger 

(a) Chorus — "Sing unto God" G. F. Handel 

four seasons. The expenses were borne (b) "La Cygne" (The Swan) c. Saim-Saens 

., , , (c) Nuptial March A. Gudmant 

by private citizens who contributed each Mr. Clarence Eddy . „ ^ „. 

- '^ , . , Quartette— "Thou Shalt Bring Them In".. A. S. Sullivan 

year in response to an appeal from the ' Quartette 

^ £, , ^, '^^ . , ^ Allegro Canta'Mle. From the fifth Organ Symphony 

pastor, Dr. Bovd. The organists who fur- Toccata cm. wider 

. , , , ' -,. _. ,r Lamentation, op. 43 A. Guilmant 

nished the programs were Miss iina Mae Mr. Eddy 

^ . ^ , , , , , Soprano Solo— "I will Extol Thee. O Lord" Costa 

Haines, orsranist of the church, to whom the Miss Ridgeiey 

,. \ , ... , , o . Barcarolle E. H. Lamare 

credit of the enterprise is largely due, Scott March and Chorus from Tannhauser Wagner 

Wheeler, Arthur Dunham, James Watson, ^, , ,, . " . , 

„ ,, „ ,, T- • TVT A 1 The following program was given by 

A. F. McCarrell. Francis Moore, Ada ,^ t-,-,vi t-u o 

,,,.,,. „ • TT • . -n-ii- Mr. rredenck Archer on hebruarv 28, 
Williams, Francis Hemmgton, William 

Zeuch and Clarence Dickinson. During the -^ " ,„ ^ „ 

. Allegro Moderate from Organ Symphony W. Faulkes 

summer of i8qq the entire group of SIX re- <a) Pastorale jorgan 

.^, , ,. TT • ■ 1 (a) Scherzo Gigout 

Cltals was g^iven by Miss Haines, assisted Chorale in B minor Caesar Franck 

*= ,. , , , (a) Chanson sans Paroles E.IL Lamare 

by prominent vocalists. Among the solo- (b) Humoritisque .T. Caiiaerts 

.- ^ , . ... , , Toccata in F Claussman 

IStS who assisted during the four seasons Poeme Symphenique — "Rouet d' Omphale" St. Saens 

, , ° _ TT 1 • Theme and Variations Schubert 

the most notable are George Hamlin, Finale from Octette for strings Mendelssohn 

Serenade Molique 

Charles W. Clark, Jennie Osborne, Helen Overture— "Love's Triumph" w. v. Wallace 

Buckley and Holmes Cowper. One of the During the summer of 1902 a series of 
most notable concerts ever given in the organ recitals was given in the Presbyter- 
church was the Farewell Concert given for ian and First Methodist churches, alternate- 
Miss Haines before her departure for a ly, by Mr. Clarence Dickinson, assisted by 
year's study in Paris. The program was prominent vocalists. Among the noteworthy 
given by Miss Haines, Harrison Wild, vocalists who have been members of the 
Charles W. Clark, Leon ^^larx and Mrs. choir are Mr. Frank Hannah, Jenny Os- 
Edwin Lapham. born Hannah, ]\Irs. Furbeck, Minnie Fish 
During the summer of 1904-5, the sum- Griffin and Mr. Frank Webster. The pres- 
mer concerts were resumed and were so ent organist (1905) of the church, Miss 
successful that a series will be given the Katherine Howard, has carried on with 
coming summer, 1905-6. The programs are much success monthly musical vesper ser- 
given by Miss Haines, with the assistance vices during the winter and a series of 
of prominent soloists. The most impor- organ concerts during the summer, 
tant concert ever given in the church was by The Thomas Concert Class. — TheThom- 
the organist, Guilmant, in October, 1904. as Concert Class was started in October, 
Miss Greta Masson assisted on this pro- i8g6, and has had nine thoroughly success- 
gram, with soprano solos. In the summer ful years. The membership is limited to sub- 



scribers to the Thomas Orchestra. Concerts. 
Mrs. Edward T. Wvman and Miss Cora 
Cassard, now Mrs. Toogood, were the 
starters of the enterprise, going about 
among their musical friends to stir up an 
interest in the new venture. They soon 
enHsted the co-operation of Mrs. C. L. 
W'oodyatt, Mrs. Curtis H. Remy and ]\Irs. 
Charles G. Fuller, and to the energ}- and 
devotion of these five ladies the Class owes 
its launching into a most successful career. 
The purpose has been, primarily, the study 
in advance of the numbers announced on 
the programs of the orchestral concerts. 
Since its organization, the Class has regu- 
larly held meetings on the day preceding 
each concert, when members have played 
and analyzed the program lumibers of the 
following day. The value of this work 
to the members can hardly be over esti- 
mated. It has aroused and stimulated an 
interest in the greatest works of orchestral 
composition, while the study necessary for 
analyzing and playing these masterpieces 
has amounted to more than an ordinary 
course of music study. The devotion and 
perseverance shown by the ladies in pre- 
paring and presenting these programs, 
through nine consecutive seasons, are 
worthy of emulation. 

In addition to the direct study of the 
Thomas programs, courses in Theory of 
Music have been given before the Class 
by Professor P. C. Lutkin and, through the 
season of 1900, a course in History of 
Music, outlined by Mrs. Coe, was finally 
carried out by the members. Theodore 
Thomas, during his life, always took a live- 
ly interest in the work of the Class, and 
Mrs. Thomas has addressed the members 
on several occasions. Artists' recitals, given 
under the auspices of the Class, have in- 
cluded the Brahms Piano Recital by Mr. 
.Arthur \Miiting and a program for the 
wood-wind instruments, besides a Histori- 

cal Chamber Music Recital given by mem- 
bers of the Chicago Orchestra. 

The Presidents of the Thomas Concert 
Class have been: Airs. Curtis H. Remy, 
Mrs. Charles G. Fuller, Mrs. Frank M. 
Elliot, Mrs. John R. Lindgren, Mrs. H. D. 
Cable and Mrs. Newell C. Knight, each of 
whom has been responsible, in no small 
degree, for the uniform success which has 
attended the work of this organization. 
Mrs. C. L. Woodyatt has always been the 
presiding genius to whom, more than to 
any other individual, is due the harmony 
which has prevailed among the members 
and the spirit of helpfulness which has 
pervaded each meeting. The analytical 
work of Mrs. Woodyatt and Miss Tina M. 
Haines is especially worthy of mention, as 
well as the valuable work done in piano 
illustrations by Mrs. William Vance, Mrs. 
George -Lord, Mrs. Knight, Mrs. Gold- 
schmidt, Mrs. John H. Gray, Mrs. John R. 
Lindgren, Mrs. Underwood, Mrs. Hypes 
and Mrs. Seymour. The following resume, 
prepared by Mrs. Woodyatt at the close of 
the fifth year, gives a comprehensive idea 
of the work accomplished: 

"The Thomas Concert Class, being an 
original venture without precedent or ex- 
ample, has felt its way along from its be- 
ginning in 1896, evolving year by year its 
own method of procedure. The musical 
numbers assigned by Mr. Thomas for our 
study do not afford much consecutive re- 
lation from week to week. For this reason 
it was recognized, at the outstart, that con- 
tinuity and cohesion could only be secured 
by giving a portion of the time each morn- 
ing to systematized theoretical study. With 
so large a membership, and one including 
so many grades of musical experience, this 
has been perhaps the most difficult question 
we have had to meet. Professional instruc- 
tion can seldom be adapted to such mixed 
requirements, and, by the close of the fourth 



year, we had pretty well exhausted the 
possibilities along this line, without enter- 
ing upon study of too technical a nature to 
be of value to the class as a whole. At the 
same time, it became evident that, with most 
of its, a mass of detached ideas and 
knowledge had been accumulating which 
would bear crystallizing into symmetrical 

"With these facts in mind the list of top- 
ics was drawn up, which has formed the 
basis of the morning papers for the year 
just closing. This course, it was hoped, 
would form a clear outline of the history 
of the development of music. I am sure 
that I voice the opinion of the Class in say- 
ing, that this hope has been justified, and 
that the papers of this series have told — • 
and told well — the story of music's growth 
from the primitive utterance of emotion 
in the savage, down through the centuries, 
until it has become the art we know to-day. 
The first paper was ably given by Mrs. 
Coe, to whose interest and experience we 
are indebted for the arrangement of the list 
of subjects. A few weeks later, in Novem- 
ber, we had the pleasure of listening to a 
beautiful essay upon the period of the 
Troubadours, generously given to us by 
Miss Lunt. In January and in March im- 
portant topics of the course were treated 
by Professor Lutkin, whose unfailing read- 
iness to respond when occasions call for 
his assistance, has been of immeasurable 
value to us throughout our five years' ex- 
perience. The second of these lectures — I 
refer to the one upon the 'Representative 
German Composers of the 19th Centurv," 
in which he summarized and contrasted the 
influence of the great masters upon the 
development of the art — was the product 
of a comprehensive and keenly discriminat- 
ing mind. The last paper of the course was 
given by Mrs. Theodore Thomas in the 
form of a resume of musical production 

in this country, particularly during Colonial 
and Revolutionary times. The remaining 
twelve papers were written and read by 
members of the Class. To the gifted women 
who have loyally and skillfully carried this 
course through without a single interrup- 
tion, we cannot too warmly express our 
gratitude and appreciation, sentiments not 
unmixed with pride. 

"Taking the courses collectively, they rep- 
resent an immense amount of faithful re- 
search and study. The cream of all this 
reading has been placed before us from 
week to week, and has afforded those in 
regular attendance such an understanding 
of the general subject as could have been 
obtained only by the devotion of a large 
amount of time to the exclusive study of 
Musical History, while the variety af- 
forded by the methods of the different es- 
sayists has added great interest and unfail- 
ing charm. To those who have been with 
the class from the first, a glance at what 
has been accomplished during the five years 
cannot fail to aft'ord deep satisfaction. In 
1896, when, through the enthusiasm and 
personal effort of ]\Irs. Edward Wyman, the 
little band was marshalled, in closing her 
remarks at the introductory meeting, I re- 
member that she said, 'of course we have 
high hopes." A group of women holding 
subscriptions to the concerts of one of the 
greatest orchestras the world has ever 
known, unite into a class with the purpose 
of becoming better fitted to appreciate this 
beautiful music. With this single aim they 
meet, each gladly giving to the others what- 
ever she can perform, whether of artistic 
eft'ort or of the silent inspiration of the 
listener. These are the simple conditions. 
But which of us can measure the growth 
in herself resulting from the interchange? 
— and. in the community in which we are 
a part, it is said that our influence is wide ; 
that we occupy a position of responsibility. 



]\Iay we continue to realize our supreme 
privilege of listening to the greatest music 
of the centuries under the leadership of the 
greatest of living conductors. May we 
continue to hold to the 'high hopes" with 
which we began, always mindful that such 
measure of success as has- been ours, has 
been in exact ratio to our obedience to the 
divine law which orders all of Giving and 

During the past three years, in addition 
to the study of the Thomas programs, the 
subject of chamber music has been taken up 
under the direction of Professor Harold 

Music Department of the Evanston 
Woman's Club. — In 1S97 it was decideil to 
add a Music Department to the other thriv- 
ing departments of the Evanston Woman's 
Club. ^Irs. H. D. Cable was made chair- 
man and Mrs. Coe was engaged, during the 
first season, to give a series of illustrated 
lectures on musical topics. The second 
season's work consisted of miscellaneous 
programs. In 1899 Airs. Coe was made 
Musical Director of the department, a 
position which she held for three years. 
During that period she planned, in detail all 
of the work of the department, personally 
superintending the presentation of each pro- 
gram. Through the season, 1899-1900. a 
unique course was carried out, devoted ex- 
clusively to the compositions of women. 
Several of the composers themselves took 
a lively interest in the work, and letters 
of encouragement and appreciation were 
received from Mrs. H. H. A. Beach and 
Cecile Chaminade. 

The following programs were given : 
j.\NU.\RY 9, 1900. 


"song': ■;;^!;; ■ 

Hope.... v. v.. •.•.•.•.•.■.■.■.■.•.•.•.•. S "•-•- 

^■'Sht '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ( . .Margaret Ruthven Lang 

Lydia J 

;^Look out, O Love" Clara Kathleen Rogers 

The Throstle 

TUESD.W, FEBRU.\RY I3, 10 .\. M. 
Clara Schumann 

P?P"..i.. Mrs. \V. M. Green 

Piano— scherzo Miss Elizabeth Raymond 

Two Songs Miss Whitehead 

Piano— Andante and Allegro Miss Grace Erickson 

Fanny Mendelssohn 

Paper.. Mrs. F. B. Dyche 

I lano— Caprices .Miss Edna Flesheim 

Two Songs Miss Florence Stevens 

MARCH 13, 1900. 
Jessie L. Gaynor 

Sketch of Work in Composition Mrs. Gaynor 

Selections from "Songs from the Child World". . .Gaynor 

■. Ilaby Dear. 
Went Wooing the Rose. 

Sprmg Song. 
Accompanist, Air. F. F. Eeali 

APRIL 10, 1900. 
Mrs. H. H. A. Beach 

XC \ 

.Mrs. T. P. Stanwood 
Louise E. Whitehead 
....Miss Mabel Dunn 
" ■ ( Miss Alta Miller 

The Y( 

1 Lilac Fai 

the Club 

)y .Airs. George A. Coe 

Miss , Louise E. Whitehead 

Miss Grace Erickson 

Spring.'. !• ^1'=' -''"=' *™'='- 

X idiiu aiiu V loiiii. Sonata, op. 34. Allegro Moderate 
Miss Edna Eversz and Mr. VV. G. Logan 

M.\Y 22, 1900. 

Cecile Chaminade 

Short Sketches of Life and Work... Mrs. George -\. Coe 

Dense Pastorale ) 

Scarf Dance t.[ Mrs. Irene Stevens 

Calirrboe ) 

Vocal— Sombrero Mr. Alfred D. Shaw 

The Flatterer.. Mrs. W. H. Knapp 

Pi°e"rrene ^' "'"""^ S M'^^ ^dna Eversz 

Vocal— "Veins, ' iloiV niVn' Mime" 

Mi<. Winifred Nightingale 

Two Pianos — "I.e S.i- ' Mrs. Tohn R. Lindgren 

"Le .M.itli. ■-. ,Mi<- Harriet Engle Brown 
Vocal — (a) Serenn.lf . ,, ,,,. , r, ci 

(b) Ville Ch.lnsnn. ., • ' ^ , . -I I > ^ha« 

Concert St«.K—".\uHimn-' "' I' I ' :,.im 

Vocal -"Ritournelle" '^ •' ■ --ale 

Concertstuck ; 1 . 1: i-^ok 

Orchestral Accompanimen! ■: ->,.::. I I', ,1.., .Mrs. 
George .\. Coe. 

Through the season of 1900-1901 the fol- 
lowing programs were given, devoted to 
American composers : 



JANUARY 8, 1 90 1. 

Paper Mrs. Chancellor Jenks. Jr. 

William Mason 

"""""-^^j^i^on'r"; I Mi- Grace Er.ckson 

John Knowles Paine 

V°"'-T' Wo^e ' You "Tfoses \ ^iss Alta Miller 

Piano — Nocturne, op. 45 Miss Elizabeth Raymond 

Dudley Buck 
Vocal— Spring's Awakening. . .Miss Louise E. Whitehead 
Piano— !!y the Brookside, op. 8, No. 2. Miss Mabel Dunn 

Where Did You Come From, 

Baby Dear j ]vt;«<; .\lfa Miller 

When the Heart is Young, i ••"'^* '^"^ "''"^"^ 

Salve Regina Miss Whitehead 

George Whitfield Chadwick 
Vocal— The Danza '. Miss Miller 

Oh, Let Night Speak to Me. ' ••■■^"■^^ 
Piano— Irish Melody. . .........( ^(53 Du^n 

Scherzino, op. 7, No. 3...t 

He Loves Me > 

Allah ( ...Miss Whitehead 

Sings the Nightingale to the Rose..' 

FEBRUARY 12, I902. 

Suite Characteristique Arne Oldberg 

Au Revoir 1 

White Caps I 

Revery 1- Mr. Oldberg 

Song to the Moon I 

Le retour J 

"The Child and His Music." An Illustrated Talk.... 
Mr. W. H. Neidlinger 

MARCH 12, I9OI. 

Illustrated lecture on 'The National Music of America." 
Mr. Louis C. Elson. Professor of Musical Theory and 
Lecturer on the Orchestra and on Musical History 
in the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, 

APRIL 9, 1901. 
Arthur W. Foote 

Paper Mrs. William A. Dyche 

Piano— Suite, D. minor 1 ' 

Prelude and Fugue. > t.» ,i,-,,- t xr 

Romance ..,. ! -'Mrs. William L. Vance 

Capriccio J 

Vocal — Through the Long Days i 

and Years r Miss Margaret Easter 

On the Way to Kew ' 

Piano — Selections from Poems (after Omar Khay- 
yam Mrs. George A. Coe 

Vocal— Memmon 1 

I'm Wearing Awa [ Miss Easter 

Sweetheart ) 

Piano and Violin— Sonata, G minor. 

Allegro Appassionata. 
Alia Siciliano. 
Allegro Molto. 
Miss Elizabeth Raymond and Mr. Lewis Blackman 

MAY 28, I9OI. 

Edward A. MacDowell 

Short Talk on the Composer with selections from 

Sea Pieces Mrs. George A. Coe 

Piano— The Witches' Dance Miss Mabel Dunn 

?m;ro^v'fa?ion.- .•.■.■.•.■.•.■.■;.■ .-.•.■! -M"- William L. Vance 

Ma'r^h'Xvind.W.-.-.'.-.-.-.-.'.'.-.l Miss Grace Erickson 

Songs to be selected Miss Annie Louise Daniels 

Czardas Mrs. William L. Vance 

In view of the activity along musical lines 
throughout the various organizations of 
women, it is a matter of especial interest 

to note the following opinion expressed in 
a private letter by the eminent American 
composer, Mr. Arthur Foote, of Boston: 

"From circumstances, I am more ac- 
quainted with the work done by those clubs 
than most people right here, and I do not 
hesitate to give my belief that the most 
efficient factor for music in America now 
is just that done by those clubs, chiefly, 
naturally, in the Middle West, although 
there has been a surprising and healthful 
growth in the same direction about here; 
but, run as they are, generally by level- 
headed and truly musical people, their ef- 
fect, I firmly believe, will be more than 
either of us can imagine in the next twenty 

During the season of 1901-1902 the 
Music Section of the Evanston Woman's 
Club, under the direction of Mrs. Coe, 
carried out the following Historical and 
Analytical Course: 

JANUARY 14. 1902. 

Lecture Recital — "Primitive Music" 

Mrs. George A. Coe 

Vocal Illustrations Miss Louise Whitehead 

The Devel6pment from Crude Beginnings among the 

Savages to the Attempts of the Early Christians. 
Beginnings of Folk Music. 
Development of the Scale. 

The Music of the Chinese, Japanese, and Hindoos. 


Japanese and Hindoo Songs 

Negro Folk Songs 

The Lady Picking Mulberries Edgar S. Kelley 

(Written on Chinese scale.) 

Suite for Piano — "Miniatures in Chinese Colors" 

Lillian Statson Miller 

Movement from Chinese Suite for Orchestra 

Edgar S. Kelley 

JANUARY 28, 1902. 

Lecture Recital — "Music of the American Indians" 

Mrs. George A. Coe 

Vocal Illustrations Miss Mary Florence Steve 

Indian Legends, Superstitions and Sense of Musical 

Scalping Songs, Prayers, Cradle Songs. 
Songs of Joy and Sorrow. 



The Greek Drama Mrs. Doremus A. Haves 

The Greek Music System Mrs. George .V. Coe 

Musical Illustrations Mr. Arthur Burton 

FEBRUARY 25, Ig02. 

Development of Church Music (from Ambrose and 

Gregory to beginning of the Netherland School). 
Music in the Bible. 

Musical Attempts of the Early Christians. 



Paper Mrs. C. D. B. Howell 

Musical Analysis, including Development of Notation.. 

Mrs. Coe 

Vocal Illustrations of Ambrosian and Gregorian Chants 

and Hebrew Hymns Mrs. H. \V. Knapp 

MARCH II, 1902. 
Lecture Recital — "History of Folk Mu 

Joseph W. Hi. 

M.\RCH 25. 1902. 
Papers by Mrs. E. L. Harpham and Miss Elizabeth P. 

Musical Illustrations by Vocal Quartette under the 
direction of Miss Tina Mae Haines. 

APRIL 8, IQ02. 

er to Wagner. 
■II to Handel. 

Titus and Miss Hoff. 

APRIL 22, ig02. 

Mrs. Homer H. Kingsley 

A. D. Shaw and Mrs. Smith 
Grace Ericson, Miss Clarion 


MAY 13, 1902. 


Mrs. \V. A. Illslev 

Oratorio in Germany Mrs. E. VV. Goldschmid't 

Oratorio in England Miss Mary B. Lindsay 

Vocal Illustrations Mr. Conrad Kimball 

Piano Illustrations 

Mrs. Goldschmidt and Mrs. W. F. Hypes 

M.\Y 27, 1902. 

Work of Woman's Club.— Tlie follow- 
ing resume of the tliree .season's work was 
prepared by Miss Tina ^lae Haines : 

"An inquiry into the cause of the steady 
growth of general culture among an in- 
dustrial busy people would reveal the pres- 
ence of a multitude of important forces, 
all working toward a broader and deeper 
knowledge of the arts and sciences. One 
of these important forces is the universal 
spirit] of investigation which continually 
asks to know why things are as they are; 
that spirit which insists upon dissecting 
the component parts of everything — which 
probes into the very mind and heart of 
every one who has given a part of his best 
self to the world — the spirit which seeks to 

uncover the mysteries of creative power 

"Music, the most elusive of all the arts, 
has not escaped this microscopic examina- 
tion. It is only within recent years, how- 
ever, that the general public has shown any 
perceptible desire to really understand the 
science of music. It has been content to 
have its ears tickled and its feet inspired, 
to declare one's self fond of music meant 
simply that one was fond of the 'tune.' 
The number of such is steadily diminishing, 
and moreover the time is rapidly passing, 
when a musician, who knows nothing but 
his music, can pass muster. 

"The better class of conservatories, the 
establishment of orchestras and organiza- 
tions for the analytical study of orchestral 
literature, the appearance on the scenes of 
competent musical lecturers, and the exer- 
tions of our impressarios to appeal to the 
cultivated musical palate, are all large fac- 
tors in contributing to a more intelligent 
comprehension of music as an art, and not 
merely as a form of entertainment. With- 
in the past few years these forces have re- 
ceived powerful impetus from the vari- 
ous women's clubs, many of which have in- 
corporated in their courses of study depart- 
ments of music. 

"The Woman's Club of Evanston is a 
notable example. It has just completed 
the third year of a splendidly-conceived 
and well carried out course of study. The 
club showed excellent judgment in engag- 
ing Mrs. George Coe for the musical direc- 
tor, and the wisdom of the selection has long 
since been proved by the steady growth of 
the department and the increasing interest 
in the examination of the course of study 
shows the extensive scope of the work un- 
dertaken. During the season of 1899 and 
1900 the general subject was, 'Woman in 
Composition, and special features were an 
illustrated lecture talk by Mrs. Jessie Gay- 



nor of 'Methods of Work in Composition." 
The subject of the study course, during the 
season of igoo and 1901, was "American 
Composers.' Among other interesting 
things. Mr. Louis C. Elson, of Boston, gave 
an illustrated lecture on 'The National 
Music of America," and Mr. W. H. Neid- 
linger gave a talk on 'Children's Songs." 

"The series running through the season 
just closed has been devoted to the study of 
the development of music from its earliest 
beginnings. Many well-known soloists 
have furnished illustrations for the various 
programs. Some of the papers were pre- 
pared by members of the club, and Mrs. 
Coe herself, besides contributing a number 
of lectures and papers, has added to every 
program from her ample store of informa- 

"Mrs. Coe. in preparing her lectures, has 
added to her wide experience as a teacher 
and her thorough knowledge of the general 
history of music, a detailed study of the de- 
velopment of music among all nationalities, 
sparing no pains to secure rare and authen- 
tic material ; and those who have heard 
these lectures, fully realize the careful selec- 
tion of interesting matter, the absence of 
superfluous details and the artistic and logi- 
cal arrangement of the information so care- 
fully gleaned, ilrs. Coe should have the 
satisfaction of feeling that, in addition to 
interesting and entertaining her auditors, 
she is wielding an educational influence of 
immeasurable value and stimulating a de- 
sire for a more sincere study of the sci'^nce 
of music." 

During the season of 1902-1903. a series 
of lecture recitals was given before the 
club by Madam de Roode Rice. During 
1 903- 1 904 a series of miscellaneous pro- 
grams was given, including the first public 
performance of the "Melodrama of Hiawa- 
tha"" for speaking voice and piano by Saidee 
Knowland Coe, given with the composer 

at the piano and Miss ]\Iae Neal, reader. A 
series of interesting and instructive lecture- 
recitals has been given the past season by 
Miss Tina Mae Haines, who is to furnish 
another course next winter. 

The Evanston Musical Club. — One 
great cause of encouragement in the musi- 
cal development of America is the broad- 
ening of general education to include some 
knowledge of the fine arts, notably music, 
and a corresponding enlargement of musi- 
cal training to include culture along literary 
and scientific lines. It follows, therefore, 
that in towns where are situated colleges 
or universities of importance, one may, at 
the present time, as confidently expect to 
become acquainted with some at least of the 
masterpieces of music as with the great 
works of literature. 

That the Evanston ^Musical Club has done 
real musical culture work no one can doubt 
who has watched its progress during the 
last few years and noted the number of 
new, as well as standard, works that have 
been brought to the attention of many per- 
sons who, perhaps otherwise, would never 
have heard them. One cause for congrat- 
ulation in the work of the club is that the 
audiences are not made up solely of people 
sated with musical opportunities. The con- 
certs prove a musical feast for many stu- 
dents and others whose opportunities for 
hearing great choral works have been very 

The following "Retrospective,"' pub- 
lished by officers of the club, gives a history 
of its start and first four seasons' work: 

"In 1894 a Alrennerchor of twenty voices 
was organized in the Country Club, under 
the direction of Professor P. C. Lutkin, 
and gave its first concert at the club house 
on November 30th. with ]\Iax Bendix 
violinist, and ^liss Fanchon Thompson, 
contralto, as soloist. The same program 
was repeated at the Congregational church 



and was the first public performance of the 
Evanston Musical Club. In the meantime, 
a ladies" auxiliary chorus was formed, 
which also gave a concert at the Country 
Club. On February 19, 1895, the two or- 
ganizations united in a public performance 
at the Congregational church, with Francis 
Walker, baritone, an^l Frederick Archer, 
organist, as soloists. On May "th an ora- 
torio was attempted, and Sullivan's "Prod- 
igal Son" was given w^ith a quartette of 
home talent. The full chorus had grown to 
ninety voices and, largely through the ef- 
forts of the first President, Air. John R. . 
Lindgren, an associate member list of sixty- 
six was secured. 

■'The work of the Club had given so 
much pleasure and satisfaction that more 
pretentious plans were laid for the coming 
season. The concerts were all given at the 
Congregational church, beginning with the 
Mc-ennerchor on November 12, assisted by 
Bruno Steindel, 'cellist. On December 17th 
the first performance of the 'Messiah' was 
given and met with hearty approval. The 
solo quartette consisted of Miss Anita Mul- 
doon, of Cincinnati, Mrs. Anna Rommeis 
Thacker, Mr. Walter Root and Mr. William 
Richards. A Part-song Concert was next 
given on February 7, 1896, with Mme. 
Lillian Blauvelt. The crowning feature of 
the year was the performance of 'Elijah,' 
on April 24, with Mrs. Janet Boyd 
Brown, Mrs. Foresman Bagg, Mr. W'illiam 
F. Hypes, and Mr. Plunkett Greene, as 
solo quartette. At both oratorios Mr. Clar- 
ence Dickinson presided at the organ. At 
the end of the season the active members 
numbered over one hundred, and the asso- 
ciate members eighty-nine. 

"With its third season the Club adopted 
its present policy of giving three concerts 
annually — the 'Messiah' at Christmas tide, 
a Part-song Concert, with an eminent solo- 
ist, in Februarv, and a great oratorio in 

April. The new season was inaugurated 
with the first appearance of an orchestra, 
and to provide the necessary stage-room, 
and also to accommodate the increasing at- 
tendance, the concerts of the Club were 
transferred to the First Methodist church, 
where they have since been held. The per- 
formance of the Messiah, with its proper 
orchestral setting, created much enthusiasm 
and received high praise from Chicago 
critics. The solo quartette included Miss 
Helen Buckle\-, Mrs. Anna Rommeis 
Thacker, William J. Brown, and Charles 
W. Clark. The following artists assisted 
at the Part-song Concert: Mile. Alice 
Verlet, from the Paris Opera Comique, and 
Mr. Leo Stern, 'cellist, from London. The 
season closed with a successful perform- 
ance of Haydn's 'Creation,' with orchestra, 
and Miss Helen Buckley, William F. Hypes 
and George Ellsw'orth Holmes as soloists. 
The chorus now numbered one hundred and 
twenty members, and there were about an 
equal number of associate members. 

"The high standard the Club had set for 
its 'Alessiah' performance was fully main- 
tained at the opening concert of the fourth 
season. The assisting artists were Mrs. 
Genevieve Clark Wilson, Mrs. Sue Harring- 
ton Furbeck, Mr. George Hamlin and Mr. 
Lewis Campion. M. Henry Marteau, the 
eminent violinist, was the attraction at the 
Part-song Concert. In place of the usual 
oratorio at the last concert, an English 
Idyl, entitled 'St. John's Eve,' for solo, 
chorus and orchestra, was given with Mrs. 
Proctor Smith, Mrs. Christine Neilson 
Drier, George Hamlin and Sidney Biden in 
the solo parts. So great was the enjoyment 
in this beautiful work that a repetition was 
demanded. A second performance was 
given for a worthy charitable object, Miss 
Folia Carpenter and Mr. William Hypes 
replacing Mrs. Drier and Mr. Hamlin. The 
chorus had increased to one hundred and 


thirty members and the associate members 
to nearly one hundred and fifty." 

During the succeeding years the follow- 
ing programs have been presented : 


DECEMBER I3, 1898. 


Miss Jennie Osborn, Soprano; Mrs. Sue Harrington 
Furbeck, Contralto; Mr. Holmes Cowper, Tenor; Mr. 
Charles W. Clark, Bass; Mr. Curtis A. Barry, Organist. 

FEBRU.\RY 2^, 1899. 


Soloists— Mr. Bruno Steindel, Violoncello; Mr. Holmes 

Cowper, Tenor. 
Accompanists — Mrs. Bruno Steindel; Mr. Elias Arnold 


Cantata— "The Pilgrims" G. W. Chadwick 

Evanston Musical Club. 

Le Desir Servais 

Mr. Steindel. 

Anthem for Tenor Solo and Chorus P. C. Lutkin 

Mr. Cowper and Evanston Musical Club. 

The Elizabethan Madrigals C. Williers Stanford 

Evanston Musical Club. 

Polonaise for Piano and 'Cello Chopin 

Mr. and Mrs. Steindel. 

Winter Days Caldcott 

Evanston Musical Club. 

Homewards Rheinberger 

Ladies' Chorus. 

Hunting Songs 

Two Lovers Hecht 

Evanston Musical Club. 

Adagio Mozart 

Tarantelle Popper 

Mr. Steindel.- 

The Song of the Vikings Eaton Fanning 

Evanston Musical Club. 

APRIL 28, 1899. 
Miss Jennie Osborn. Soprano; Jliss .\lton Littleton 
Smith. Soprano; Mr. George Hamlin, Tenor; Miss 
Una Howell, Pianist. 


Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, op. 25 

Miss Una Howell 

Motette— "Hear My Prayer". Miss Osborn and Evanston 

Musical Club. 
A Hymn of Praise. 

DECEMBER I4, 1899. 

"The Messiah" Handel 

Soloists— Mrs. Sanger Steele, Soprano; Miss Mabelle 

Crawford, Alto; Mr. Glenn Hall, Tenor; Mr. Arthur 

Van Eweyk, Basso. 

JANUARY 2, 1900. 

Northwestern University Settlement, Chicago. 

"The Messiah" Handel 

Soloists — Mrs. Sanger Steele, Soprano; Miss Mabelle 

Crawford, Contralto; Mr. Glenn Hall, Tenor; Mr. 

Harry R. Parsons, Basso. 

Soloists — Leonora Jackson, Violinist. 

(Mr. Ernest H. Jackson, Accomj^anist.) 
Incidental solos by Mrs. Alton Littleton Smith, Soprano; 
Harry R. Parsons, Basso; Russell Wilbur, Tenor; 
William A. Stacey. Baritone. 

H. M. Tilroe, Reader. 


1. Gallia, Motette for Soprano Solo and Chorus. .Gounod 

Solo— Mrs. Smith. 

2. Chaconne, for Violin alone Bach 

Miss Jackson 

3. Two Part Songs for Ladies' Voices — 

a In Spring Bargeel 

b Cradle Song Gilbert A. Alcock 

4. Two Part Songs, for Mixed Voices— 

a -Madrigal- -rhe Miller's Daughter" 

Horace Ellis 

b Full Fathom Five Charles Wood 

5. Violin Solos — 

a Nocturne, D flat Chopin Sarasate 

Humoresque Tschaikowsky 

c Dance Brahms-Joachim 

6. Six .Ancient Folk Songs of the Netherlands— (A. D. 
162«) arranged by E. Kremscr 

For Maennerchor, Baritone and Tenor Solos 

7. Chorus, for Ladies' Voices and Soprano 

The Sailors' Christmas Chaminade 

Solo Mrs. Smith 

8. Ballad, for Baritone and Chorus- 
Young Lochinvar Liza Lehmann 

Solo Mrs. Stacey 

9. Violin Solo— Hungarian Themes with Variations 

'Miss Jackson 

10. Two-Part Songs for Mixed Chorus— 

a Evening and Morning Hymn Rheinberger 

b Gypsy Life Schumann 

APRIL 2J, 1900. 

The Elijah Mendelssohn 

Soloists — Mrs. Genevieve Clark Wilson, Soprano ; Mrs. 

Sue Harrington Furbeck, Alto ; Mr. George HamHn, 

Tenor; Mr. Charles W. Clark. Basso. 

Wilson Reed, Soprano (The Youth). 

Richard Uhlemann, Mezzo Soprano. 

Armand Peycke, Alto. 



The Messiah Handel 

Soloists— Mrs. Jennie Fish Griffin, Soprano; Miss Mabelle 

Crawford, ."Mto ; Mr. Frederick Carberry, Tenor ; Mr. 

Charles W. Clark, Basso. 

FEBRU.\RY 19, 1 90 1. 


1. Credo..... . ... ...., Gounod 

Sanctus — From St. Cecilia Mass. i 

2. Piano Solos— 

a "Hark, hark, the lark" Schubert 

(Translated for Piano by Liszt). 

b. Marche Militaire Schubert 

(Duet arranged as a solo by Tausig). 

Comes Laughing" .... Eaton Fanning 

3. Part Song for Mixed V _ _ _ 
"When Spring Comes Laughing" 

4. The Twenty-third Psalm, for Ladies' Voices— 

The Lord is my Shepherd" Schubert 

5. Piano Solos- 
Berceuse, op. ~i7 1 

Etude, op. lU, No. 4... I Chopin 

Valse, op. 64, No. 1. . . . 1 ^ 

Valse, op. 64, No. 2. .. I 

Mme. Zeisler 

6. Two Part Songs, for Mixed Voices- 
Two Maidens P. C. Lutkin 

(Dedicated to the Apollo Musical Club). 

The Babbling Brook P. C. Lutkin 

(Dedicated to the Evanston Musical Club.) 

7. Two Part Songs, for Mixed Voices- 
Spring. _ Cowen 



Piano Solos — Liebestraum (Nocturne, No. 31) Liszt 

Caprice Espagnole, op. 37 Moszkowski 

Mme. Zeisler. 
!). March and Chorus from Tannhauser. 

-^^ i 



OA^cUylcn^ a 







"The Elijah" Mendelssohn 

By the combined Evanston and Ravenswood Clubs, 

under the direction of Professor P. C. Lutkin. 

Soloists— Mrs. Genevieve Clark Wilson, Soprano; Miss 
Elaine De Sellem, Alto ; Mr. George Hamlin, Tenor ; 
Mr. Charles W. Clark, Basso. 

MAY 7, I9OI. 

Stabat Mater Rossini 

Hiawatha's Wedding Feast S. Coleridge Taylor 

Soloists— Miss Helen Buckley, Soprano; Miss Elaine 
De Sellem, Alto; Mr. Holmes Cowper, Tenor; Mr. F. 
B. Webster, Bass. 


.S. Coleridge Taylor 
Soloists — Mrs. "Maria Hoag-Haughley, Soprano ; Mrs. 
Ella Pierson Kirkham, Alto; Mr. L. E. Rollo, Tenor; 
Mr. Joseph Baernstein, Basso. 






ne. Corii 


ine Moore Lawson, 


. "Hear My Prayer" Mendelssohn 

Motette for Soprano Solo and Chorus. 
Mrs. Lawson and Chorus. 

. The King's Prayer from Lohengrin Wagner 

Bass Solo, Quintette and Chorus. 
Mr. Holmquist. 
liss Anna L. Beebe, Soprano; Miss Louise White- 
head, Alto; Mr. A. D. Shaw, Tenor; Mr. C. N. 
Stevens. Baritone. 

. Te Deum, opus 103 Dvorak 

Soprano and Bass Solo and Chorus. 

Mrs. Lawson, Mr. Holmquist and Chorus. 


. The Dance, opus 27. No. 1 Edward Elgar 

From the "Bavarian Highlands." 
Evanston Musical Club. 
. a Norwegian Shepherd Song. Old Melodv 16th Cent. 

c Lovc'^Has"!'ve's'"''" \ O''' English 

■ ^ AJ;^rLsr cilui^lT^'No; -i-A Edward Elgar 

Evanston Musical Club. 

. a The First Love Song Carl Grammann 

b The Sand Carrier August Bungert 

c Serenata Moszkowski 

The Marksn 


APRIL 22, 1902. 

Manzoni Requiem, 
tievieve Clark Wilson, Sopran 
opkins. Mezzo Soprano; Mr. 
Mr. Joseph Baernstein, Basso 

Other especially important works present- 
ed by the Club are "Caractacus" and "King 
Olaf" by Elgar, and Dvorak's "Stabat 
Mater." Interest in the club was greatly 
augmented by the winning of the second 
prize of $3,500 in the choral contest at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition at Saint 
Louis, in 1904. under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Lutkin. In the concert of January 
30, 1905, a concerto for piano and orchestra 
by Arne Oldberg had its first performance, 
and the celebrated English contralto, Muriel 
Foster, was the most notable solist. 

The Presidents of the Evanston Musical 
Club have been Mr. John R. Lindgren, Mr. 
W. F. Hypes, Mr. Frank \\\ Smith, .Mr. 
Chancellor Jenks and Air. C. N. Stevens. 

Let us hope that the great development 
along musical lines, which has taken place 
in Evanston during the last few years, may 
lead some public spirited citizen to erect 
a large hall suitable for concert purposes. 
Mendelssohn has said, "I know of no aim 
more noble than that of giving music to 
one's native language and to one's native 
country." \\'hat more noble monument 
could an Evanstonian erect than a 
building in his own town, which would 
make possible an annual musical festival 
whose strains would mingle with the ma- 
jestic organ point of our beautiful Lake 
Alichigan, in fulfilling the musicians' calling 
which, according to Schumann, is "to send 
light into the deep recesses of the human 

CHAPTER xx:x:i 

The Story of Banking:; Enterprises in lii'an- 
ston — Effect of the Chicago Eire — 
Eirst Private Bank Established in 18^4 — 
Incorporated as a State Bank in iSo? — 
First Officers of the A'ew Institution — 
Groiiih of Deposits — // Successfully 
Withstands the Panic of i8qj: — Pres- 
ent Officers ( IQ06) — A Eirst Xational 
Bank J'euture — The Panic of iSgj Re- 
sults in Disaster — ■ Tlie City Xational 
Bank of Evanston Established in igoo — 
First Officers and Leading Stockholders 
— Its Prosperous Career — Condition in 

lianking in Evanston, however intimate 
this city's relations with near-by Chicago, 
has been prosperous and permanent when 
concUicted with discretion, and ejihemerai 
and disastrotis when otherwise undertaken. 
The story of banking in Evanston is largely 



Ladd iS: Company. Speculation worked 
this venture ill ; and the panic of 1873, that 
shook the financial strongholds of New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago, 
left the enterprise of Evanston's first 
money-lender a memory only. In 1874 a 
new bank started in Evanston, and became 
a corner-stone for the village's wealth and 

Bank of Hoag & Co. Established.— 
In 1874, on the southeast corner of Davis 
Street and Chicago Avenue, Thomas C. 
Hoag & Company started a private bank. 
]\Ir. Hoag, of the Chicago grocery firm 
of Goss & Hoag, one of the largest in the 
city, and situated on North Clark Street 
near the bridge, had suffered the destruc- 
tion of his property in the great fire, and 
was free to find a new opening wherever 
he might. Living as he had in Evanston 
since 1857. and having done a grocery busi- 

that of the older of its two institutions, and 
a story by no means without interest to all 
who profit by and have pride in the suc- 
cesses of conservative finance. 

Effect of the Chicago Fire. — \Vith the 
influx of population after the Chicago fire 
of 1 87 1, the growing business of Evanston 
invited the creation of banking facilities 
furnished by Evanston capital and ope- 
rated by Evanston citizens. Into this field, 
in the early 'seventies, came Merrill Ladd, 
who founded the private bank of JNIerrill 

ness by railway express with North Shore 
villages, he now began a local grocery 
business in Evanston, and soon thereafter 
went into banking on the aforesaid site. 
Mr. Hoag already was the Treasurer and 
Business Agent of the Northwestern Vm- 
versity. and with this and other advantage- 
ous connections, he conducted with in- 
creasing success the Evanston bank that 
had come to stay. The business grev\', 
justifying a building next door exclusively 
for banking purposes, and further establish- 



ing itself as an indispensable institution in 
the development of the commercial life of 
Evanston. In 1891 the banking firm of 
Thomas C. Hoag & Company moved to the 
southwest corner of Davis Street and Chi- 
cago Avenue, there installing the first mod- 
ern safety deposit vaults offered to the 
Evanston public. 

State Bank Incorporated. — On May 10. 
1892, was incorporated the State Bank 
of Evanston, to which Mr. Hoag sold his 
interest, his banking firm then retiring from 
business. The incorporators of the new 
institution — its charter being of the date of 
March 10, 1892, and conferring powers 
to conduct a general commercial and sav- 
ings bank business — were Robert D. Shep- 
pard, Charles F. Grey, and John R. Lind- 
gren. The first board of directors of the 
State Bank of Evanston were the follow- 
ing well-known citizens : 

William Blanchard, Frank M. Elliot, 
William G. Hoag, H. H. C. Miller, Robert 
D. Sheppard, H. B. Cragin, Charles F. 
Grey, John R. Lindgren, Henry A. Pear- 
sons, William E. Stockton, and Charles 
T. Bartlett. 

The first officers of the new bank were 
John R. Lindgren, President ; William 
Blanchard, Vice-President ; William G. 
Hoag, Cashier. Mr. Lindgren was already 
prominently identified with Chicago bank- 
ing as Cashier of the State Bank of Chi- 
cago. Mr. Blanchard was a retired lumber- 
man and capitalist, and Mr. Hoag brought 
experience from his associations with his 
father in the firm of Thomas C. Hoag & 
Company. The Evanston State Bank be- 
gan business with a capital, all paid in, of 
$100,000 and deposits from Thomas C. 
Hoag & Company of $306,000. Among 
the stockholders, together with the officers 
and directors, were J. H. Kedzie, Henry R. 
Hatfield, D. S. Cook, M. S. Terry, George 
H. Foster, William Deering, T. C. Hoag, 
C. H. Ouinlan, Lucv D. Shuman, Daniel 

Bonbright, William L. Brown, Frank P. 
Crandon, Charles T. Boynton, Thomas 
Lord, Fleming H. Revell. 

At the close of 1892, the year of organi- 
zation, the bank's deposits amounted to 
$369,590.60. On January 13, 1894, Robert 
D. Sheppard succeeded John R. Lind- 
gren as President, and continued in 
direction of the bank until succeeded in 
February, 1903, by Henry J. Wallingford. 
From organization to the present time, Wil- 
liam G. Hoag has been the bank's Cashier. 
In March, 1900, E. F. Pierce was chosen 
Assistant Cashier and continues in this 
office. Prominent citizens who have served 
in the bank's directory from 1892 to 1905, 
other than those composing the original 
board are: D. S. Cook, Thomas Lord, Dr. 
M. C. Bragdon, E. B. Quinlan, Henry J. 
Wallingford, Frank W. Gerould, William 
A. Dyche. In 1897 Thomas Lord was 
elected Vice-President. At present writing, 
in 1906, the officers of the State Bank of 
Evanston are : 

President — Henry J. Wallingford. 

Vice-President— H. H. C. Miller. 

Cashier — W'illiam G. Hoag. 

Assistant Cashier — Edwin F. Pierce. 

The following tables statistically tell the 
story of the growth of the State Bank of 
Evanston in its general banking and savings 
departments, but do not especially declare 
the policy which has built up this popular 
banking house. The policy is that which 
makes for slow growth but for sure — the 
policy of prudence and conservatism. 

EVANSTON FROM 1892 TO 1906. 

1892 $ 324,029.18 

1893 ,360.381.44 

1894 5.32,265.86 

1895 557.in3.lD 

1896 539,673.67 

1897 715.112..57 

1898 733,844.59 

1899 967,774.80 

1900 1,128.518.67 

1901 1,171,016.54 

1902 1,1,33,123.75 

1903 . 1,160,244.29 

1904 1,122,029.17 

Ifior, 1.315.098.62 

lOiiG 1,460.000.00 



This bank, since the first year after in- 
corporation, has paid dividends at the uni- 
form rate of six per cent. Its excess of 
earnings, carried over to the surplus, now 
makes this guarantee of security over 
$100,000. The last reported quotation of 
this bank's stock was 240. 

The Test of 1893. — The policy that has 
shaped the development of business, record- 
ed in the foregoing tables, is characteristic 
of all the financiers, capitalists, and busi- 
ness men who have contributed to the 
growth of this conservative institution. 
One of its banking principles is never to 
sacrifice security to interest. Beginning 
its corporate existence a year before the 
great panic of 1893, it was put to the earth- 
quake test while still quite young. In that 
memorable year, when there were 15,508 
business failures: when 154 National and 
184 State banks suspended ; when 598 bank- 
ing institutions of all classes, with estimat- 
ed assets of $184,281,014 and liabilities of 
$170,295,581, suspended — in that disastrous 
time, no savings bank in Cook County was 
less severely jarred than the State Bank of 
Evanston. Indeed, it may be said that, in 
that fateful year, this bank, safe if not co- 
lossal, never felt serious pressure from its 
depositors ; and it is well remembered by its 
officers that, if at any period of unusual 
popular timidity, money has flowed out 
from one window, a compensating stream 
has flowed in by another. The following 
from the "Evanston Press," of May 20, 
1893, suggests the stamina of this bank in 
a time that surely tried men's souls : 

"Thursday morning a slight run was 
made on the State Bank, but it was soon 
over, only a very few dollars having been 
drawn out. The State Bank is perfectly 
sound, and has made arrangements to stand 
a heavy run. Cashier Hoag said, Thursday, 
that every cent now on deposit can be drawn 
out, and that the bank has in its vaults the 

cold cash to meet all of its indebtedness. 
By order of President Lindgren the bank 
was kept open for an hour after the usual 
closing hour on Thursday, but this was not 
necessary, as the 'run,' if such it could be 
called, was over long before the usual hour 
for closing." 

This bank's history has been one almost 
without losses from injudicious banking. 
It has had almost no litigation. On real 
estate investments it has never lost a dollar ; 
and, for twenty years, during the life of the 
antecedent company and of its own corpor- 
ate life, its total losses have not exceeded 
$2,000 or $3,000. So discreet, yet so mu- 
tually just, is it in the management of cred- 
its, that in a certain statement its cashier 
reported deposits of $1,300,000 with over 
drafts amounting to just one cent. Need- 
less to say, that the Evanston State Bank 
eschews speculation. 

Influence on Local Business. — The 
business of Evanston has- grown because 
of its own local banking facilities. Its banks 
have drawn, held, and made wealth here. 
Here Evanston merchants have received 
their accommodations, and to this prosper- 
ous sub-station of Chicago banking come 
people of neighboring towns and thrifty 
farmers from tributary country. Evanston 
banks hold all the public funds of the city 
of Evanston, and some of the funds of 
neighboring towns and villages ; and the 
Evanston State Bank and its predecessor 
for thirty years have been the depository of 
Northwestern University. One source of 
the strength of this bank is the support 
given it by its large number of children de- 
positors, whose many pennies in many little 
toy banks make many large dollars. 

Of course, the nature of the business of 
the State Bank of Evanston, and the char- 
acter of its clientele, demand that it shall 
have the status of a Chicago bank as regards 
the conveniences and privileges of the asso- 



ciated banks of a money center. This bank 
is a secondary member of the Chicago Clear- 
ing-house, whereby it reports to that insti- 
tution as if it were a Chicago bank, and its 
checks are accepted throughout the country 
as if drawn on a Chicago bank. It deals, 
of course, in foreign exchange and sells 
drafts and letters of credit good in all parts 
of the world. 

The tendency of the times is toward in- 
dividuality in bank architecture. A bank 
is becoming more than a floor in a business 
block. It is becoming a monument en- 
nobling an entire city. The State Bank 
of Evanston proposes to erect a bank build- 
ing for its own use, approved in style and 
equipment, and steps have been taken to 
this end by the securing of a long term lease 
on certain property on the northwest corner 
of Davis Street and Orrington Avenue. 

A National Bank Venture. — The first 
National bank started in Evanston was 
born in a strenuous time, and in it passed 
away. On June 29, 1892, was organized the 
Evanston National Bank. On July 5, 1892, 
it began business. Its capital was $100,000. 
Its officers were Henry Wells, President; 
J. C. Austin, Vice-President ; J. C. Terhune, 
Cashier. Its directors were Benjamin F. 
Hill. L. A. Goddard, E. T. Paul, N. A. Hill, 
T. J. Whitehead, O. G. Gibbs, Henry Wells, 
J. C. Austin, J. C. Terhune. On March 6, 
1893, a published statement showed deposits 
to be $160,000. But in 1893 only the strong 
stood the tempest. A shrinkage of its as- 
sets set in. On May i6th and 17th a heavy 
run on this bank resulted from the failure 
of the Cairo Lumber Company, of which 
Henry WeWs. the President of this bank, 
was treasurer. On May 18 there was posted 
on the doors of the Evanston National Bank 
the following notice: 

"Owing to heavy drains made on our de- 
posits, and the stringency of the money 

market, this bank suspends payments. De- 
positors will be paid in full. 

"Henry Wells, President. 
"Nat. A. Hill, Mce-President." 

On June 8, 1893, Charles Winslow took 
charge as receiver under appointment by 
the Comptroller of the Currency. At the 
present writing the approved claims of 
creditors amount to $80,971, upon which 
/T,.7 per cent has been paid. 

In 1892 J. C. Terhune started a private 
bank in Evanston, which continues business 
at the present writing. 

A More Successful Venture. — As 
Evanston grew in wealth and population, 
capitalists and men of affairs began to see 
that, were the city removed from the subur- 
ban touch with a metropolis, its business 
would support a half-dozen banks rather 
than one, and that, even as it was, a second 
bank would not be a precarious undertak- 
ing. So representative citizens, resolved to 
found a national bank that should become a 
strong tower to this community. On Febru- 
ary 14, 1900. INIarshall M. Kirkman, James 
A. Patten, David R. Forgan and Thomas 
Bates signed articles of association for the 
incorporation of a national bank. With 
these incorporators was associated Joseph 
E. Paden, attorney. On April loth of the 
same year there was issued a charter creat- 
ing the City National Bank of Evanston, 
and the first directing board of this insti- 
tution was made up of the aforesaid incor- 
porators, together with Rollin A. Keyes, 
Henry A. Pearsons, and Joseph F. Ward. 
The bank began business in its present 
quarters, the Century Building, southwest 
corner of Davis Street and Sherman Ave- 
nue, June 21, 1900, with Joseph F. Ward, 
President; Thomas Bates, Vice-President; 
and Charles N. Stevens, Cashier. The de- 
posits of the first day amounted to $16,220. 
and the first depositor was William S. Lord, 


the dry-goods merchant, who thereby re- This bank's growth is noteworthy. Be- 
corded the testimony of Evanston business ginning business June 21, 1900, with de- 
men, that this city was big enough and posits amounting to $16,220.00, it reported 
weahhy enough to sustain two strong banks deposits June 21, 1902, of $345,152.24. On 
in healthful rivalry. Jnne 21, 1903, deposits had risen to $703,- 
The City National Bank of Evanston 640.53 ; and a year later they were $842,- 
started in with a paid-up capital of $100,000, 074.73. On Jime 14, 1905, they had 
and the price of the stock before business reached $1,197,053.35. The stock of the 
opened on the first day was $105 per bank at this writing, judging from a pri- 
share. In stanch and stable communities vate bid refused, is 175. This bank car- 
the banking class is the conservative class, ries 5,000 accounts. A statement of the 
Behind the City National Bank of Evanston condition of this new and promising insti- 
among its first stockholders were Hugh tution, at the close of business, April 6, 
R. Wilson, Joseph E. Paden, A. N. Young. 1906, is as follows: 
M. H. Wilson. P. R. Shumway, C. D. resources. 

Cleveland, L. D. Thoman, A. M. Foster, Loans and Discounts $1,009,563.60 

George w. Wall, w. B. Bogert, George A. 8i;f;'d'st\.e; ' Bonds •::::;:: ; : :;:;;;:::: : ; ioo;Joo.oo 

Foster. William s. Lord, George Taylor, grhTs^^ks'-anlBonds!:::::::::;::;::::: 89:86^:5? 

N. p. Williams, Charles N. Stevens, J. L. Ss""'rHa"nd'a'nTi"Bani.;: ::::::::::::: ooljmm 

Hebblethwaite, W. O. Dean. John E. Wild- ^"^ '™™ u. s. Treasury - 

er, Robert S. Clark, C. H. Poppenhusen, li.-^bilities. $1,483,332.39 

Daniel McCann, W. H. Jones, Newell C. Capital stock $ 100,000.00 

,.., ^ ,,,. . ■' ^ , TTTi , Surplus and Undivided Profits. 53,190.13 

knight, James Wigginton, John H. Boyd, circulation 100,000.00 

A. S. Van Deusen, J. R. Woodbridge, «p<"'"s '" ' 

^ ^^ „ „ _ . ,, r- \ $1,485,352.39 $1,485,352.39 

James B. Huse, F. E. Gnswold, George A. 

Qqq Officers. — The present officers of the 

In its first year the bank earned six per City National Bank of Evanston (1906) 

cent on its capitalization, but turning this are: 

and the earnings of the next year into sur- President— Joseph F. \\"ard. 
plus account, it refrained from declaring a \'ice-President— William S. Mason, 
dividend until 1903. when it began its pres- Cashier— Charles N. Stevens, 
ent six per cent payments. This bank deals Directors.— Henry A. Pearsons, Thomas 
in such securities as are customary with Bates. Rolhn A. Keyes. Joseph A. Paden, 
National banks, receives savings as well as David R. Forgan, AVilliam S. Mason, 
checking deposits, and conducts a general James A. Patten, Joseph F. \\ard. 
banking business. It clears, of course, A considerable improvement lately add- 
through the Chicago Clearing House. With cd to the City National Bank is a safety 
the State Bank of Evanston it shares in the deposit vault, commodious and of extraor- 
custody of the municipal funds of Evanston, dinary strength of construction. Its aux- 
and also has been distributing agent in the iliary conveniences for patrons are com- 
matter of the construction of the postoffice. plete and elegant. 




Primary Geological Conditions — Early 
Roads — The Indian Trail — A Period of 
Growth— ''The Path the Calf Made"— 
Influence of the University — Evanston 
Over-boomed — Effect of the Chicago Fire 
— Local Real Estate Rivalries — Notable 
Residences — The Transportation Problem 
— The Park System — Taxation — Evans- 
ton Homes — Real Estate I'alnes. 

We are told that Evanston, at one time, 
was entirely submerged by Lake Michigan, 
but that gradually, through unknown ages, 
the waters receded. The battle-field of the 
two contending forces — land and water — 
is distinctly marked by the alignment of 
land fortification or ridges. This great 
struggle had continued year in and year 
out. with the land forces conquering and 
adding much territory to their possession. 
These lines of fortification are visible to- 
day. The highest and most prominent of 
all, runs along the Gross Point Road, three 
miles distant from the Lake : another on 
Ridge Avenue, a mile distant; one on Hin- 
man Avenue, a quarter of a mile distant, 
and still another along the lake shore, wdiere 
the battle of land and water is still raging. 
This contest between the land and water 
is one of great importance to the real es- 
tate of Evanston. Practically the last stand 
has been reached, for the force of the 
waters of Lake Michigan is so great, that it 

is no longer possible to extend the land, 
with any degree of safety. Covering this 
territory conquered from the lake, there 
has grown a beautiful forest of oak, maple, 
elm and linden, a portion of which has 
withstood the violence of the elements and 
the ruthless depredations of man. 

Early Roads. — There were two roads 
running from Chicago to Green Bay which 
passed through Evanston — one on the 
Gross Point highland, and the other, known 
as the Green Bay Road, running along 
Ridge Avenue. East of the latter was an 
old Indian trail, the route of which can still 
be traced by a number of trees with large 
branches bent to the ground. The best ex- 
ample of these is a tree at the State line just 
east of the Electric Road. The large oak 
at the entrance of the College Campus, and 
the one at the northeast corner of Forest 
Avenue and Lake Street, mark the direc- 
tion of the trail. There was only one cross 
road located in Rogers Park along the 
Indian Boundary Line. The low land be- 
tween the ridges was filled with water and 
marsh, resembling in effect the present con- 
dition of the Skokie. These roads were, 
for the most part, built of corduroy and 
were maintaned at private expense. A toll 
was exacted for the use of them and one of 
the oldest toll stations, and the last to ex- 
ist, was in Rogers Park at the intersection 
of Chicago Avenue and the Indian Boun- 



darv Line. The toll house was discontinued 
about 1875. 

A Period of Growth. — The develop- 
ment from a "forest primeval" to a city lot 
is interesting, for into this development 
enters the human element, which is a never 
ending source of interest. The low and 
marshy places, the hills and the ridges, the 
obstruction of trees and tangled wood — 
all of these must be brought under the con- 
trol of man. Streets must be made, sewers 
built, and much digging, cutting and burn- 
ing, before a city lot is defined. This, in 
brief, is what has taken place in Evanston. 

There have been periods of immigration 
that have added to the material growth of 
Evanston. The western march of civiliza- 
tion brought farmers into this country. 
These acquired title to their farms from 
the Government. They planted fruit trees, 
and especially a large number of the peach 
variety. These prospered and brought rich 
harvests until the time when the forests, 
which extended to the North Branch of the 
Chicago River, were destroyed. The climat- 
ic changes which ensued after this destruc- 
tion made it impossible for peaches to grow 
on this side of Lake Michigan. 

In 1853 the Northwestern University 
was established here. From a few homes 
and a store on Ridge Avenue — a settlement 
called Ridgeville — grew a new town, named 
Evanston in honor of the late Governor 
Evans, of Colorado, one of the founders 
of the University. There was the infusion 
of a new element into the community ; pro- 
fessors and their families, scholars and 
trades people. The coming of these rep- 
resented the second immigration. 

"The Path the Calf Made."— The 
growth of a town can sometimes be traced 
from its foot-paths. First comes the trail 
of the Indian, or frontiersman, who marks 
his way with a broken branch, or a blaze 
on the trees. The settler, with his flock 

and herds, then follows nature's own sur- 
vey for a future city's thoroughfare in "the 
path the calf made," of which the poet, Sam 
Walter Foss, thus graphically sings: 

"One day, through the primeval wood. 
A calf walked home, as good calves should ; 
But made a trail all bent askew, 
A crooked trail as all calves do. 


; then tw> 

D hum 

dred years have fled. 


I infer. 

the call is dead. 

still he h 

;ft behind his trail. 


thereby I 


my moral tale. 


trail was 


up next day 

By a 

1 lone dog 


passed that way ; 
Il-wether sheep 


then a w 

ise be 

Pursued the ti 

rail 0: 

er vale and steep, 


drew the 


behind him, too, 

As good bell- 


■s always do. 


from thai 

t day, 

o'er hill and glade. 


mgh these 

• old 

woods a path was made ; 
nd in and out, 


many me: 


dodged, 1 


irned, and bent about, 


'ords ( 

Df righteous wrath 



a crooked path. 

still they 


ved— do not laugh— 


first migrations 

of that calf. 



this winding woodway stalked. 


mse he w; 


when he walked. 

forest path became a lane, 

bent and turned, and turned again ; 

crooked lane became a road, 
re many a poor horse with his load 
;d on beneath the burning sun. 

The years passed 
The road became 
And this, before 

lat calf, 

Trod in the footsteps of that calf." 

In the early settlement, for foot passen- 
gers there were first walks of clay and 
gravel extending from the Lake Shore in 
Davis Street to the business portion ; after- 
ward the single plank, laid lengthwise; 
then the double-barreled walk of two 
planks, with a space between, the invention 
of Obadiah Huse, President of the Village 
Board : next the board walk, three or four 
feet in width, the wider board or dirt walk, 
and then the flag stone, brick or cement 
walk of the present day — each serving its 
day or purpose until superseded by some- 
thing better. All these walks mark with 
distinctness, the growth and evolution that 
has taken place in our community. 

Influence of the University. — The in- 



fluence of the University brought, as early 
inhabitants, a class of people who have 
been of great benefit to Evanston. They 
were people of refinement who desired quiet 
with the delights of intellectual and con- 
genial society. They established homes 
here and many of their friends, attracted 
by their example, came to live in this quiet 
and scholastic atmosphere. 

The University purchased large tracts of 
land amounting to 343 acres. In July, 
1854, the Plat of Evanston was made b\ 
Andrew J. Brown, Philo Judson and the 
Northwestern University. As an illustra- 
tion of the rapid advance of land values, 
take for example the southwest quarter of 
Section 18, Township 41, Range 14, being 
160 acres, lying between Church and Demp- 
ster Streets, and Asbury and Chicago Ave- 
nues. In 1840, James Carney bought this land 
from the Government for $1.25 per acre, 
a total of $200. In 1854, Carney sold this 
land to Andrew James Brown for $13,000. 
After the subdivision was made the best 
lots sold for $350 each. The lot on south- 
west corner of Davis Street and Maple 
Avenue. 70 by 215 feet, sold, in 1855, for 
$350. In 1865, it sold for $600. In 1870 the 
same lot, only 115 feet deep, sold for $2,000, 
and in 1889 for $7,000. It is worth to-day, 
without improvements, $17,500. Let us take 
another example on the East Side. In 1865, 
the Northwestern University bought the 
"Snyder farm," 60^ acres, for $24,227. 
This farm ran from Hamilton to Greenleaf 
Streets, and from Chicago Avenue to Lake 
Michigan. As platted to-day, there are 
about 6,660 feet frontage and a conserva- 
tive value would be $100 per front foot, or 
$566,000. Other examples might be cited 
to show the increase in value of real estate 
in Evanston : but it would be about the 
same story, and would only repeat what is 
well known of the substantial and fixed 

value of real estate throughout the entire 

Expansion of 1872.— During the Civil 
War, when the unsettled condition of the 
country was making its influence felt — even 
at this distance from the field of action — 
while Evanston was sending the best of her 
manhood to the front, she still made ad- 
vances, and had enough surplus energy to 
contribute generally toward the building up 
of the town. The greatest expansion took 
place in 1872. In common with the rest of 
the State, and, indeed, with many parts of 
the country, Evanston was over-boomed. 
It needed the bursting of the bubble in 1873 
to bring values to their legitimate level. 
During the subsequent decade, real estate 
values and the movement of propertv wore 
slowly down to a more rational pace. 

Effect of the Chicago Fire.— L'p to the 
time of the Chicago fire in 1871, the Univer- 
sity was the dominant influence which 
brought people to Evanston. The loss and 
ruination brought about by that fire en- 
forced the sale of much property, and this 
caused a depreciation of prices. Rigid fire 
ordinances followed that great catastrophe, 
and the enforcement of stringent regula- 
tions drove beyond the Chicago city limits 
those people, who, desiring to build houses 
for themselves, had not means for the erec- 
tion of structures of brick or other fire- 
proof materials. These circumstances 
acted decidedly in favor of suburban 
localities, to which professional men, 
clerks, and others of moderate income 
were attracted. A feature of the real 
estate business since then has been 
the suburban trade. Evanston receiving a 
large influx of people at the time of the 
Chicago fire. They were attracted by its 
accessibility, its delightful surroundings, 
and the high character of the people who 
already resided in the village. The re- 



striction of the liquor faffic, making it il- 
legal to sell or manufacture alcoholic bever- 
ages, has had a beneficial effect, not only in 
giving the community a high standard, but 
in maintaining and enhancing the value of 
property within its limits. The preference 
of the people for homes outside of Chicago 
created an unusual demand for houses and 
lots in Evanston. Prices advanced rapidly, 
and the building of houses and the selling 
of them became a profitable business. Keen 
and wide-awake business men were quick to 
grasp the situation, and soon there were 
new sub-divisions of land into lots. These 
were disposed of rapidly and other sub- 
divisions made and sold out. There was a 
boom in real estate. The buying of acres 
and subdividing them was so extensive that, 
to this day, the growth of our city has been 
inadequate to bring them into the market 
for residence purposes. As we view some 
of these outlying sub-divisions, now occu- 
pied, fallowed or returned to nature, we 
wonder at the credulity, the misguided 
judgment and the almost criminality of the 
men who made them. It does not seem pos- 
sible that any one could have been so mis- 
guided as to expect these sub-divisions to 
become the homes of other beings than the 
musk-rat or the gopher. The time of dis- 
illusion came in the panic of 1873. Prices 
took a tumble from whicH, after thirty years, 
they have scarcely recovered. Evanston was 
tainted by the same wild speculation in 
"undigested" real estate as Chicago. Many 
people suffered the bitter experience of los- 
ing their property by foreclosure and many 
were burdened with property they could not 
afford to keep. Values were brought to the 
lowest level, and, after several years of 
adjustment, a healthful progress began 
which has continued up to the present time. 
During the last twenty-five years there 
have been many interesting changes in the 
character and property of certain locali- 

ties, and a shifting more or less of popular 
favor as to residence sections and business 
localities. While prices in some parts of 
the city have not yet come back to the 
speculaton values of years ago, the pres- 
ent value of most of our Evanston real 
estate has never before been reached. In the 
business center of the city there is some 
property that has never decreased in 
value. The property along Davis Street 
has held its own, notwithstanding the es- 
tablishment of business centers at ]\Iain, 
Dempster and Central Streets. 

Local Rivalries. — There has always 
been more or less of a good natured rival- 
ry between the East and West Side prop- 
erty owners, the railroads passing through 
the middle of the city being the dividing 
line. The East-Siders have the Library 
L^niversity, banks, several clubs and the 
leading stores and parks, together with 
the lake, as their chief attractive features ; 
while the West-Siders claim the rise of 
land along the Ridge, the High School, 
the Country Club, the unobstructed view 
of the sunsets, and protection from the 
harsh winds which sometimes sweep over 
the lake. The point of excellence in fine 
residences is about equally divided be- 
tween the two sides. It has been my ob- 
servation, however, during an experience 
of twenty-five years in the real estate 
business, and as a resident of Evanston, 
that the difference between the East and 
West sides is a species of fancy rather 
than of fact; that it is largely a question 
of neighbors and friends. Upon which- 
ever side a person first makes his home there 
he will soon form acquaintances and friend- 
ships that will bring contentment and 
happiness. This is the truth of the whole 
matter in a nut-shell. Values are about 
equally divided on both sides. Property 
held at the highest price is found on each 
side, and from this to the lowest priced 



lots there is about an equal division. 
This, however, was not true in the early 
days. The finest residences were on the 
\\'est Side, and the value of Ridge Avenue 
lots was considered twice as great as that 
of lots in the Lake district. The change 
of value has been greater in this district 
because of its recent improvements and 
its new buildings. 

Evanston Residences. — The residences 
of Evanston. for the most part, are of 
frame structure. There have been some 
tvpical houses which represent the time 
in which they were built. The oldest of 
these is the residence of D. H. Burnham, 
which is unique in having the walls of 
cement or grout. It was built by Air. Geo. 
H. Bliss about 1859, and was then consid- 
ered one of the finest in the town. The 
house of Mr. James Rood, on Davis Street, 
which was built by L. L. Greenleaf in 
the early 'seventies, was typical of many 
houses of a similar structure. Other old- 
timers may be mentioned. IMr. O. F. 
Gibbs Ijuilt the Mulford home on Ridge 
Avenue, which was sold to James S. Kirk, 
and is now owned by the Saint Francis 
Hospital. Then there are T. C. Hoag's 
residence, corner of Davis and Hinman, 
built in 1856 ; Judge Harvey B. Hurd"s home 
on Ridge Avenue ; the Purington home, a 
part of which is now included in the resi- 
dence of ]\lr. Frank C. Letts on Green- 
wood Boulevard ; the brick residence on 
Ridge and Greenwood, built by Mr. Geo. 
F. Foster in 1863 and sold to the late 
Charles Comstock; Mrs. Watson's house 
on Ridge Avenue, and the Somer's home- 
stead on Chicago Avenue and University 
Place. Among the finest residences built 
within the last twenty years may be men- 
tioned those owned by W. H. Bartlett, Mil- 
ton H. Wilson, R. D. Sheppard, Arthur Orr, 
Mrs. C. H. Rowe, J. C. ShafYer, Mrs. Vir- 
ginia M. Hamline, James A. Patten, Mrs. 

H. R. Wilson, John B. Kirk, R. C. Lake 
and C. A. Ward. 

During the past five years there has 
been an evolution in building, and the 
first flat and apartment buildings have 
made their appearance in our midst. This 
is in line with the progressing movement 
of real estate, as they bring a far greater 
income than can be obtained by other im- 
provements. Property that is losing at- 
tractiveness for residence purposes, and 
which cannot, by the nature of the case, 
become business property, can thus be 
utilized for profitable investment. Sadly 
deficient are our hotel accommodations. 
What is needed is a first-class, fire-proof 
hotel, with modern appointments, a new 
library building and an auditorium. The 
churches are now used extensively for all 
public meetings. Evanston has passed 
the lyceum era, and is now ripe for the 
buildings which modern up-to-date cities 
possess. Every public improvement adds 
to the comfort of the people and, conse- 
quently, enhances the value of real estate. 

During the time prior to the Chicago 
fire, Evanston had among its population 
many men who, a few years later, were to 
make it famous through their achieve- 
ments. The foundations of many of the 
best homes were laid, and definite plans 
for future development were made. They 
were, of course, crude and incomplete; 
but the men of Evanston had a fair con- 
ception of the possibilities here for a city 
of homes. The men who were actively 
engaged in real estate at this time were 
L. L. Greenleaf, Rev. Obadiah Huse, 
Charles E. Brown, D. P. Kidder, J. H. 
Kedzie, J. H. Keeney, Merrill Ladd, C. 
L. Jenks, O. A. Grain, J. W. Stewart, L. 
C. Pitner, I. R. Hitt, Andrew J. Brown, 
George M. Fluntoon, Gen. White, Eli 
Gaffield, O. F. Gibbs, Charles J. Gilbert 
and Joseph M. Lyons. 


There have been other eras when the 
immigration to Evanston has induced some- 
what more than the natural growth. In 
1892, during the World's Fair, when Ev- 
anston prospered with Chicago, there 
were many new residences built, some of 
them costing from $50,000 to $75,000 each. 

The Transportation Problem. — One of 
the striking features of the real estate sit- 
uation just now is the effect of rapid 
transportation upon it. Electric and 
steam railroads have had marked influ- 
ence on the value of residence property. 
There is no question that this influence 
is felt on real estate values all along the 
lines of railroad extension. Outlying 
properties in communities more remote 
have been brought into competition with 
those which heretofore have had the advan- 
tage of accessibility. Fast train facilities 
make it possible for a man to have a home 
thirty miles distant from Chicago where land 
is cheap. Competition is thus extended. 
Other and better inducements for real es- 
tate within the nearer districts of Chicago, 
must be made to meet this outside compe- 
tition. That inducement is best solved by 
the reduction of price, and this is what has 
happened in many suburban towns, in- 
cluding Evanston. 

Evanston has two railroads and two 
electric street car lines. \\'hen these were 
started the increase of population in our 
city was noticeable. These roads have 
created a market for property, and values 
have been stimulated thereby. It is rea- 
sonable to expect a great increase in the 
growth of our city. With better equip- 
ment for transportation service, and when 
passengers can be landed in the heart of 
Chicago, many people will come here to 
live. The importance of Evanston is, in 
a large measure, determined by its rela- 
tionship with Chicago. It is dominated. 

with all other cities in the Northwest, by 
that great metropolis. 

The Park System.— The parks of Ev- 
anston have been limited to the lake shore 
south of the University campus, and the 
block bounded by Chicago, Hinman, Lake 
and Grove Streets. These parks were 
given by the Northwestern University, 
when the original plat of Evanston was 
made. During the last ten years consider- 
able attention h